Superfamily NOCTUOIDEA (2848 species)

Family NOLIDAE (396 species)

Subfamily NOLINAE (92 species)

Beana terminigera Walker (Part 18, p. 15). Oriental tropics. Lowland (to montane).

Barasa acronyctoides Walker (Part 18, p. 17). Oriental tropics. Lowland (to montane) forest.

Barasa alopha Hampson (Part 18, p. 17). Oriental tropics. (Lowland).

Barasa lunisigna Hampson (Part 18, p. 18). N. E. Himalaya, S.E. Asia, Borneo. Lowland forest.

Aquis viridisquama Walker (Part 18, p. 19). Sundaland. Lowland forest.

Aquis albida Walker (Part 18, p. 19; Plate 9). Sundaland. Lowland to lower montane forest. Note 479. Note 479. Aquis albida Walker has been reared from a larva found on Anisoptera (Dipterocarpaceae) in Peninsular Malaysia (S.K.L. Hok & H.S. Barlow pers. comm.), and is illustrated in Plate 9. The head is pale brown but the body is mainly black apart from T2 and T3 which are pink, and A3-6 and the anal segment which are extensively white dorsally. On A3 this white is restricted to a posterior strip, but it is more extensive on A4-6, broken only by black patches containing the scoli with secondary setae and narrow intersegmental strips; A6 has the posterior third black, joining with the patches containing the scoli. The scoli are elongate, particuarly the dorsolaterals of T2 and those on the anal segment, and the secondary setae are also longer on these scoli as illustrated. No observations were made on the condition of the prolegs on A3.

“Aquis” orbicularis Walker (Part 18, p. 19). Indian Subregion, Borneo, Sumatra. Lowland to upper montane forest.

Aquita” acontioides Walker (Part 18, p. 20). Sri Lanka, Nepal, Vietnam, Sundaland, Philippines, Sumbawa. (Lowland). Note 480. Note 480. Two further specimens of “Aquitaacontioides have been located, both taken in dry heath forest at 10-15m dominated by Gymnostoma (Casuarinaceae) at Telisai in Brunei.

“Aquita” seria Holloway (Part 18, p. 20). Endemic. (Lowland secondary forest).

Melanographia flexilineata Hampson (Part 18, p. 21). N.E. Himalaya, S.W. China, Borneo. Lower montane forest on limestone. Note 481. Note 481. In Part 18, description of the larva of a second species included at the time in Melanographia Hampson was included in the generic account, but it was indicated that the species concerned, tympanistis Hampson (Himalaya, Burma), was not congeneric, citing the Budapest group. This group has now placed tympanistis as type species of a new genus, Alcanola László, Ronkay & Witt (2010), with three included species, adding new ones from S. India and Thailand. An autapomorphy is a dorsally convex hump within the forewing cell that bears scale tufts within a sclerotised ring associated with inflated parts of the cell veins. This renders Melanographia monobasic, including only flexilineata Hampson.

Casminola johannstumpfi László, Ronkay & Witt (new record). Nepal, Thailand, Sumatra, Borneo. (Lowland forest). Note 482. Note 482. László et al. (2010) described the genus Casminola László, Ronkay & Witt (type species: chionobasis Hampson, India) for ten species from the Oriental tropics, ranging as far north as Japan. Two of these species, johannstumpfi László, Ronkay & Witt and arminbecheri László, Ronkay & Witt, occur in Sumatra and are here recorded for Borneo, both from Brunei. A single specimen of johannstumpfi was taken at 1300ft in lowland forest of the Ulu Temburong, and a singleton of arminbecheri was taken at 15m near Badas in Daerah Belait, an area of swamp forest.
The generic forewing facies resembles that of “A. acontioides but with two dark bars or a rectangle on the costa instead of a triangle. The two Bornean species have dark bars that taper inwards, those of arminbecheri being narrower and more widely separated.
In the male genitalia, the genus has the tegumen ballooned on each side. The harpe is set relatively distally on the valve, its base more or less central. The aedeagus is robust, with a cluster of cornuti in the vesica. The female genitalia have an extensive, somewhat pyriform corpus bursae, usually with a moderate appendix bursae near the base. There is no definite signum.

Casminola arminbecheri László, Ronkay & Witt (new record). Thailand, Sumatra, Borneo. (Lowland swamp forest). Note 482. Note 482. László et al. (2010) described the genus Casminola László, Ronkay & Witt (type species: chionobasis Hampson, India) for ten species from the Oriental tropics, ranging as far north as Japan. Two of these species, johannstumpfi László, Ronkay & Witt and arminbecheri László, Ronkay & Witt, occur in Sumatra and are here recorded for Borneo, both from Brunei. A single specimen of johannstumpfi was taken at 1300ft in lowland forest of the Ulu Temburong, and a singleton of arminbecheri was taken at 15m near Badas in Daerah Belait, an area of swamp forest.
The generic forewing facies resembles that of “A. acontioides but with two dark bars or a rectangle on the costa instead of a triangle. The two Bornean species have dark bars that taper inwards, those of arminbecheri being narrower and more widely separated.
In the male genitalia, the genus has the tegumen ballooned on each side. The harpe is set relatively distally on the valve, its base more or less central. The aedeagus is robust, with a cluster of cornuti in the vesica. The female genitalia have an extensive, somewhat pyriform corpus bursae, usually with a moderate appendix bursae near the base. There is no definite signum.

Barnanola sumatra László, Ronkay & Witt (new record). Sumatra, Borneo. (Montane). Note 483. Note 483. Barnanola László, Ronkay & Witt (type species: atra László, Ronkay & Witt) was described by László et al. (2010) to include four new species from Sundaland and Thailand that have dark grey forewings with a lens of creamy white extending along the basal half of the dorsum. One of these species, B. sumatra László, Ronkay & Witt, has been taken in Kalimantan on Gunung Lumut (E. van Nieukerken, pers. comm.). A second Bornean species, B. orbiculata László, Ronkay & Witt, has a yellow-centred white circle in the discal area and smaller white marks on the costa subapically, and has been taken singly in the Badas area of Brunei in disturbed swamp forest with Agathis.  It is known only from females; the other three species are known only from males, leading the authors to caution that sexual dimorphism might be involved. The male genitalia have prominent setose lobes on the anal tube, but these are broader and more rounded than those in Barasa Walker. The valves are simple, with the narrow harpe closely associated with the ventral margin and reaching to three‑quarters of the way to the apex. The aedeagus is short, broad, with a single large cornutus in the vesica. The female genitalia have a long ductus bursae and neck to the corpus bursae, the latter expanding into a narrowly oval distal portion that contains two parallel, spined and laterally pleated bands that extend for most of the length of the distal portion. This pair of bands is reminiscent of those seen in “A.” acontioides and in genera of the Eligminae such as Phaeothripa Hampson (e.g. Fig 135).

Barnanola orbiculata László, Ronkay & Witt (new record). Thailand, Sumatra, Borneo. (Disturbed lowland swamp forest). Note 483. Note 483. Barnanola László, Ronkay & Witt (type species: atra László, Ronkay & Witt) was described by László et al. (2010) to include four new species from Sundaland and Thailand that have dark grey forewings with a lens of creamy white extending along the basal half of the dorsum. One of these species, B. sumatra László, Ronkay & Witt, has been taken in Kalimantan on Gunung Lumut (E. van Nieukerken, pers. comm.). A second Bornean species, B. orbiculata László, Ronkay & Witt, has a yellow-centred white circle in the discal area and smaller white marks on the costa subapically, and has been taken singly in the Badas area of Brunei in disturbed swamp forest with Agathis.  It is known only from females; the other three species are known only from males, leading the authors to caution that sexual dimorphism might be involved. The male genitalia have prominent setose lobes on the anal tube, but these are broader and more rounded than those in Barasa Walker. The valves are simple, with the narrow harpe closely associated with the ventral margin and reaching to three‑quarters of the way to the apex. The aedeagus is short, broad, with a single large cornutus in the vesica. The female genitalia have a long ductus bursae and neck to the corpus bursae, the latter expanding into a narrowly oval distal portion that contains two parallel, spined and laterally pleated bands that extend for most of the length of the distal portion. This pair of bands is reminiscent of those seen in “A.” acontioides and in genera of the Eligminae such as Phaeothripa Hampson (e.g. Fig 135).

Dialithoptera gemmata Hampson (Part 18, p. 22). Indian Subregion, Vietnam, Burma, Thailand, Peninsular Malaysia (B), Borneo, Sumatra. (Lowland forest). Note 484. Note 484. László et al. (2007a) described a second species of Dialithoptera, D. margarita László, Ronkay & Witt, from deciduous forests at middle altitudes in N. Thailand and N. Vietnam.

Ctenane labuana Swinhoe (Part 18, p. 23; see also Part 13, p. 62). Endemic. (Lowland forest).

Sarbena lignifera Walker (Part 18, p. 25). N. Thailand, Sundaland, Philippines (Balabac). Lowland forest. Note 485. Note 485. László et al. (2004) have revised Sarbena Walker, describing four new species. They have refined the distribution of lignifera as in the checklist. They did not record any other species from Borneo, but two of their new species, S. sumatrana László, Ronkay & Witt (Sumatra, Java) and S. hollowayi László, Ronkay & Witt (Indian Subregion east to Solomons) may prove to occur there. The species are externally all very similar, but differ in genital features, particularly the uncus (bifid in sumatrana, entire in lignifera and hollowayi), the processes of the tegumen (acute, tapering in sumatrana, similar but larger in lignifera, but anvil-shaped in hollowayi) and those of the valve (relatively large in lignifera, delicate in sumatrana, and with the most dorsal process angled sharply downwards in hollowayi). The female genitalia of hollowayi from Seram are illustrated in Part 18 (fig 27). S. inouei László, Ronkay & Witt (Philippines) has similar male genitalia to hollowayi and is the sister-species within the hollowayi group of László et al. S. ketipati László, Ronkay & Witt (Bali) has a similar bifid uncus and tegumen to sumatrana and to S. ustipennis Hampson (Indian Subregion, Thailand, Taiwan, Ryukyu Is.; this is the ustipennis group of László et al. László et al. did not investigate the taxon lignaria Rothschild (New Guinea) mentioned in Part 18. It could prove to be conspecific with hollowayi.

Proneca fola Swinhoe (Part 18, p. 25). Indian Subregion, S.E. Asia, Sundaland. (Lowland).

Meganola” triangulalis Leech (Part 18, p. 26). N.E. Himalaya to Japan and Sundaland. Lower montane forest.

“Meganola” flexilineata Wileman (Part 18, p. 27). Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia (B), Wallacea, Seram. (Lowland).

“Meganola” scriptoides Holloway (Part 18, p. 27). Thailand, Sundaland. (Lowland to upper montane forest). Note 486. Note 486. László et al. (2007a) reviewed the “Meganolascripta Moore group discussed in Part 18, recording scriptoides from N. Thailand. they described a subspecies of scripta, csoesvarii László, Ronkay & Witt, from central China, and a very closely related species, implicata László, Ronkay & Witt, from the mountains of N. Thailand.

“Meganola” nitidoides Holloway (Part 18, p. 27). Endemic. Lower and upper montane forest. Note 487. Note 487. László et al. (2007b) have reviewed the M. nitida Hampson group, describing two new species related to nitida from mainland Asia and one, M. simulata, László, Ronkay & Witt, from Sumatra that is probably sister-species to nitidoides Holloway.

“Meganola” calligrapha László, Ronkay & Witt (Part 18, p. 28, as ascripta Hampson). Himalaya, Taiwan, Thailand, Peninsular Malaysia (B), Borneo. Lower montane forest. Note 488. Note 488. The collection of further material from Thailand has enabled László et al. (2005) to establish more clearly the identity of “M.ascripta Hampson. The larger size noted in Part 18; the latter was together with more strongly bipectinate male antennae and a study of the male genitalia, missing from the holotype, show ascripta to be distinct from the concept in Part 18; the latter was therefore described as a new species, calligrapha László, Ronkay & Witt, by László et al. In ascripta, the valve of the male genitalia does not have the sacculus produced into a digitate process, and the harpe is in a more basal position; the uncus is very much larger. True ascripta is known from India, N. Thailand and N. Vietnam.

“Meganola” cuneifera Walker (Part 18, p. 29). Himalaya, Vietnam, Thailand, Borneo. (Lowland forest). Note 489. Note 489. László et al. (2005) have reassessed the synonymy established by Hampson of ruficostata Hampson with “M.cuneifera Walker. Collection of further material from the Himalayan region and N. Thailand has established that the two taxa are distinct, with ruficostata having a triangular, rather than more linear, black mark extending medially from the forewing costa, and more robust male genitalia, with the valve distinctly broader and more heavily sclerotised over its basal third (though fig 28 in László et al. (2005), attributed to cuneifera, appears to be very similar to fig 35, attributed to ruficostata). Records of ruficostata are from the Himalayan region and N. Thailand.

“Meganola” basalactifera Holloway (Part 18, p. 29). Himalaya, Borneo. (Lowland to lower montane forest).

“Meganola” manoboides Holloway (Part 18, p. 29). Peninsular Malaysia (B), Borneo. (Lowland to lower montane forest).

“Meganola” apiensis Holloway (Part 18, p. 30). Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia (B). (Lower montane forest).

Evonima aperta Walker (Part 18, p. 31). Sundaland, Thailand, Taiwan. (Lowland forest).

Evonima faircloughi Holloway (Part 18, p. 31). Endemic. (Disturbed lowland forest).

Evonima kamboranga Holloway (Part 18, p. 32). Endemic. (Upper montane forest).

Evonima maculata Holloway (Part 18, p. 33). Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia (B). (Lowland forest).

Supernola subrufa Hampson (Part 18, p. 34). Endemic. No precise habitat data.

Manoba implens Walker (Part 18, p. 35). Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia, Philippines. (Lowland and lower montane forest).

Manoba tesselata Hampson (Part 18, p. 35). N.E. Himalaya, Thailand, Sundaland, ?Seram. Lower montane.

Manoba allani Holloway (Part 18, p. 36). Endemic. Upper montane.

Manoba argentaloides Holloway (Part 18, p. 37). Borneo, ?Seram. Upper montane.

Manoba harthani Holloway (Part 18, p. 37). Endemic, G. Kinabalu only. (Summit zone).

Manoba marshalli Holloway (Part 18, p. 37). Endemic. Upper montane, mainly on limestone.

Manoba carrei Holloway (Part 18, p. 37). Endemic. Lower and upper montane forest, not limestone.

Manoba chirgwini Holloway (Part 18, p. 38). Endemic. (Upper montane ridge forest).

Manoba melanomedia Inoue (Part 18, p. 38). Taiwan, Borneo. (Lowland hill and lower montane forest).

Manoba tribei Holloway (Part 18, p. 38). Endemic. (Lowland heath and lower montane forests).

Manoba rennicki Holloway (Part 18, p. 39). Endemic. (Lowland hill forest)?

Manoba chamberlaini Holloway (Part 18, p. 39). Borneo, Thailand. Upper montane forest.

Manoba bulli Holloway (Part 18, p. 40). Endemic. Upper montane forest and scrub.

Manoba cowleyi Holloway (Part 18, p. 40). Endemic. Lower montane forest on limestone.

Manoba briggsi Holloway (Part 18, p. 40). Endemic. (Upper montane ridge forest).

Manoba coxi Holloway (Part 18, p. 41). Borneo, Thailand. (Upper montane scrub on limestone).

Manoba goodfieldi Holloway (Part 18, p. 41). Endemic. (Lower montane forest).

Manoba potterorum Holloway (Part 18, p. 41). Endemic. (Lowland forest).

Manoba gilletti Holloway (Part 18, p. 41). Endemic. Upper montane forest.

Manoba coadei Holloway (Part 18, p. 42). Endemic. (Lower and) upper montane forest.

Manoba brunellus Hampson (Part 18, p. 42). Indo-Australian tropics. Lowland forests and cultivation. Note 490. Note 490. A review of the problem with the placement of Manoba brunellus was presented in Part 18 (p. 42). László et al. (2010) placed it in Meganola Dyar, so the problem may persist. It is retained here in Manoba for the same reason as in the next Note.

Manoba punctilineata Hampson (Part 18, p. 43). Oriental tropics. (Lowland).

Manoba suffusata Wileman & West (Part 18, p. 43). Taiwan, S.E. Asia, Borneo, Sumatra. (Lowland forest). Note 491. Note 491. László et al. (2010) also placed M. suffusata and M. major in Meganola, indicating in their description of a new genus, Inouenola László, Ronkay & Witt, that they were treating Manoba Walker in a more restricted sense, referring to a very compact phyletic unit where the valve is always gradually tapering, rather than only slightly so, and apically rounded or pointed. The harpe is thinner than in Meganola and situated more basally. The vinculum is always medium long and broad, usually V-shaped. On these criteria, except for the tapering of the valve, the male genitalia of suffusata and major are much closer to Manoba than they are to the diversity of structure illustrated for most Meganola species by László et al. (2010). Indeed, this diversity, together with the more restrained diversity illustrated for various “Meganola”  species in Part 18, supports the assertion made in that Part that Meganola was probably paraphyletic. A further distinction between Manoba and a loosely defined, paraphyletic Meganola is that the former has the hindwing venation from M2 to CuA2 reduced to three veins, rather than having M3 and CuA1 stalked. On these grounds, the slightly broader concept of Manoba applied in Part 18 is retained here.

Manoba shrimptoni Holloway (Part 18, p. 44). Endemic. (Montane forest).

Manoba greenwoodi Holloway (Part 18, p. 44). Endemic. (Lowland hill forest).

Manoba major Hampson (Part 18, p. 44). Indo-Australian tropics. (Coastal with mangrove). Note 491. Note 491. László et al. (2010) also placed M. suffusata and M. major in Meganola, indicating in their description of a new genus, Inouenola László, Ronkay & Witt, that they were treating Manoba Walker in a more restricted sense, referring to a very compact phyletic unit where the valve is always gradually tapering, rather than only slightly so, and apically rounded or pointed. The harpe is thinner than in Meganola and situated more basally. The vinculum is always medium long and broad, usually V-shaped. On these criteria, except for the tapering of the valve, the male genitalia of suffusata and major are much closer to Manoba than they are to the diversity of structure illustrated for most Meganola species by László et al. (2010). Indeed, this diversity, together with the more restrained diversity illustrated for various “Meganola”  species in Part 18, supports the assertion made in that Part that Meganola was probably paraphyletic. A further distinction between Manoba and a loosely defined, paraphyletic Meganola is that the former has the hindwing venation from M2 to CuA2 reduced to three veins, rather than having M3 and CuA1 stalked. On these grounds, the slightly broader concept of Manoba applied in Part 18 is retained here.

Manoba sp. 17763 (Part 18, p. 45). Endemic. (Lowland forest).

Nola mesosticta Hampson (Part 18, p. 46). Indo-Australian tropics to New Guinea. Lowland to upper montane. Note 492. Note 492. László et al. (2010) placed Nola mesosticta Hampson under its original genus, Neonola Hampson, but the male genitalia are typical of Nola, so combination with the latter genus is retained here.

Nola helpsi Holloway (Part 18, p. 46). Endemic. (Mangrove).

Nola jarvisi Holloway (Part 18, p. 47). Endemic. (Lowland to montane forest).

Nola canioralis Walker (Part 18, p. 47). Borneo, Thailand, Sulawesi. (Lowland to lower montane).

Nola opalina Walker (Part 18, p. 48). Burma, Thailand, Sundaland, Philippines, New Guinea. (Lowland).

Nola internella Walker (Part 18, p. 48). Endemic. (?Lowland).

Nola tarrawayi Holloway (Part 18, p. 49). Endemic. (Lower montane forest).

Nola quadrimaculata Heylaerts (Part 18, p. 49). Indo-Australian tropics. Lowland. Note 493. Note 493. László et al. (2010) discussed the N. quadrimaculata Heylaerts complex briefly and gave notice of their intention to publish a paper on this species group. The problems involved were reviewed in Part 18.

Nola taeniata Snellen (Part 18, p. 51). Indo-Australian tropics. (Lowland, including disturbed habitats).

Nola euryzonata Hampson (Part 18, p. 51). Sundaland, Thailand. Lowland forest.

Nola lucidalis Walker (Part 18, p. 51). Oriental tropics. (Lowland).

Nola liparisalis Walker (Part 18, p. 52). Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia. Burma. Lowland to lower montane.

Nola erythrostigmata Hampson (Part 18, p. 52). N.E. Himalaya, Thailand, Borneo. (Lower montane forest).

Nola bifascialis Walker (Part 18, p. 52). Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia (B), Thailand. (Lowland, disturbed forest).

Nola faircloughi Holloway (Part 18, p. 53). Endemic. (Lowland, secondary vegetation).

Nola classeyi Holloway (Part 18, p. 53). Endemic. (Coastal, mangrove).

Nola marshallae Holloway (Part 18, p. 54). Endemic. (Lowland, disturbed forest).

Nola pumila Snellen (Part 18, p. 54). Indo-Australian tropics. Lowland and lower montane forest.

Nola fraterna Moore (Part 18, p. 55). Oriental tropics. (Lowland).

Nola calcicola Holloway stat. rev. (Part 18, p. 55). N. India, Thailand, Borneo. Lower montane forest and scrub on limestone. Note 494. Note 494. László et al. (2010) placed N. calcicola Holloway as a synonym of N. cretacea Hampson (S. India, Sri Lanka), noting that the syntypes of the latter were all female, and that calcicola had been based on a holotype male; the only female had not been dissected. They based this synonymy on the fact that male specimens from Nepal and Thailand had genitalia identical to those of calcicola. However, the male (noctuid slide 17779) attributed to cretacea for genital comparison in Part 18 was from S. India and matched the syntypic series well in external appearance. Hence the assertion by László et al. (2010) that JDH had ‘failed to examine’ the syntypes of cretacea is incorrect! The genital features described in Part 18 (p. 55) for that S. Indian male associated with the female syntypes provide clear evidence that cretacea and calcicola are distinct species. The observations by László et al. extend the range of calcicola to N. India. It is worth noting generally that it is not uncommon to find sister-species where one is known from S. India and Sri Lanka, and the other extends from N. India to Sundaland.

Nola fasciata Walker (Part 18, p. 55). Indo-Australian tropics. Lowland and lower montane forest.

Nola semidolosa Walker (Part 18, p. 56). Sundaland to Sulawesi. Lowland and lower montane forest.

Nola mesomelana Hampson (Part 18, p. 56). N.E. Himalaya, Sundaland. (Lowland forest).

Nola ochrolopha Hampson (Part 18, p. 57). N.E. Himalaya, Thailand, Borneo. Lower montane forest.

Nola duplicilinea Hampson (Part 18, p. 57). Oriental tropics, Seram. Upper montane ridge forest and scrub.

Nola coremata Holloway (Part 18, p. 57). Endemic. Lower montane forest.

Nola spinivesica Holloway (Part 18, p. 58). India, Borneo, Bali. (Lowland forest).

Nola transwallacea Holloway (Part 18, p. 59). Borneo, Sulawesi, Seram. (Lowland).

Nola marginata Hampson (Part 18, p. 59). Oriental tropics to Sundaland. (Montane). Note 495. Note 495. László et al. (2010) noted that there is a complex of species related to N. marginata Hampson that has unique morphological features differing significantly from those of Nola (see also fig 121 in Part 18). They stated that they are preparing a revision of the group that will include description of a new genus for it.

Nola fisheri Holloway (Part 18, p. 60). Endemic. (Lowland forest).

Nolasijthoffi van Eecke (Part 18, p. 60). Sundaland. (Lower montane forest).

Leuconola wilsonae Holloway (Part 18, p. 60, under “Nola”). Endemic. (Lowland forest). Note 496. Note 496. The species wilsonae Holloway was described provisionally in “Nola”, but indicating significant differences in the male genitalia. László et al. (2010) placed it in a new genus, Leuconola László, Ronkay & Witt, and described a second species as type species, herczigi László, Ronkay & Witt, from Thailand. They illustrated (fig 10) the female genitalia of wilsonae for the first time, noting unique features of the ostium, ductus bursae, and corpus bursae. The last has an unusual tube-like appendage distally and two well separated and dissimilar signa.

Selca latifascialis Walker (Part 18, p. 61). Endemic. (Lowland).

 

Subfamily CHLOEPHORINAE (233 species)

Tribe SARROTHRIPINI (57 species)

Etanna basalis Walker (Part 18, p. 63). Indo-Australian tropics. Coastal, lowland and secondary forest, (montane).

Etanna breviuscula Walker (Part 18, p. 64). Indo-Australian tropics. Lowland to upper montane.

Etanna teleoleuca Prout (Part 18, p. 65). Seram, Borneo. Montane.

Etanna brunnea Hampson (Part 18, p. 65). Indo-Australian tropics. (Montane).

Etanna pallibrunnea Holloway (Part 18, p. 65). Endemic. (Montane).

Etanna albisecta Hampson (Part 18, p. 66). Indo-Australian tropics. (Lowland to montane).

Etanna vittalis Hampson (Part 18, p. 66). Sundaland to Fiji. (Lowland to montane).

Etanna binotata Hampson (Part 18, p. 66). Indo-Australian tropics. (Lowland).

Etanna albonotata Hampson (Part 18, p. 67). Indo-Australian tropics. Lowland to upper montane.

Etanna viridifascia Holloway (Part 18, p. 67). Sundaland, Sulawesi. (Lowland forest).

Characoma albulalis Walker (Part 18, p. 68). Endemic. Lowland to upper montane.

Characoma metalophota Hampson (Part 18, p. 68). Indian Subregion to Sundaland. Lowland to upper montane forest.

Characoma pallidorsum Holloway (Part 18, p. 69). N.E. Himalaya, Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia, Philippines. Lowland to upper montane forest.

Characoma fortiscripta Holloway (Part 18, p. 69). Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia (B). Lowland to upper montane forest.

Characoma glaucopasta Hampson (Part 18, p. 70). N.E. Himalaya to Sundaland. (Lowland), lower to upper montane forest.

Characoma distincta Bethune-Baker (Part 18, p. 70). Sundaland to Bismarck Is. Lowland to upper montane forest.

Pardasenaverna Hampson (Part 18, p. 70). N.E. Himalaya to Seram. (Lowland to lower montane).

Giauraniveidisca Hampson (Part 18, p. 71). Himalaya to Wallacea. Lowland to lower montane forest.

Giauralichenosa Hampson (Part 18, p. 72). N.E. Himalaya to Sulawesi. (Lowland forest).

Giauraleucophaea Hampson (Part 18, p. 72). Burma, Andamans, Borneo, ?Australia. (Lowland).

Giauratortricoides Walker (Part 18, p. 72). Indo-Australian tropics. (Lowland?).

Giauramultipunctata Swinhoe (Part 18, p. 73). Oriental tropics to Sundaland. (Lowland) to montane.

Giaurarobusta Moore (Part 18, p. 74). N.E. Himalaya, Borneo, Palawan. (Lowland to montane).

Garella scoparioides Walker (Part 18, p. 75). Indo-Australian tropics. Lowland to upper montane forests.

Garella rotundipennis Walker (Part 18, p. 76). Borneo, Java, New Guinea. Montane forest.

Garella ruficirra Hampson (Part 18, p. 76). Japan, N.E. Himalaya, Borneo. (Lowland) to upper montane forest.

Garella vernoides Holloway (Part 18, p. 77). Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia (B). (Montane).

Dilophothripa chrysorrhaea Hampson (Part 18, p. 78). N.E. Himalaya to Wallacea. (Montane forest on limestone).

Dilophothripa alopha Hampson (Part 18, p. 78). Burma, Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia, New Guinea. Lowland (to lower montane) forest.

Dilophothripa olivia Hampson (Part 18, p. 78). Endemic. (Lowland).

Nycteola indica Felder (Part 18, p. 80). Indian Subregion to Australia. (Montane).

Nycteola pseudoindica Holloway (Part 18, p. 80). Sundaland. Lowland, particularly heath forest.

Nycteola sinuosa Moore (Part 18, p. 81). India, Hong Kong, Sundaland. (Upper montane forest).

Nycteola mesoplaga Hampson (Part 18, p. 81). India, Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia, Sulawesi. (Lower to upper montane forest).

Nycteola indicatana Walker (Part 18, p. 81). Indo-Australian tropics. (Lowland).

Nycteola canaphaea Holloway (Part 18, p. 82). Endemic. (Lower montane forest on limestone).

Nycteola kebea Bethune-Baker (Part 18, p. 82). Sundaland to New Guinea. (Montane forest).

Mniothripa lichenigera Hampson (Part 18, p. 83). N.E. Himalaya, Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia. (Lowland).

Mniothripa argenteopurpurea Gaede (Part 18, p. 84). Sundaland, ?New Guinea. (Hill forest).

Mniothripa bradleyi Fletcher (Part 18, p. 84). Borneo to Fiji. (Coastal vegetation).

Mniothripa translucens Holloway (Part 18, p. 84). Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia. (Lowland, ?coastal).

Mniothripa fletcheri Holloway (Part 18, p. 85). Endemic. (Lowland to lower montane).

Mniothripa sp. 17096 (Part 18, p. 85). Endemic. (Lowland).

Gyrtothripa pusilla Moore (Part 18, p. 86). Indo-Australian tropics. Lowland.

Gyrtothripa parvipusilla Holloway (Part 18, p. 87). Sundaland, Wallacea, New Guinea. (Lowland) to montane forest.

Gyrtothripa papuana Hampson (Part 18, p. 87). Peninsular Malaysia (B), Borneo, Sulawesi, New Guinea. (Lowland to upper montane).

Gyrtothripa florida Walker (Part 18, p. 88). Sundaland to Bismarcks. (Lowland?).

Gyrtothripa erastioides Walker (Part 18, p. 88). Endemic. (Lowland to lower montane).

Gyrtothripa variegata Hampson (Part 18, p. 89). N.E. Himalaya, Peninsular Malaysia (B), Borneo. (Lowland to lower montane forest).

Chloethripa leucocephala Prout (Part 18, p. 89). Borneo, Sulawesi. Upper montane forest.

Chloethripa angulata Holloway (Part 18, p. 90). Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia. (Lowland to upper montane).

Blenina lichenosa Moore (Part 18, p. 205). Oriental tropics to Sundaland, also New Guinea. Lowland to upper montane forest.

Blenina malachitis Hampson (Part 18, p. 206). Sundaland, S. Moluccas, New Guinea. Lowland to upper montane forest.

Blenina chlorophila Hampson (Part 18, p. 206). Indian Subregion, Taiwan, Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia. Lowland to upper montane forest.

Blenina quinaria Moore (Part 18, p. 206). N.E. Himalaya, W. China, Vietnam, Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia, Philippines. Lowland to upper montane forest.

Blenina donans Walker (Part 18, p. 207). Indo-Australian tropics. Lowland and lower montane forest.

Blenina puloa Swinhoe (Part 18, p. 208) Taiwan, Borneo, Wallacea. (Lowland).

Tribe CHLOEPHORINI (11 species)

Clethrophora angulipennis Prout (Part 18, p. 91). Sundaland. (Lower) to upper montane forest (to 2600m).

Chloroplaga nygmia Swinhoe (Part 18, p. 92). Sundaland. Lowland (to upper montane).

Chloroplaga pallida Warren (Part 18, p. 92). Sundaland, Palawan. Lowland (to upper montane).

Hylophilodes dubia Prout (Part 18, p. 92). Borneo, Sumatra, Palawan. (Lowland), montane forest to 2200m.

Tortriciforma chloroplaga Hampson (Part 18, p. 93). Sundaland. Montane forest.

Tortriciforma tamsi Holloway (Part 18, p. 94). Borneo, Sumatra. Upper montane forest.

Tyana marina Warren (Part 18, p. 94). Endemic. Lower to upper montane forest.

Tympanistes fusimargo Prout (Part 18, p. 95). Sundaland. Montane forest.

Parasinna diehli Kobes (Part 18, p. 96). Borneo, Sumatra. (Lower montane forest).

Gariga argentilinea Walker (Part 18, p. 97). Endemic. (Lowland).

Dumatha herbida Walker (Part 18, p. 98). Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia, Sulawesi. (Lowland, lower montane).

Tribe CAMPTOLOMINI (1 species)

Camptoloma mirabilis Roepke (Part 6, p. 76; Part 18, p. 98). Java, Peninsular Malaysia, Borneo. (Montane). Note 497. Note 497. A specimen in RMNH, Leiden, of the typical race of Camptoloma mirabilis Roepke was taken at 1050m on G. Lumut in Kalimantan Timur, well separated from the localities for ssp. nigrior Holloway in Sabah and Sarawak. In the absence of evidence of sympatry or DNA barcode evidence to the contrary, the two taxa should probably continue to be treated as conspecific.

Tribe CAREINI (91 species)

Aiteta trigoniphora Hampson (Part 18, p. 101). Indo-Australian tropics to New Guinea. Lowland (and upper montane) forest.

Aiteta damnipennis Walker (Part 18, p. 101). Oriental tropics. (Lowland forest).

Aiteta musculina Walker (Part 18, p. 101). Taiwan, Sundaland to Moluccas. (Lowland swamp forest).

Aiteta brooksi Holloway (Part 18, p. 102). Burma, Andamans, Sundaland. Lowland (and upper montane) forest.

Aitetademinutiva Warren (Part 18, p. 102). Sundaland to Solomons. Lowland (and montane) forest.

Carea varipes Walker (Part 18, p. 103). Oriental tropics. Lowland to lower montane forest.

Carea parangulata Kobes (Part 18, p. 104). Borneo, Sumatra, ?Palawan. (Lowland to montane).

Diehlea diplogramma Hampson (Part 18, p. 106). Sundaland. Lowland.

Diehlea holophaea Hampson (Part 18, p. 106). Sundaland. (Lowland).

Diehlea tumida Hampson (Part 18, p. 106). Sundaland, Andamans, Palawan, Sulawesi. Lowland and lower montane forest.

Diehlea ducalis Bryk (Part 18, p. 107). Endemic. Upper montane forest.

Chora repandens Walker (Part 18, p. 107). Sundaland, Wallacea, Seram. Lowland forest.

Calymera carneplagiata Warren (Part 18, p. 109). Sundaland. Lowland forest.

Calymera lauritzeni Kobes (Part 18, p. 109). Sundaland. (Disturbed lowland forest).

Calymera lukaschi Kobes (Part 18, p. 109). Borneo, Sumatra. (Coastal and secondary forest).

Calymera fratella Kobes (Part 18, p. 109). Borneo, Sumatra. (Lowland forest).

Calymera nigridiscata Holloway (Part 18, p. 110). Endemic. (Upper montane).

Calymera pollex Kobes (Part 18, p. 110). Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia (B), Sumatra. (Lowland forest).

Calymera jacobsoni Roepke (Part 18, p. 110). Sundaland. (Lowland and plantation forest).

Calymera longicornis Prout (Part 18, p. 110). Borneo, Sumatra. Upper montane forest.

Calymera sabulosa Warren (Part 18, p. 111). N.E. Himalaya, Sundaland. Upper montane forest.

Calymera metaphaea Hampson (Part 18, p. 111). Sundaland. Lowland and lower montane forest.

Calymera ?cuprea Wileman & West (Part 18, p. 111). Philippines, Borneo. Upper montane forest.

Calymera vinacea Holloway (Part 18, p. 112). Endemic. (Lowland forest).

Calymera endophaea Hampson (Part 18, p. 112). Oriental tropics. (Lowland), lower and upper montane forest.

Calymera venusta Warren (Part 18, p. 113). Sundaland. Lower to upper montane forest.

Calymera antennata Warren (Part 18, p. 113). Borneo, Sumatra. Upper montane forest.

Calymera picta Moore (Part 18, p. 114). Himalaya, Borneo, Sumatra. (Upper montane).

Calymera negativapex Holloway (Part 18, p. 114). Endemic. Upper montane forest.

Calymera elaeogramma Prout (Part 18, p. 114). Endemic. Upper montane forest.

Calymera translucens Holloway (Part 18, p. 114). Borneo, Sumatra. (Lowland to upper montane forest).

Calymera albimargo Warren (Part 18, p. 115). Endemic. (Lowland to) upper montane forest.

Calymera elaeospila Prout (Part 18, p. 115). Endemic. Upper montane forest.

Xenochroa chlorostigma Hampson (Part 18, p. 116). Oriental tropics. (Lowland and montane forest).

Xenochroa costiplaga Swinhoe (Part 18, p. 117). Indo-Australian tropics to New Guinea. Lowland forest.

Xenochroa argentiviridis Holloway (Part 18, p. 117). Endemic. Lowland to upper montane forest.

Xenochroa purpurea Hampson (Part 18, p. 117). Indian Subregion, Sundaland. (Lowland and montane forest).

Xenochroa careoides Warren (Part 18, p. 118; Plate 11). Sundaland, Palawan, Andamans, Hainan. (Lowland and lower montane forest). Note 498. Note 498. Xenochroa careoides has been reared from Syzygium (Myrtaceae) in Peninsular Malaysia (H.S. Barlow & S.K.L. Hok, pers. comm.). The larva is illustrated in Plate 11, and is typically careine.

Xenochroa argentipuncta Holloway (Part 18, p. 118). Borneo, Sumatra. (Lowland and montane forest).

Xenochroa fuscosa Prout (Part 18, p. 119). Sundaland. Lowland (and lower montane) forest.

Xenochroa obvia Hampson (Part 18, p. 119). Borneo, Sumatra, Philippines. (Lowland).

Xenochroa dohora Kobes (Part 18, p. 120). ?N.E. Himalaya, Borneo, Sumatra. Lowland to upper montane forest.

Xenochroa fuscomarginata Hampson (Part 18, p. 120). Sundaland. Lowland.

Xenochroa fulvescens Warren (Part 18, p. 120). Sundaland. (Lowland and lower montane forest).

Xenochroa sp. 10695 (Part 18, p. 121). Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia. Lowland forest.

Xenochroa sp. 10696 (Part 18, p. 121). Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia. (Lowland forest).

Xenochroa sp. 17860 (Part 18, p. 121). Endemic. Lowland forest.

Xenochroa sp. 17911 (Part 18, p. 121). Endemic. (Coastal).

Xenochroa argentipurpurea Holloway (Part 18, p. 122). Endemic. Upper montane forest.

Xenochroa mathilda Swinhoe (Part 18, p. 122). Sundaland. Lowland forest.

Xenochroa pryeri Druce (Part 18, p. 122). Sundaland. Lowland forest.

Xenochroa verticata Warren (Part 18, p. 122). Sundaland. (Lowland and lower montane forest).

Xenochroa calva Warren (Part 18, p. 123). Sundaland. (Lowland to montane forest).

Xenochroa purpureolineata Hampson (Part 18, p. 123). Sundaland. Lower and upper montane forest.

Xenochroa biviata Hampson (Part 18, p. 124). Sundaland. Lowland (and lower montane) forest.

Xenochroa rubrifusa Hampson (Part 18, p. 124). Borneo, Sumatra. (Lowland forest).

Xenochroa balteata Warren (Part 18, p. 124). Sundaland. (Lowland and lower montane forest).

Xenochroa transpurpuralis Holloway (Part 18, p. 124). Borneo, Sumatra?. (Montane forest).

Xenochroa plesiogramma Prout (Part 18, p. 125). Sundaland. (Lowland and lower montane forest).

Xenochroa diluta Warren (Part 18, p. 125). Sundaland. (Upper montane).

Xenochroa notodontina Felder (Part 18, p. 126). Sundaland. Upper montane forest.

Xenochroa trilineata Warren (Part 18, p. 126). N.E. Himalaya, Sundaland. Lower and upper montane forest.

Xenochroa ferrinigra Holloway (Part 18, p. 126). Endemic. Upper montane forest.

Xenochroa ferriviridis Holloway (Part 18, p. 127). Endemic. Upper montane forest.

Xenochroa mediogrisea Warren (Part 18, p. 127). Endemic. Upper montane forest.

Xenochroa annae Swinhoe (Part 18, p. 127; Plate 11). Sundaland, Sulawesi. Lowland to lower montane forest. Note 499. Note 499. X. annae has also been reared from Syzygium (Myrtaceae) in Peninsular Malaysia (H.S. Barlow & S.K.L. Hok, pers. comm.). The larva is illustrated in Plate 11, and is typically careine.

Xenochroa xanthia Hampson (Part 18, p. 128). N.E. Himalaya, Sundaland, Palawan. Lowland forest.

Xenochroa leucocraspis Hampson (Part 18, p. 128). Endemic. (Lowland).

Arrhapa frontalis Walker (Part 18, p. 129). Sundaland. (Lowland forest).

Arrhapa robinsoni Swinhoe (Part 18, p. 129). Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia. (Lowland).

Didigua purpureoscripta Walker (Part 18, p. 130). Sundaland. Lowland forest.

Didigua seticornis Walker (Part 18, p. 131). Sundaland. Lowland (and lower montane) forest.

Didigua heidwigae Kobes (Part 18, p. 131). Sundaland. (Lowland forest, secondary and coastal forest).

Didigua alticola Holloway (Part 18, p. 132). Endemic. Upper montane forest.

Didigua lilacina Hampson (Part 18, p. 132). N.E. Himalaya, Borneo, Sumatra. Lowland to montane forest.

Didigua roseata Holloway (Part 18, p. 133). Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia. (Lowland).

Didigua nana Kobes (Part 18, p. 133). Sundaland. Lowland, (lower montane).

Didigua viridifusa Kobes (Part 18, p. 133). Borneo, Sumatra. Lowland (including secondary forest).

Didigua mixticolor Warren (Part 18, p. 134). Sundaland. Lowland forest, (upper montane).

Didigua subterminalis Prout (Part 18, p. 134). Endemic. (Lowland to) upper montane forest.

Didigua vexilla Swinhoe (Part 18, p. 134; Plate 6, Fig 133). Sundaland. Lowland (and lower montane) forest. Note 500. Note 500. A male Didigua with genitalia (Fig 133) as in vexilla but with more regular rufous brown fasciation on a fawn ground, and no dark reddish areas or grey highlights was taken by Dr Chey Vun Khen in a lowland softwood plantation of Eucalyptus deglupta near Brumas in Sabah. It is illustrated in Plate 6. More material is needed to determine if it is a distinct species or merely an aberrant form of vexilla.

Didigua leucozona Prout (Part 18, p. 135). Endemic. Lowland to montane.

Didigua viridifascia Swinhoe (Part 18, p. 135). Sundaland. Lowland (incl. coastal and secondary) forest.

Didigua effusa Swinhoe (Part 18, p. 135). Sundaland. Lowland forest, plantation and coastal habitats.

Didigua martini Kobes (Part 18, p. 136). Borneo, Sumatra. (Swamp forest, disturbed montane forest).

Didigua nigridorsum Holloway (Part 18, p. 136). Endemic. (Lowland forest).

Didigua viridipennis Druce (Part 18, p. 137). Borneo, Sumatra. Lowland, mainly heath forest.

Didigua padanga Swinhoe (Part 18, p. 137). Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia (B), Sumatra. (Lowland forest).

Didigua quadratipennis Walker (Part 18, p. 137). Sundaland. (Lowland heath forest).

Maurilia iconica Walker (Part 18, p. 138). Indo-Australian tropics. Lowland forest and plantation forest.

Maurilia undaira Swinhoe (Part 18, p. 140). Sundaland to New Guinea. Lowland to upper montane.

Tribe ARIOLICINI (61 species)

Ariolica lineolata Walker (Part 18, p. 142). N.E. Himalaya, Sundaland, Palawan. (Lowland).

Sinna calospila Hampson (Part 18, p. 142). Sundaland. Montane forest.

Sinna floralis Hampson (Part 18, p. 143). Sundaland. (Lowland).

Titulcia eximia Walker (Part 18, p. 143). Sundaland. (Lowland).

Titulcia confictella Walker (Part 18, p. 144). N.E. Himalaya to Taiwan, Sundaland and Palawan. (Lowland and montane).

Titulcia rufimargo Hampson (Part 18, p. 144). Sundaland. (Lowland).

Titulcia meterythra Hampson (Part 18, p. 144). Sundaland. (Lowland).

Chandica quadripennis Moore (Part 18, p. 145). Himalaya, Sundaland. (Montane).

Chandica radula Holloway (Part 18, p. 146). Borneo, Sumatra. Lowland and montane forest.

Chandica ayama Kobes (Part 18, p. 146). Sundaland. (Lowland forest).

Siglophora bella Butler (Part 18, p. 147). Sundaland. Lowland (and montane) forest.

Siglophora hayata Kobes (Part 18, p. 147). Sundaland. Lowland forest.

Siglophora immaculutea sp. n. (p. 414, Plate 6, Fig 134). Endemic. (disturbed lowland forest). Note 501. Note 501. Siglophora immaculutea sp. n. (Plate 6, Fig 134)
G 10mm. This species is related to bella Butler and hayata Kobes, showing the excavated hindwing distal margin of both and the yellow hindwing base of the latter. The forewing facies is also closer to that of hayata, but the yellow of the basal half is immaculate, lacking the subbasal reddish brown patches of that species; the postmedial yellow mark on the costa is larger, more as in bella. The male genitalia are similar to those of the other two species, the valves with extensive coremata more as in bella, and the field of setae at the valve apex again more as in bella but extending further down the costal side of the valve. The aedeagus is as in bella, but with only two large cornuti on the vesica, associated with a tongue-like sclerite, rather than five spines.
Holotype G. MALAYSIA: Sabah, Danum Valley, 170m, 4°58' N 117°48' E (S.J. Willott), 2° understorey, Bkt. Atur Rd., DVFC, 3.viii.93, BM noctuid slide 21508.
Geographical range. Borneo.
Habitat preference. The holotype is a voucher (S.J. Willott, unpublished) for two taken in the understorey of secondary forest in an area of selectively logged lowland dipterocarp forest near the Danum Valley Field Centre in Sabah.

Siglophora haemoxantha Zerny (Part 18, p. 148). Sundaland, Philippines. (Lowland).

Siglophora cymographa Hampson (Part 18, p. 148). Sundaland. (Lowland and montane forest).

Siglophora langei Kobes (Part 18, p. 148). Sundaland. (Lowland forest).

Siglophora ferreilutea Hampson (Part 18, p. 149). Himalaya to Japan and Sundaland. (Upper montane forest).

Siglophora haematica Hampson (Part 18, p. 149). N.E. Himalaya, Sundaland. (Lowland).

Siglophora malickyi Kobes (Part 18, p. 149). Sundaland. (Lowland).

Cossedia semiflava Hampson (Part 18, p. 150). Borneo, Sumatra.

Cossedia erateinalis Walker (Part 18, p. 150). Endemic. (Lowland).

Cossedia sp. (Part 18, p. 151). Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia (B), Sumatra. (Upper montane).

Cossedia hyriodes Hampson (Part 18, p. 151). Sundaland, Palawan. Lowland forest.

Cossedia proesei Kobes (Part 18, p. 151). Sundaland. (Lowland forest).

Cossedia altiproesei Holloway (Part 18, p. 152). Endemic. (Lowland forest).

Cossedia kobesi Holloway (Part 18, p. 152). Borneo, Sumatra? (Lowland forest).

Cossedia acolutha Holloway (Part 18, p. 152). Endemic. Lowland forest.

Lophothripa vitea Swinhoe (Part 18, p. 153). Indo-Australian tropics. (Lowland).

Lasiolopha saturata Walker (Part 18, p. 154). Indo-Australian tropics. Lowland and montane forest.

Labanda ceylusalis Walker (Part 18, p. 156). Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia, Palawan, Sulawesi. Lowland to lower montane forest.

Labanda saturalis Walker (Part 18, p. 156). Indo-Australian tropics. Lower and upper montane forest.

Labanda quadralis Holloway (Part 18, p. 157). Endemic. (Lowland).

Labanda concinna Holloway (Part 18, p. 157). Endemic. Lowland forest.

Labanda dentilinea Walker (Part 18, p. 157). Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia. (Lowland).

Labanda herbealis Walker (Part 18, p. 158). Sri Lanka, Peninsular Malaysia (B), Borneo. (Upper montane forest).

Labanda striatula Holloway (Part 18, p. 158). Endemic. (Lowland).

Labanda contrastriatula Holloway (Part 18, p. 159). Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia. (Lowland (hill) forest).

Labanda palliviridis Holloway (Part 18, p. 159). N.E. Himalaya, Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia. Lowland forest (and montane forest on limestone).

Labanda umonea Holloway (Part 18, p. 159). Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia (B). Lowland forest.

Labanda umbrosa Hampson (Part 18, p. 160). Burma, Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia. (Lowland forest).

Labanda viridumbrosa Holloway (Part 18, p. 160). Endemic. (Lowland forest).

Labanda carinata Holloway (Part 18, p. 160). Endemic. (Lower montane forest on limestone).

Labanda sp. 16727 (Part 18, p. 161). Endemic. (Lowland to lower montane).

Labanda sp. 17458 (Part 18, p. 161). Endemic. (Lowland forest).

Tathothripa continua Walker (Part 18, p. 162). India, Sundaland, Sulawesi, New Guinea. Lowland to upper montane forest.

Plagiograpta macrodonta Hampson (Part 18, p. 163). Indian Subregion, Sundaland. Lower and upper montane forest.

Plagiograpta gertae Holloway (Part 18, p. 163). Endemic. (Lowland forest).

Plagiograpta pseudocondensa Holloway (Part 18, p. 164). Endemic. (Montane scrub on limestone).

Plagiograpta lutzi Holloway (Part 18, p. 164). Borneo, Sumatra. (Upper montane forest).

Ariola coelisigna Walker (Part 18, p. 165). Indo-Australian tropics. (Lowland)?.

Ariola gracilis Holloway (Part 18, p. 165). Sundaland. Lowland to upper montane forest.

Ariola bedawan Holloway (Part 18, p. 166). Endemic. (Lowland forest).

Ariola pallidithorax Warren (Part 18, p. 166). Sundaland, Sumbawa. (Upper montane forest).

Ariola triangulifera Warren (Part 18, p. 167). Sundaland to Solomons. (Lowland to upper montane forest).

Paracrama dulcissima Walker (Part 18, p. 167). Indo-Australian tropics. (Lowland).

Paracrama latimargo Warren (Part 18, p. 168). Indo-Australian tropics. Lowland forest and cultivated areas, (upper montane forest).

Asinduma exscripta Walker (Part 18, p. 169). Sundaland. Lowland to upper montane.

Chloriola gratissima Walker (Part 18, p. 170). Thailand, Sundaland, Palawan. Lowland to upper montane forest.

Arachnognatha meterythra Hampson (Part 18, p. 170). Burma, Singapore, Borneo. (Lowland).

Arachnognatha metascotia Hampson (Part 18, p. 171). N.E. Himalaya, Borneo. (Lower montane forest).

Maceda mansueta Walker (Part 18, p. 171). Indo-Australian tropics. (Lowland to upper montane forest).

Detounda spurcata Walker (Part 18, p. 173). Sundaland to New Guinea. Lowland (and upper montane).

Tribe EARIADINI (4 species)

Earias vittella Fabricius (Part 18, p. 191). Indo-Australian tropics. (Lowland secondary vegetation).

Earias flavida Felder (Part 18, p. 192; Plate 6). Indo-Australian tropics. Lowland to upper montane zones. Note 502. Note 502. Acontia xanthophila Walker has as its type specimen a female from Borneo collected by A.R. Wallace in Sarawak and was recorded as a synonym of Earias insulana Boisduval by Poole (1989), but this was overlooked in Part 18; E. insulana was not recorded from Borneo. The holotype (OUMNH, 1668; Plate 6) is a specimen of E. flavida Felder, syn. n.

Earias mjobergi Prout (Part 18, p. 193). Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia. (Lowland to upper montane forest).

Earias cupreoviridis Walker (Part 18, p. 193). Old World tropics east to Moluccas. (Lowland).

Gelastocera generic group (8 species)

Beara nubiferella Walker (Part 18, p. 174). Sundaland. Lowland.

Beara cornuta Holloway (Part 18, p. 175). Sundaland. (Lowland, upper montane).

Beara tortriciformis Strand (Part 18, p. 175). N.E. Himalaya, Taiwan, Sundaland. (Lowland forest).

Erizada lichenaria Walker (Part 18, p. 176). Indian Subregion to Sundaland, Palawan. Lowland forest.

Gelastocera castanea Moore (Part 18, p. 177). N.E. Himalaya, Sundaland. (Lowland forest).

Gelastoceraviridimacula Moore (Part 18, p. 178). Sundaland. (Lowland forest).

Ptyonota formosa Hampson (Part 18, p. 178). Burma, Sundaland. Mangrove.

Ptyonota carissima Wileman & West (Part 18, p. 178). Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia (B), Sumatra, Wallacea. Lowland (and upper montane) forest.

 

Subfamily WESTERMANNIINAE (20 species)

Negeta contrariata Walker (Part 18, p. 180). Indo-Australian tropics. Lowland to lower montane forest, including disturbed areas.

Negeta aureata Holloway (Part 18, p. 181). Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia (B), Sumatra. (Lowland forest).

Negeta montanata Holloway (Part 18, p. 181). Endemic. (Upper montane forest).

Negeta abbreviata Walker (Part 18, p. 181). Sundaland. (Lowland and lower montane forest).

Urbona dentilinealis Moore (Part 18, p. 182). Andamans, Sundaland. Lowland forest.

Urbona sublineata Walker (Part 18, p. 183). N.E. Himalaya, Burma, Borneo. Lowland forest.

Urbona leucophaea Walker (Part 18, p. 183). N.E. Himalaya, Sundaland. (Lowland forest on limestone).

Urbonachlorocrota Hampson (Part 18, p. 183). Oriental tropics. (Montane).

Pterogonia nubes Hampson (Part 18, p. 185). Sri Lanka, Sundaland, Wallacea. Lowland (and lower montane) forest.

Pterogonia aurigutta Walker (Part 18, p. 185). Indian Subregion to Sundaland. Lowland forest.

Pterogonia cardinalis Holloway (Part 18, p. 185; Plate 12). Indo-Australian tropics to New Guinea. Note 503. Note 503. The larva of Pterogonia cardinalis has been reared in Peninsular Malaysia by S.K.L. Hok, and middle and late instars are illustrated in Plate 12. The larva appears to be somewhat different to that described for P. episcopalis Swinhoe, the type species, in Part 18. The anterior is rather rounded, broadest at A2 and then tapers away to the anal claspers which are splayed. The head is red with three vertical grey stripes on each side that converge at the vertex. The body is bright green dorsally in middle instars with the venter bright red, the red extending up the flanks to above the true legs and then further over A1 and A2 towards a dorsolateral dark brown triangle. These are red bars on T2 and T3 just above the general red area but within the green, which is paler and more yellowish in this zone. From A2 backwards there is extensive white on the flanks, reducing the red to a narrow strip just dorsal to it that converges with the one opposite at the anal extremity. The older larva is more completely bright red, though the white area over the posterior part remains. There are also more extensive dorsolateral blackish markings, and there is a vague and irregularly narrow dorsal line that is darker. The host plant recorded was Syzygium (Myrtaceae) (H.S. Barlow & S.K.L. Hok, pers. comm.).

Westermannia superba Hübner (Part 18, p. 186). Indian Subregion, Sundaland, Palawan. (Lowland).

Westermannia elliptica Bryk (Part 18, p. 187). Taiwan, Sundaland. (Montane).

Westermannia argentea Hampson (Part 18, p. 187). Indian Subregion, Sundaland, S. Moluccas. (Lowland to upper montane).

Westermannia triangularis Moore (Part 18, p. 188). Indian Subregion, Sundaland, Wallacea. (Lowland forest).

Miaromima columbina Warren (Part 18, p. 189). Sundaland. Lowland (to upper montane) forest.

Miaromima aquila Holloway (Part 18, p. 189). Endemic. (Lowland forest).

Miaromima cornucopia Hampson (Part 18, p. 189). Indian Subregion, Peninsular Malaysia (B), Sumatra, Borneo. Lowland (and lower montane) forest.

Miaromima pangolina Holloway (Part 18, p. 189). Sundaland, Wallacea. Lowland forest.

Miaromima naessigi Kobes (Part 18, p. 190). Himalaya, Peninsular Malaysia (B), Borneo, Sumatra. (Lowland and upper montane forest).

 

Subfamily RISOBINAE (22 species)

Risoba repugnans Walker (Part 18, p. 210). Indo-Australian tropics. Lowland.

Risoba walshae Holloway (Part 18, p. 211). Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia (B), Sumatra (Kobes, 2006). (Lowland).

Risoba samarinda Holloway (Part 18, p. 211). Borneo, Sumatra, Sulawesi. Disturbed lowland areas with secondary forest.

Risoba guichardi Holloway (Part 18, p. 211). Endemic. Lowland (including secondary) forest. Note 504. Note 504. Chey (1994) recorded two specimens of R. guichardi as Risoba sp. from lowland secondary forest near Brumas in 1991. S.J. Willott (unpublished data) recorded three specimens from primary and logged lowland forest near the Danum Valley Field Centre. Therefore, all seven known specimens are from lowland forest areas in eastern Sabah.

Risoba calaina Zerny (Part 18, p. 212). Sundaland, Wallacea. Lowland (to montane) forest.

Risoba calainigrata Holloway (Part 18, p. 212). Endemic. (Lowland to upper montane forest).

Risoba martinii Holloway (Part 18, p. 213). Endemic. (Lowland forest).

Risoba jucunda Walker (Part 18, p. 213). Borneo, Sumatra. Lowland forest (and montane).

Risoba orientalis Holloway (Part 18, p. 213). Borneo, Sumatra (Kobes, 2006). (Montane).

Risoba caeruleata Holloway (Part 18, p. 214). Endemic. (Lowland and lower montane forest).

Risoba thalasscura Holloway (Part 18, p. 215). Borneo, Sumatra (Kobes, 2006). (Lowland and montane forest).

Risoba harmani Holloway (Part 18, p. 215). Endemic. (Lowland and montane forest).

Risoba glauca Hampson (Part 18, p. 215). Borneo, Sumatra (Kobes, 2006). (Lowland).

Risoba viridangulata Holloway (Part 18, p. 215). Sundaland. Lowland forest.

Risoba diversipennis Walker (Part 18, p. 216). Himalaya to New Guinea. (Lowland heath forest). Note 505. Note 505. Kobes (2006) described and illustrated the larva of R. diversipennis. It is pale green with a pair of red dorsolateral stripes that contain white spots arranged in an elongate rhomboid on each segment; the stripes are bounded ventrally by a fine white line. Pupation is in a cylindrical cocoon incorporating debris and sandy particles. The host plant was Tibouchina (Melastomataceae).

Risoba basalis Moore (Part 18, p. 216). Oriental tropics. (Lowland to montane).

Risoba obstructa Moore (Part 18, p. 217). Indo-Australian tropics. (Lowland).

Risoba avola Bethune-Baker (Part 18, p. 217). Borneo, Sumatra (Kobes, 2006), Philippines, S. Moluccas, New Guinea. Upper montane forest.

Risoba vialis Moore (Part 18, p. 218). Oriental tropics. Upper montane forest.

Risoba obscurivialis Holloway (Part 18, p. 218). ?N.E. Himalaya, Sundaland, Sulawesi. (Lowland to montane).

Risoba olivens Bethune-Baker (Part 18, p. 218). Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia (B), Sumatra, Sulawesi to New Guinea. (Upper montane forest).

Risoba sp. (Part 18, p. 219). Endemic? (800m).

 

Subfamily ELIGMINAE (23 species)

Eligma javanica Rothschild (Part 18, p. 231, as narcissus). N. Thailand and N. Vietnam to Sundaland. (Lowland forest). Note 506. Note 506. K. Ueda (pers. comm.) has determined that E. narcissus as presented in Part 18 is in fact a complex of species, with the subspecies listed in Part 18 (with the exception of indica Rothschild), having the status of full species. Whilst philippinensis Rothschild and celebensis Tams are endemic to the Philippines and Sulawesi respectively, javanica Rothschild extends from Sundaland (including Palawan) to N. Vietnam and N. Thailand, where it may overlap with narcissus. The male genitalia of all these promoted taxa are smaller, with broader valves, apically blunt. Those illustrated in Part 18 (fig. 581) are of celebensis; javanica has the valves longer, lacking the inner lobe, and having a more spatulate apex.

Triorbis aureovitta Hampson (Part 18, p. 195; Plate 11). N.E. Himalaya, Sundaland, Palawan, Sulawesi. Lowland (and lower montane) forest. Note 507. Note 507. A specimen of Triorbis aureovitta was included in analyses (Zahiri et al., in preparation) of a larger sample of taxa following that of Zahiri et al., (2011). It was placed within the pairing of Eligma with Selepa of that first analysis. All taxa of the Iscadia group discussed in Part 18 under Collomeninae are therefore transferred here to Eligminae. This arrangement departs from that of Lafontaine & Schmidt (2010), where Iscadia Walker is assigned to the Sarrothripini, but restores the Eligminae more to the original concept of Mell (1943) discussed in Part 18.
A further record of the larva of T. aureovitta from Garcinia (Guttiferae) has been made in Peninsular Malaysia (H.S. Barlow & S.K.L. Hok, pers. comm.). The larva is illustrated in Plate 11. The thoracic segments are swollen, and the rest of the body tapers gently to the anal segments. The primary setae are at least twice as long as the width of the body, perhaps up to three times the width in earlier instars. Those more dorsal setae of T2 and T3 are arranged in a row across the anterior part of the segment, their bases each set in a conspicuous black-white-black roundel; these roundels, when viewed from the front, may present a somewhat spider‑like ocellate ‘predatory’ threat to potential enemies. The thorax is broadly dull reddish orange in early instars, but this colour is reduced to a narrow strip anterior to the ocellar row on T3 in the final instar. Most of the body is leaf green except for the white line just above the spiracles and the black-white-black bars associated with the L1-2 setae on each abdominal segment, set just posterior to each spiracle.

Triorbis annulata Swinhoe (Part 18, p. 195). Burma, Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia, Philippines. Lowland (to lower montane) forest.

Gadirtha pulchra Butler (Part 18, p. 196). Indo-Australian tropics. (Lowland).

Gadirtha inexacta Walker (Part 18, p. 197). N. India, Burma, Peninsular Malaysia (B), Borneo. (Lowland (including coastal) forest).

Gadirtha impingens Walker (Part 18, p. 197). Indo-Australian tropics. Lowland to upper montane.

Plotheia exacta Semper (Part 18, p. 198). Borneo, Wallacea to Solomons. Upper montane.

Plotheia viridalis Pagenstecher (Part 18, p. 199). Borneo, Sulawesi, Ambon, New Guinea. (Lowland forest).

Lamprothripa scotia Hampson (Part 18, p. 200). N.E. Himalaya, Peninsular Malaysia (B), Borneo, Sumatra. (Lowland to lower montane forest).

Ptisciana seminivea Walker (Part 18, p. 200). Oriental tropics. Lowland forest.

Phaeothripa morena Swinhoe (Part 18, p. 201). Sundaland. (Lowland, lower montane forest).

Phaeothripa cheyi sp. n. (p. 416, Plate 6, Figs 135, 136). Endemic. (Lowland). Note 508. Note 508. Phaeothripa cheyi sp. n. (Plate 6, Figs 135, 136)
G, EE 12-13mm. The general features are as in the generic account in Part 18 except the forewings have a less regularly curved distal to dorsal margin than in P. morena Swinhoe. The forewings are shades of slightly violet ashy grey as in P. morena, but generally rather more mottled and with a sequence of alternating, diffuse, pale and dark bars along the costa that recur more narrowly on the very margin of the otherwise uniform and browner underside. The reniform stigma is circular, a pale ring with a fine dark surround and a dark centre, and the orbicular is a dark dash, oblique, slightly lunulate, with a paler surround. A narrow, irregular, dark medial runs between the two stigmata. The antemedial is similarly irregular, more strongly dentate, dark with a pale edging basad. The postmedial is narrow double, with a pale central part, broken in places, and angling gently around the round reniform stigma. This extensive fasciation is much stronger than in morena. There is an irregular postmedial consisting of a series of black lunules or chevrons, each enclosing a small pale area distad. The hindwing is a uniform medium brownish grey; on the underside there is a faintly darker discal lunule. The male abdomen is typical of the genus, but the saccular plate is much more spatulate, broadening distally, and is surrounded by the bases of the deciduous hair‑setae. The female genitalia are similar to those of morena except the appendix bursae is more corrugated.
Holotype G. SABAH: Brumas, P. caribaea, 9.viii.1991, (Chey Vun Khen), BM noctuid slide 20812.
Paratypes: 1E (slide 20152) Dutch West BORNEO: 85 miles above Pontianak, (Simons et Meligan (Sanggan)) ex Janson, April, 1909; 1E (head missing) Mt. Dulit (Hose).
Geographical range. Borneo.
Habitat preference. Data for the two paratypes are imprecise, but the holotype was taken in a softwood (Pinus) plantation at about 300m.

Clettharina macrocorema Holloway (Part 18, p. 202). Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia. (Lowland forest).

Negritothripa confluens Mell (Part 18, p. 203). Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia (B), Java. (Lower montane forest).

Negritothripa telisai Holloway (Part 18, p. 204). Endemic. (Lowland heath forest).

Negritothripa aureata Holloway (Part 18, p. 204). Endemic. (Lowland and lower montane forest).

Selepa celtis Moore (Part 18, p. 223). Indo-Australian tropics. (Lowland forest). Note 509. Note 509. All species of Selepa Moore are transferred to the Eligminae as a representative, S. molybdea Hampson (Singapore), was placed in a well supported pairing with Eligma in the analysis of Zahiri et al. (2011), as discussed above.

Selepa plumbeata Hampson (Part 18, p. 224). Indian Subregion, Borneo. (Lowland).

Selepa ocellata Holloway (Part 18, p. 224). Endemic. (Lowland forest).

Selepa nigralba Hampson (Part 18, p. 225). Indo-Australian tropics. (Lowland forest).

Selepa discigera Walker (Part 18, p. 225; Plate 9). Indo-Australian tropics. (Lowland forest). Note 510. Note 510. S. discigera Walker has been reared from a larva found on Psidium cattleyanum (guava, Myrtaceae) in Peninsular Malaysia (S.K.L. Hok & H.S. Barlow, pers. comm.). The mature larva has a dull orange head and a pale green body marked with black dots and patches as illustrated in Plate 9. The larger spots appear to be characteristic of the genus, as they occur in the species with larval descriptions in Part 18. There are subdorsal rows of spots, with two pairs on each of A3-6 forming a square. There is a large cordate patch on A2 and a round one on A7. A8 has a smaller vertebra-shaped patch, and the anal segment is broadly black dorsally. There are irregular rows with more frequent spots above and below the spiracles. The primary setae are very long, mostly white, but mixed with black ones on the thoracic and anal segments. All prolegs are present. The time between pupation and eclosion of the adult was two weeks.

Selepa murphyi Holloway (Part 18, p. 226). Borneo, Singapore. (Mangrove forest).

Selepa oranga Swinhoe (Part 18, p. 226). Endemic. (Lowland forest).

 

NOLIDAE incertae sedis (6 species)

Baroa punctivaga Walker (new record; Plate 6). N.E. Himalaya, Thailand (C & P), Peninsular Malaysia, Java, Borneo. (Lowland). Note 511. Note 511. Baroa punctivaga Walker (Cycnia punctivaga Walker, 1855, List Specimens lepid. Insects Colln Br. Mus., 3: 682) is the type species of the genus as discussed in Part 6, p. 58. The forewings (Plate 6) are purplish grey, somewhat striate distally though the venation being paler and with black spots basally, these also froming a sinuous postmedial. The hindwings are uniform, greyer. A single female (in FRC Sepilok) has been taken at Kaingaran (720m) in the foothills of G. Trus Madi. The placement of this genus in the Arctiinae was questioned in Part 6; see p. 372 and the next Note.

Baroa siamica Hampson (Part 6, p. 59; Plate 10). Thailand, Sundaland, Philippines. (Lowland), lower and upper montane. Note 512. Note 512. As indicated in Part 6, on p. 372 and in the previous Note, the placement of the genus Baroa in the Arctiinae has long been open to question. Preliminary analyses of a larger sample of taxa (Zahiri et al., in preparation) following that of Zahiri et al. (2011) have included a specimen of B. siamica, and this was placed within the Nolidae but with no strong indication of subfamily. The larval features described below are unusual and intermediate between those of the Nolinae and other groups. The genus Baroa Moore is therefore transferred to Nolidae with uncertain status.
Cerný (2011) described a new subspecies of siamica, maramaga Cerný, from Mindanao in the Philippines but noted the typical race in Luzon. He recorded three species endemic to the archipelago, two described as new.
A final instar larva of B. siamica, feeding on Vernonia arborea (Compositae), was reared through in Peninsular Malaysia (H.S. Barlow & S.K.L. Hok, pers. comm.). It is illustrated in Plate 10. All prolegs are fully developed. There is some development of secondary setae on verrucae, particularly on the thoracic

Cacyparis tenuipalpis Snellen (Part 18, p. 220). Thailand, Sundaland, Sulawesi. (Lowland).

Ballatha willotti Holloway (Part 18, p. 221). Endemic. (Lowland forest).

Didiguides semifervens Walker (Part 18, p. 222). Sundaland to Bismarcks. Lowland forest.

Bryophilopsis orientalis Hampson (Part 18, p. 227). Christmas I. and (?) Andamans, Borneo, Palawan, Balabac, Sulawesi, Seram, Queensland. (Coastal).

[Kerala punctilineata Moore (Part 18, p. 228). Bornean record probably erroneous.]

 


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