Superfamily NOCTUOIDEA (2848 species)

Family NOCTUIDAE (287 species)

Subfamily PLUSIINAE (20 species)

Chrysodeixis eriosoma Doubleday (Part 14, p. 289). Indo‑Australian tropics and subtropics. Lowland, especially secondary and agricultural areas but also taken in high montane localities.

Chrysodeixis acuta Walker (Part 14, Plate 8: 9; Martini & Thöny, 1993: 20). Old World tropics and subtropics to Australia and Fiji. (?Montane). Note 513. Note 513. Martini & Thöny (1993) recorded a single male of Chrysodeixis acuta from 1600m on G. Emas in the Crocker Range, Sabah. A diagnosis and illustration of the species were published in Part 14, but it had not been recorded from Borneo at that time. Behounek & Thöny (1995: 50) included Borneo in the range of the species, but there is confusion in the labelling of the moths in their plate relative to the text, where the identifications appear to be transposed. C2 appears to be acuta, and C1 and B2 appear to be eriosoma, though B2 is identified as chalcites Esper in the Plate. The species are also transposed in Plate 37 of Kononenko & Pinratana (2005): 25 is acuta; 26 is eriosoma.

Chrysodeixis illuminata Robinson (Part 14, p. 290). Indo‑Australian tropics east to Samoa.

Chrysodeixis minutoides Holloway (Part 14, p. 290). Endemic. (Lowland to lower montane).

Chrysodeixis politus Dufay (Martini & Thöny, 1993: 20). Thailand, Sundaland, Philippines. (Upper montane). Note 514. Note 514. Martini & Thöny (1993) recorded a male of C. politus from 1950m on G Trus Madi in Sabah. It is discussed briefly in the description of minutoides Holloway in Part 14. The male and female genitalia are illustrated by Behounek & Thöny (1995: figs 2, 3), and differences from minutoides are given in Part 14, p. 290. Behounek & Ronkay (1999: 117) discussed the C. minutus Dufay species group more generally when describing three more species.

Chrysodeixis diehli Dufay (Part 14, p. 291). Thailand, Sundaland. (Lowland to lower montane).

Argyrogramma signata Fabricius (Part 14, p. 292). Old World tropics. (Possibly open habitats in lowlands). Note 515. Note 515. The larva of Argyrogramma signata was reared from Octomeles (Datiscaceae) in Sabah and illustrated by Chung et al. (2008). It is cylindrical, tapering slightly over the thoracic segments to a prognathous head. The whole larva is green with a general whitish suffusion over the dorsal surface of the body and with a narrow white lateral line. The primary setae arise from white dots. The prolegs are reduced on A3 and A4.

Ctenoplusia albostriata Bremer & Grey (Part 14, p. 293). Indo‑Australian tropics. Open habitats in lowlands and foothills.

Ctenoplusia limbirena Guenée (Martini & Thöny, 1993: 19; Plate 7). Old World tropics, Ponto‑Mediterranean area, east to Sundaland. (?Lowland to lower montane). Note 516. Note 516. Martini & Thöny (1993) recorded a female of Ctenoplusia limbirena Guenée at 950m on G. Trus Madi in Sabah. There are singletons in FRC, Sepilok, from Mesilau and Kundasang on the southern slopes of G. Kinabalu (probably in the range of 1000‑1500m). The species (Plate 7) is probably highly dispersive, being recorded from Madeira, the Cape Verde Is. and St. Helena in the Atlantic, and from La Réunion and Mauritius in the Indian Ocean.

Ctenoplusia tarassota Hampson (Part 14, p. 293, as sigillata Dufay). India, Tibet, China to Sundaland and Philippines. Upper montane. Note 517. Note 517. C. sigillata Dufay is now treated as a subspecies of tarassota Hampson, as Behounek & Thöny (1995) included Borneo in the range of the latter species, but without specifically mentioning sigillata. They also treated Acanthoplusia Dufay as a full genus, though it reverted to a subgenus in Behounek & Ronkay (1999). In Part 14, a review of Acanthoplusia species described by Dufay was presented. Behounek & Ronkay (1999) discuss several more species, extending the range of latistigma Prout (which they indicated was sister‑species to eugrapha Hampson in New Guinea) with subspecies from Sulawesi, and Timor and Flores, and describing new species from the Philippines (armata Behounek & Ronkay) and Sumbawa and Flores (sumbawana Behounek & Ronkay), though the last has it closest relatives in mainland Asia.

Thysanoplusia orichalcea Fabricius (Part 14, p. 295). Old World tropics and subtropics. ?Upper montane.

Thysanoplusia aureopicta Ronkay & Behounek (Part 14, Plate 8: 8, as intermixta Warren; Ronkay & Behounek, 1995: 45). Sundaland, Philippines, S. Moluccas, New Guinea. Note 518. Note 518. Thysanoplusia aureopicta Ronkay & Behounek is the species that had been identified as intermixta Warren in Sundaland in the past, and a Sumatran specimen was illustrated as such in Part 14. This whole complex of species was revised by Ronkay & Behounek (1995), who added T. jonesi Ronkay & Behounek to the complex. This species was collected at high altitude in Seram by the author and colleagues in 1987, and named for David Jones who carried a Honda E650 generator up to 2800m on G. Binaya as a power supply for the light‑trap!
The original description of aureopicta states that the forewing is broader than in intermixta, with bluish violaceous irroration and a more extensive golden area which is finely reticulated with brown. The male genitalia have the broadest saccus in the genus, with the distal margin slightly excavated. The aedeagus vesica is longer and is more dilated at its distal end where it is reflexed. Ronkay & Behounek (1996) included Borneo in the distribution but only gave precise data for type material.

Thysanoplusia bipartita Snellen (Part 14, p. 296). Bomeo, Sulawesi. (Upper montane).

Zonoplusia ochreata Walker (Part 14, p. 296). Oriental tropics and subtropics, Queensland. Open habitats in lowlands and foothills.

Plusiopalpa adrasta Felder (Part 14, p. 297). Indo-Australian tropics.

Dactyloplusia impulsa Walker (Part 14, p. 298). Oriental tropics and east to New Guinea. (Lowland).

Scriptoplusia nigriluna Walker (Part 14, p. 298, under “Plusia”). Oriental tropics to Sundaland and Philippines. (Lowland). Note 519. Note 519. In Scriptoplusia Ronkay, Behounek & Ronkay (1995) placed the taxa kuznetzovi Kljutschko & Ronkay (Vietnam) and, tentatively, hokowensis Chu & Lu (China) as synonyms of nigriluna, and demoted noona Ronkay (Philippines) to be a subspecies thereof.

Scriptoplusia rubriflabellata Prout (Martini & Thöny, 1993: 19). Borneo, Philippines, New Guinea, Bismarcks, Queensland. (Montane). Note 520. Note 520. Martini & Thöny (1993) recorded a male of S. rubriflabellata from 1600m on G. Emas in the Crocker Range in Sabah. They also took a specimen of C. nigriluna at the same locality. Distinction of the two closely related species was discussed in Part 14 (p. 299), and this record is the first instance known of their sympatry. As indicated in the introductory section, didymospila Turner, mentioned in Part 14, is now placed as a synonym of rubriflabellata by Edwards in Nielsen et al. (1996). Behounek & Ronkay (1995) suggested that the female illustrated in Part 14 (Plate 8: 18) might be rubriflabellata, though the male genitalia illustrated in fig. 332 of Part 14 are of nigriluna. This female had been dissected, and reexamination has indicated that it is nigriluna.

Trichoplusia lectula Walker (Part 14, p. 299, under “Plusia”). Indian Subregion to Japan and Sundaland, New Guinea, Queensland. Open habitats in lowlands.

Extremoplusia megaloba Hampson (Part 14, p. 300, under “Plusia”). N.E. Himalaya, Thailand, Vietnam, Taiwan, Sundaland. (Upper montane).


Subfamily BAGISARINAE (25 species)

Xanthodes transversa Guenée (Part 13, p. 28). Indo-Australian tropics to Australia and Vanuatu. (Lowland, open habitats).

Dyrzela plagiata Walker (Part 12, p. 181). Indo‑Australian tropics. Lowland to upper montane.

Dyrzela roseata Holloway (Part 12, p. 182). Endemic. (Lowland).

Dyrzela castanea Warren (Part 12, p. 182). Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia. (Lowland).

Dyrzela tumidimacula Warren (Part 12, p. 183). Sundaland. (Lowland to upper montane).

Dyrzela incrassata Walker (Part 12, p. 183). ?Endemic. Lowland to upper montane.

Dyrzela increnulata Warren (Part 12, p. 183). Burma, Sundaland, Philippines. Lowland to upper montane.

Dyrzela boscoides Holloway (Part 12, p. 184). Endemic. Upper montane.

Dyrzela violacea Holloway (Part 12, p. 184). Endemic. (Upper montane).

Calymniops convergens Holloway (Part 13, p. 30). Sundaland. Lowland forest.

Calymniops dyrzeloides Holloway (Part 13, p. 31). Endemic. (Lowland forest).

Imosca megastigmata Hampson (Part 13, p. 33). Indian Subregion, Sundaland. (Lowland forest).

Androlymnia emarginata Hampson (Part 13, p. 34). India, Java, Bali, Borneo. (Lowland plantation forest).

Androlymnia incurvata Wileman & West (Part 13, p. 34). Philippines, Borneo. (Lowland plantation forest).

Chasmina candida Walker (Part 12, p. 187). Indo‑Australian tropics. (Lowland). Note 521. Note 521. Leong (2010h) has described and illustrated the mature larva and pupation of Chasmina candida in Singapore. The larva is a pale greyish green with a narrow, pale yellowish subdorsal stripe running from T1 to the anal prolegs on each side. There are black dots within a slightly expanded part of the subdorsal stripes near the posterior of each of T2 and T3. The short primary setae arise from small white chalazae. The prolegs of A3 and A4 are equally reduced to small stumps with a remnant ring of crochets. The prepupal larva turns a rich fuchsia and spins loose silk around itself. When collecting the larva, Leong caused it to dislodge itself and descend to the ground, consistent with the bagisarine escape reaction described in Part 13. The host plant was Hibiscus tiliaceus (Malvaceae), a coastal and back mangrove species.

Chasmina coremata Holloway (Part 12, p. 187). Endemic. (Lowland).

Chasmina sundana Holloway (Part 12, p. 188). Sundaland. Lowland to upper montane.

Ramadasa pavo Walker (Part 13, p. 36). Indian Subregion, Sundaland, Wallacea. Lowland to montane forest.

Ramadasa fumipennis Warren (Part 13, p. 36). Sundaland. (Disturbed lowland forest).

Ramadasa plumbeola Warren (Part 13, p. 37). N.E. Himalaya, Sundaland. (Lowland forest).

Amyna punctum Fabricius (Part 13, p. 38). Old World tropics to Fiji and New Caledonia. Lowland open and disturbed habitats, but may fly at higher altitudes.

Amyna axis Guenée (Part 13, p. 39). Pantropical, including Pacific archipelagoes. Lowland open and disturbed habitats.

Amyna stellata Butler (Part 13, p. 40). Oriental tropics and subtropics to Sundaland. No precise habitat data.

Amyna natalis Walker (Part 13, p. 41). Indo-Australian and Pacific tropics to Hawaii and Rapa. (Lowland open and disturbed habitats).

Amyna dohertyi Holloway (Part 13, p. 42). Sundaland. (Lowland).


Subfamily EUSTROTIINAE (12 species)

Koyaga potens Holloway (Part 13, p. 63). Endemic. (Montane forest).

Hypercodia disparalis Walker (Part 13, p. 64). Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia. (Lowland).

Maliattha separata Walker (Part 13, p. 65). Oriental tropics. (Lowland plantation forest).

Maliattha marginalis Walker (Part 13, p. 65). Indian Subregion, Borneo, Java. Lowland forest, including disturbed and plantation forest.

Maliattha signifera Walker (Part 13, p. 66). Indo-Australian tropics to Australia and Solomons. Lowland forest, including disturbed and plantation forest.

Maliattha ritsemae Snellen (Part 13, p. 66). Indo-Australian tropics from Sundaland to N. Australia and Polynesia. (Open habitats).

Maliattha muluana Holloway (Part 13, p. 67). Endemic. (Upper montane forest).

Maliattha papuensis Warren (Part 13, p. 67). Borneo, Moluccas to Solomons and Australia. (Lowland forest).

Eulocastraalbipunctella Hampson (Part 13, p. 68). Endemic. (Lowland).

Cretonia forficula Holloway (Part 13, p. 71). Hainan, Sundaland, Sulawesi. Lowland open habitats.

Cretonia acuticosta Holloway (Part 13, p. 71). India, Taiwan, Sundaland, N. Moluccas. Lowland disturbed and open habitats.

Naranga diffusa Walker (Part 13, p. 72). Oriental tropics to Sundaland, Sumbawa. (Lowland habitation).


Subfamily ACONTIINAE (2 species)

Acontia olivacea Hampson (Part 13, p. 45). Oriental tropics and subtropics to Borneo and Philippines. (Lowland (including plantation) forest).

Acontia wallaceana Hacker, Legrain & Fibiger (Part 13, p. 46). Sundaland, Sumbawa and Sulawesi. (Lowland).


Subfamily AEDIINAE (22 species)

Aedia leucomelas Linnaeus (Part 13, p. 49). S. Europe and Africa to Oriental tropics. Disturbed vegetation and cultivation up to 1200m.

Aedia acronyctoides Guenée (Part 13, p. 50). Indo-Australian tropics to Australia, Fiji and Samoa. (Disturbed vegetation and cultivation up to 1930m).

Aedia perdicipennis Moore (Part 13, p. 50). N.E. Himalaya to Taiwan, Sundaland and Sulawesi. (Lowland forest).

Aedia maiae Holloway (Part 13, p. 51). Endemic. (Lowland forest).

Aedia lichenea Hampson (Part 13, p. 52). N.E. Himalaya, Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia. Lowland (to lower montane) forested and disturbed localities.

Aedia intrahens Walker (Part 13, p. 52). N.E. Himalaya, Sundaland. (Lowland).

Aedia marginisecta Holloway (Part 13, p. 52). Endemic. (Montane forest).

Aedia hirtissima Walker (Part 13, p. 53). Endemic. (Lowland) to montane forest.

Aedia sinuinigra Holloway (Part 13, p. 53). Borneo, Sumatra. Lower montane forest.

Aedia olivacea Walker (Part 13, p. 54). Sri Lanka, Burma, Sundaland, Sulawesi (Lowland to lower montane).

Aedia lobata Prout (Part 13, p. 54). Sundaland. (Lowland to upper montane).

Mosara apicalis Walker (Holloway, 1989: 159). Oriental tropics to Sundaland, Philippines. (Lowland?).

Ecpatia obscura Holloway (Part 13, p. 56). Endemic. Lowland and lower montane forest.

Ecpatia ovifera Holloway (Part 13, p. 56). Endemic. (Disturbed lowland forest).

Ecpatia lingulata Holloway (Part 13, p. 57). Endemic. (Lowland forest).

Ecpatia triangulata Holloway (Part 13, p. 57). Borneo, Sumatra. (Lowland forest).

Ecpatia pauli Holloway (Part 13, p. 58). Borneo, Sulawesi. (Montane forest).

Ecpatia susanae Holloway (Part 13, p. 58). Endemic. (Montane forest).

Ecpatia elliptica Holloway (Part 13, p. 58). Endemic. (Lowland forest).

Ecpatia alleni Holloway (Part 13, p. 59). Endemic. (Lowland forest).

Chytonixdiehli Behounek (Part 13, p. 60). Borneo, Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia (B). (Lower montane forest).

Catephiaxylosis Prout (Part 13, p. 60). Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia, Philippines. (Lowland to lower montane forest).


Subfamily PANTHEINAE (20 species)

Anepholcia pygaria Warren (Part 12, p.301). Sundaland. (Lowland, lower montane), upper montane.

Antitrisuloides catocalina Moore (Part 12, p.302). Nepal, N.E. Himalaya to China and Sundaland.

Trichosea mjobergi Prout (Part 12, p.303). Endemic. Upper montane. Note 522. Note 522. Kononenko & Pinratana (2005: 611‑612) noted a specimen of Trichosea mjobergi labelled as coming from Sansai in N. Thailand. The data are exactly the same as those indicated as possibly suspect for species of Lasiocampidae (Notes 57, 66), Notodontidae (Note 296) and Arctiinae (p. 371 and Note 401). It is recommended that such records be disregarded unless supported by further material where the provenance can be confidently assured.

Sundwarda dohertyi Druce (Part 13, p. 6). Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia, Thailand. Lowland (to montane) forest.

Baorisa hieroglyphica Moore (Part 13, p. 7). N.E. Himalaya to Sundaland. Upper montane.

Ortopla iarbasalis Walker (Part 13, p. 8). Sundaland, Thailand. Lowland to upper montane.

Ortopla nulliusinverba Holloway (Part 13, p. 9). Endemic. Lowland forest.

Trisula variegata Moore (Part 13, p. 10). Indian Subregion to Sundaland. (Lowland hill forest).

Trisuloides sericea Butler (Part 13, p. 12). Oriental tropics to Thailand, Borneo. (Lower montane?)

Cyclodes omma Hoeven (Part 13, p. 13). Oriental tropics east to Moluccas. Lowland (and upper montane) forest.

Arcte modesta Hoeven (Part 13, p. 15). Indo-Australian tropics to New Guinea. Lowland to upper montane.

Arcte coerula Guenée (Part 13, p. 15). Indo-Australian tropics and subtropics. (Upper montane).

Donda sailendra Kobes (Part 13, p. 17). Borneo, Sumatra. (Lowland).

Belciana biformis Walker (Part 13, p. 19). Sundaland. Lowland to montane forest.

Belciana bicolor Wileman & West (Part 13, p. 20). Philippines, Borneo, Sumatra. (Lowland).

Belciana hemodoides Holloway (Part 13, p. 20). Borneo, Palawan, Singapore. (Lowland forest).

Belciana prasina Swinhoe (Part 13, p. 20). N.E. Himalaya, Sundaland. (Lowland forest).

Belciana kala Prout (Part 13, p. 21). Sundaland, Himalaya. Lowland to montane forest.

Belciana striatovirens Moore (Part 13, p. 22). India to Sundaland. (Lowland forest).

Belciana viridipicta Hampson (Part 13, p. 22). N.E. Himalaya to Sundaland. (Lowland). Note 523. Note 523. A second specimen of Belciana viridipicta has been seen, a male in RMNH, Leiden, collected at 400m at the G. Lumut Base Camp, 4km W of Mului in Kalimantan Timur.


Subfamily ACRONICTINAE (7 species)

Acronicta pruinosa Guenée (Part 12, p. 102). Oriental tropics to New Guinea. (Lower montane).

Acronicta rubiginosa Walker (Part 12, p. 103). Endemic. (Lowland), lower and upper montane. Note 524. Note 524. Kobes (2005) determined that Acronicta rubiginosa is not represented in Sumatra, and that two distinct endemic species occur there: A. sugii Kobes and A. yoshimotoi Kobes. The latter is related to the Himalayan A. denticulata Moore and replaced the record of that species for Sumatra in Kobes (1995a). The status of material from Peninsular Malaysia and Java requires investigation.

Craniophora malesiae Holloway (Part 12, p. 105). N.E. Himalaya to Bismarcks. (Lowland to) upper montane.

Thalatha sinens Walker (Part 12, p. 106). India to Sundaland. (Lowland to lower montane). Note 525. Note 525. Kobes (1995a) discovered that typical Thalatha sinens flies in Sumatra with ssp. ioleuca Prout, and that therefore the latter merited specific status. He illustrated the differences in facies and in the male genitalia. It is possible that ioleuca may also occur in Borneo.

Thalathoides conjecturalis Swinhoe (Part 12, p. 108). Indian Subregion, Peninsular Malaysia (B), Borneo, Sulawesi. (Lowland to lower montane).

Thalathoides curtalis Holloway (Part 12, p. 108). Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia (B), Sumatra. Lowland, (upper montane).

Platyprosopa nigrostrigata Bethune‑Baker (Part 12, p. 110). Sundaland to Bismarcks. (Lower montane).


Subfamily AGARISTINAE (15 species)

Episteme vetula Geyer (Part 12, p. 201). N.E. Himalaya to Sundaland. Note 526. Note 526. Kishida (1995) has reviewed the subspecies of Episteme vetula. The Bornean subspecies is bijugata Walker.

Episteme conspicua Rothschild (Part 12, p. 201). Endemic. (Upper montane).

Scrobigera hesperioides Walker (Part 12, p. 202). Endemic. Lowland.

Scrobigera niveifasciata Rothschild (Part 12, p. 202). Endemic. No precise habitat data.

Longicella mollis Walker (Part 12, p. 203). S.E. Asia, Sundaland. Lowland.

Mimeusemia postica Walker (Part 12, p. 203). S.E. Asia, Sundaland. Lowland.

Mimeusemia perakana Rothschild (Part 12, p. 204). Sundaland, Philippines. (Lowland).

Mimeusemia vittata Butler (Part 12, p. 204). Sundaland. (Upper montane).

Ophthalmis lincea Cramer (Part 12, p. 204). ?N. Borneo, Philippines to Moluccas and Solomons.

Ophthalmis milete Cramer (Part 12, p. 205). Sundaland, Lombok (Buchsbaum, 2010), Sulawesi, S. Moluccas. (Lowland). Note 527. Note 527. There is material of Ophthalmis milete from Kalimantan on the mainland of Borneo in the Muzium Zoologicum Bogoriense. In Peninsular Malaysia, the species is common in coastal forest of the Kuala Selangor Nature Park.

Crinocula kinabaluensis Rothschild (Part 12, p. 205). Endemic. (Montane? No precise habitat data).

Sarbanissa catacoloides Walker (Part 12, p. 206). N.E. Himalaya to Sundaland, Lombok.

Sarbanissa transiens Walker (Part 12, p. 206; Plate 12). N.E. Himalaya to Sundaland. Lowland to lower montane. Note 528. Note 528. The larva of Sarbanissa transiens (not confirmed by dissection) has been reared by S.K.L. Hok in Peninsular Malaysia and is illustrated in Plate 12. The head is black, and the body is mostly a velvety black with long white setae. Segment T1 is narrower and red, and there is a pair of red dorsolateral patches at the slightly swollen posterior end. The host plant was Impatiens balsamina (Balsaminaceae).

Sarbanissa sundana Holloway (Part 12, p. 207). Peninsular Malaysia, Sumatra, Borneo. Lowland.

Sarbanissa albifascia Walker (Martini & Thöny 1993: 3; Plate 7). India, China, Burma, Thailand, Peninsular Malaysia (B), Borneo, Sumatra. (Lowland to lower montane). Note 529. Note 529. Sarbanissa albifascia Walker (Plate 7) was recorded by Martini & Thöny (1993) at 950m on G. Trus Madi in Sabah. There is also material from Samarinda in the lowlands of Kalimantan in the Muzium Zoologicum Bogoriense.


Subfamily CONDICINAE (4 species)

Condica illecta Walker (Part 12, p. 178). Indo‑Australian and Pacific tropics. Lowland to upper montane, open habitats.

Condica aroana Bethune-Baker (Part 12, p. 179). Indo‑Australian tropics. Lowland to lower montane, open habitats.

Condica dolorosa Walker (Part 12, p. 179). Indo‑Australian tropics. (Lower montane, open habitats).

Condica albigutta Wileman (Part 12, p. 180). N.E. Himalaya, Taiwan, Borneo, Sumatra. (Lower montane, open habitats).


Subfamily HELIOTHINAE (2 species)

Helicoverpa armigera Hübner (Part 12, p. 75). Old World tropics and subtropics. (Cultivation).

Helicoverpa assulta Guenée (Part 12, p. 76). Old World tropics. (Cultivation).


Subfamily ERIOPINAE (24 species)

Callopistria albistriga Walker (Part 12, p. 158). Sundaland. Lowland.

Callopistria obliterata Warren (Part 12, p. 160). Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia, Sulawesi. Lowland.

Callopistria thalpophiloides Walker (Part 12, p. 160). Oriental tropics, New Guinea. (Lowland, upper montane).

Callopistria callopistrioides Moore (Part 12, p. 161). Oriental tropics. (Lowland).

Callopistria variegata Swinhoe (Part 12, p. 161). N.E. Himalaya, Sundaland. (Lowland).

Callopistria manta Swinhoe (Part 12, p. 161). Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia. Lowland.

Callopistria alfredi Holloway (Part 12, p. 162). Endemic. (?Lowland).

Callopistria quadrinotata Walker (Part 12, p. 162). Sundaland. (Lowland).

Callopistria guttulalis Hampson (Part 12, p. 162). Indian Subregion, Japan, S. China, Taiwan, Philippines, Borneo. (Lower montane).

Callopistria repleta Walker (Part 12, p. 163). India to Japan, Korea, eastern Russia, Sundaland. (Upper montane).

Callopistria ludovici Prout (Part 12, p. 163). Sundaland to Moluccas. (Lowland).

Callopistria emiliusalis Walker (Part 12, p. 164). Sundaland. Lowland, open or disturbed habitats. Note 530. Note 530. Callopistria emiliusalis Walker was listed by Poole (1989) under its original genus, Diethusa Walker, of which it is the type species. Its synonym, consentanea Walker, is the type species of Pachydasys Butler (see also Nye, 1975). These two genus-group names were not listed as synonyms of Callopistria Hübner in Part 12, though emiliusalis was treated under Callopistria, being placed in a subgroup with two other Bornean species. It was also placed in Callopistria by Barlow (1982), reflecting its status at that time (and as currently in the BMNH card index). These two genus-group names should therefore have been listed as synonyms of Callopistria in Part 12. Yen & Wu (2009) included Diethusa but not Pachydasys in their list of synonyms of Callopistria.

Callopistria ventralis Walker (Part 12, p. 164). Sundaland. Lowland to lower montane, disturbed habitats.

Callopistria albipunctalis Holloway (Part 12, p. 165). Borneo, Sumatra. Lowland.

Callopistria wallacei Felder (Part 12, p. 165). Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia. (Lowland, upper montane).

Callopistria scriptiplena Walker (Part 12, p. 166). Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia. (Lowland).

Callopistria maillardi Guenée (Part 12, p. 166). Old World tropics. Lowland, disturbed, secondary vegetation.

Callopistria exotica Guenée (Part 12, p. 167). Oriental tropics. Lowland (coastal, alluvial forests).

Callopistria rivularis Walker (Part 12, p. 167). Eastern Palaerctic, Indo‑Australian tropics. (Lowland), lower montane, open habitats.

Callopistria placodoides Guenée (Part 12, p. 167). Indo‑Australian tropics, Korea, Japan. Lowland.

Callopistria trilineata Walker (Part 12, p. 168). Sundaland to New Guinea. (Lowland to lower montane, disturbed habitats).

Callopistria pulchrilinea Walker (Part 12, p. 168). Indo‑Australian tropics, Japan, also Africa (Yen & Wu, 2009). Lowland to upper montane.

Callopistria montana Holloway (Part 12, p. 169). Endemic. Upper montane.

Callopistriaconcinna Prout (Part 12, p. 159; see also Part 13, p. 59). Endemic. (Upper montane). Note 531. Note 531. Callopistriaconcinna Prout appears to be misplaced in its current combination. Features of the male genitalia, particularly the lobes to the tegumen, may indicate a closer relationship to Ecpatia Turner, Eulepa Walker and “Euplexiamonilis Moore as discussed in Part 13, p. 59.


Subfamily BRYOPHILINAE (4 species)

Stenoloba elegans Prout (Part 13, p. 74). Borneo, Sumatra. Lowland to montane forest.

Stenoloba robusta Prout (Part 13, p. 75). Endemic. Upper montane forest.

Stenoloba pendleburyi Holloway (Part 13, p. 75). Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia, Sumatra. (Lowland forest).

Stenoloba futii Kononenko & Ronkay (new record; p. 425). Sundaland, S. Burma. (Montane).


Subfamily NOCTUINAE (121 species)

Tribe PRODENIINI (8 species)

Spodoptera mauritia Boisduval (Part 12, p. 133). Indian Ocean, Indo-Australian and Pacific tropics. Lowland open habitats.

Spodoptera pecten Guenée (Part 12, p. 134). Indo-Australian tropics to New Guinea. Lowland open habitats.

Spodoptera cilium Guenée (Part 12, p. 134). Old World tropics to Sulawesi and Lesser Sundas. Lowland open habitats.

Spodoptera pectinicornis Hampson (Part 12, p. 135). N.E. Himalaya to Sundaland, New Guinea. (Lowland, sluggish waterways).

Spodoptera apertura Walker (Part 12, p. 135). Old World tropics to New Guinea and Australia.

Spodoptera exempta Walker (Part 12, p. 136). Old World and Pacific tropics.

Spodoptera litura Fabricius (Part 12, p. 136). Indo-Australian and Pacific tropics and subtropics. Lowland open habitats. Note 532. Note 532. In Part 12: 137, it was noted that larvae of Spodoptera litura had been recorded from over 40 plant families. Robinson et al. (2001) recorded about 70. Chey (2007) noted two more from Borneo: Datiscaceae (Octomeles) and Oxalidaceae (Oxalis).

Spodoptera picta Guérin-Méneville (Part 12, p. 139). Indo-Australian tropics east to Samoa. (Coastal?).

Tribe CARADRININI (5 species)

Athetis reclusa Walker (Part 12, p. 140). Sundaland to Fiji. (Lowland to lower montane, open habitats).

Athetis bipuncta Snellen (Part 12, p. 140). Indian Subregion to New Guinea. (Lower montane, upper montane, open habitats).

Athetis bimacula Walker (Part 12, p. 140). Sundaland. (Lowland).

Athetis thoracica Butler (Part 12, p. 141). Indo-Australian and Pacific tropics. Lowland to montane, open habitats.

Athetis nonagrica Walker (Part 12, p. 142). Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia, Sulawesi, New Guinea. Lowland to upper montane, open habitats.

Tribe DYPTERYGIINI (8 species)

Sasunaga tenebrosa Moore (Part 12, p. 144). Oriental tropics. Lowland to upper montane.

Sasunaga longiplaga Warren (Part 12, p. 145). N.E. Himalaya, Sundaland. Lowland to upper montane.

Sasunaga interrupta Warren (Part 12, p. 145). Sundaland, S. Moluccas, New Guinea. Upper montane.

Sasunaga leucorina Hampson (Part 12, p. 146). Sundaland to New Guinea. (Lowland to) upper montane.

Feliniopsis nabalua Holloway (Part 12, p. 115). Endemic. Upper montane.

Callyna monoleuca Walker (Chey, 1994; new record, p. 428, Plate 7, Figs 152, 156). Indian Subregion, Taiwan, Burma, Andamans, Java, Borneo, Sulawesi, Seram, New Guinea, Australia. Note 533. Note 533. Three species of Callyna Guenée (type species siderea Guenée, Indian Subregion) have been recorded since publication of Part 12. The genus Callyna consists of moderately sized, robust moths with relatively narrow forewings that have facies that varies on the theme of the species illustrated for Borneo. Some species are greyer and may have blocks of black on the costa either side of the medial zone.
The male abdomen has typical noctuid basal hair pencils. The eighth segment is of the framed corematous type, the sternite with long lateral rods. The genitalia have a large paratergal sclerite. The valves are simple, with a marginal corona (reduced or absent in some species, e.g. monoleuca Walker) but no cucullus. There is a harpe of the typical trifine type, sometimes very long as in the type species. The aedeagus vesica is moderately elongate and bears two or more rows or groups of long, slender spines.
The female genitalia have rather delicate, elongate ovipositor lobes, and a short eighth segment that is very much narrower than the seventh; both parts have long, slender apodemes. The ductus bursae has a lightly sclerotised, funnel‑like antrum that is as wide as the eighth segment. There is a short narrow section of the ductus distal to this leading to a variably shaped corpus bursae that may be unornamented (contracta Warren), but is more often strongly corrugated and sclerotised over the basal half to two‑thirds and more scobinate in the distal part (siderea, monoleuca). There is no definite signum.
The genus is moderately diverse throughout the Old World tropics. It is likely that other species will be recorded in Borneo, such as C. jugaria Walker which extends from India to Peninsular Malaysia and recurs in Sulawesi.
All records of larval feeding are from Boraginaceae, mostly from Cordia, but also from Ehretia for one of the Bornean species (Robinson et al. 2001).
Callyna monoleuca Walker (Plate 7, Figs 152, 156)
Callyna monoleuca Walker, 1858, List Specimens lepid. Insects Colln Br. Mus., 15: 1667.
Leocyma apicalis Snellen, 1880, Tijdschr. Ent., 23: 54.
Callyna monoleuca japoniba Strand, 1920, Arch. Naturgesch., 88A (12): 136.
monoleuca was recorded by Chey (1994) singly in secondary forest near Brumas in the lowlands of Sabah. There is also further material in FRC Sepilok. from disturbed hill forest with cultivation at Apin‑Apin (700m) at Ulu Bundu near Tambunan. The forewings are very dark brown, grading a more steely black towards the apex. There is irregular, fine, blackish, dentate fasciation that is highlighted whitish, together with the reniform and orbicular, over the costal third; the postmedial flexes strongly basad from adjacent to the reniform towards the costa. There is a conspicuous white spot subapically on the costa.
Bell (MS) and Gardner (1946) described the biology, and the following account is drawn mostly from the former. The larva is cylindrical, tapering slightly at each end. A8 has a pair of acute, medium‑sized, conical tubercles dorsally. The prolegs are yellowish, the setae on black dots, those on A3 and A4 slightly smaller than the rest. The head is orange, the setae based on moderate to large black spots. The body surface is dull, the segments well defined, with primary setae only. The spiracles are black, as is most of the body, though there is thick marbling of grey in transverse lines. There is a longitudinal white line dorsally. Further supra- and subspiracular whitish lines enclose an orange band. Another variant was dark green, almost blackish in places, marbled with pinkish yellowish white.
The host plant recorded was Cordia.

Callyna semivitta Moore (Martini & Thöny, 1993: 11; p. 428, Plate 7, Fig 151). Himalaya, China, Taiwan, Borneo, Java, Sulawesi. (Lowland to lower montane). Note 534. Note 534. Callyna semivitta Moore (Plate 7, Fig 151)
Callyna semivitta Moore, 1882, Descr. new Indian lepid. Insects Colln W.S.
: 2: 161.
C. semivitta Moore was recorded by Martini & Thöny (1993) from three specimens taken at 950m on G. Trus Madi. Chey (1994) recorded three individuals of the species in samples from secondary forest and a Pinus caribaea plantation at about 300m in the vicinity of Brumas in the lowlands of Sabah, and there is also a specimen in FRC, Sepilok, from near the Sg. Tabin, Lahad Datu. The forewing facies is very similar in semivitta and contracta (see next note), the ground being a series of diffusely separated longitudinal sections: a dorsal one of dull uniform red, extending over about a third of the wing; a central black one; a narrower subcostal red one; a darker, blackish costal one. The anterior three are crossed by irregular white tracery on the fasciae that also defines the stigmata, with a pronounced gap between the postmedial and an apical white patch, its basal border defined by an otherwise obscure submarginal; in this gap the alternation of red and dark bands is most apparent. C. semivitta is distinctly larger than contracta, the latter with a slightly narrower red section at the dorsum and a more definite white triangle marking the distal edge of the posterior lobe of the reniform. In semivitta, the orbicular is usually much more clearly defined, and there is a sagittate black mark in the submarginal subtornally that is not evident in contracta. The inner margin of the apical white mark is evenly curved in contracta, but somewhat angular in semivitta.

Callyna contracta Warren (new record, p. 429, Plate 7, Figs 154, 155). N. India, Nepal, Peninsular Malaysia, Sumatra, Borneo, Philippines, Sulawesi. (Lowland). Note 535. Note 535. Callyna contracta Warren (Plate 7, Figs 154, 155)
Callyna contracta Warren, 1913, Gross‑Schmett. Erde 11: 196.
Material of C. contracta from Kota Belud, Sabah, was noted in the collection at FRC, Sepilok. The larva has been recorded as feeding on Ehretia (Boraginaceae) by Gardner (1946). Gardner described the larva as having a yellow head with brown mottling and black spots. The body has a blue ground colour. There is a chrome yellow lateral stripe, and the dorsum is crossed by thicker and fine black lines. The true legs are black, but the prolegs are yellow with a thick, black, curved mark.

Tribe ACTINOTIINI (1 species)

Actinotia australis Holloway (Part 12, p. 112). Borneo, Sulawesi. Upper montane.

Tribe PHLOGOPHORINI (21 species)

Phlogophora nigroplumbea Warren (Part 12, p. 117). Borneo, Java, Luzon. upper montane.

Phlogophora styx Holloway (Part 12, p. 119). Endemic. Radio Sabah.

Phlogophora isoscelata Prout (Part 12, p. 119). Endemic. Upper montane.

Phlogophora kinabalua Holloway (Part 12, p. 119). Endemic. (Upper montane).

Phlogophora muluensis Holloway (Part 12, p. 119). Endemic. (Upper montane).

Phlogophora lignosa Holloway (Part 12, p. 120). Endemic. (Upper montane).

Phlogophora discalis Warren (Part 12, p. 120). Java, Borneo. Upper montane.

Phlogophora emphanes Prout (Part 12, p. 121). Endemic. Upper montane.

Phlogophora triangula Holloway (Part 12, p. 121). Endemic. (Upper montane).

Phlogophora magma Holloway (Part 12, p. 121). Endemic. (Upper montane).

Phlogophora viridivena Holloway (Part 12, p. 122). Endemic. (Radio Sabah).

Phlogophora contrasta Holloway (Part 12, p. 122). Endemic. Upper montane.

Euplexidia albiguttata Warren (Part 12, p. 123). Endemic. Upper montane.

Xenotrachea albidisca Moore (Part 12, p. 124). India to Taiwan and Vietnam, Peninsular Malaysia (B), Borneo. (Lowland) to upper montane. Note 536. Note 536. The citation of the review of Xenotrachea Sugi by Kishida & Yoshimoto (1979) in the references of Part 12 was incomplete. It appeared in Tinea 10: 267‑277. Two further mainland Asian Xenotrachea, X. thaiensis Yoshimoto (Thailand) and X. irrorata Yoshimoto (Taiwan) were described by Yoshimoto (1992) when recording three species from Nepal.

Xenotrachea leucopera Hampson (Part 12, p. 124). Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia. (Lowland to lower montane).

Euplexiaalbifusa Hampson (new record; Plate 7, Figs 137, 138). Java, Peninsular Malaysia, Borneo. (Montane forest). Note 537. Note 537. Euplexiaalbifusa Hampson (Plate 7, Figs 137, 138)
Trachea albifusa Hampson, 1908, Cat. Lep. Phalaenae Br. Mus 7: 140.
Diagnosis & taxonomic note. The  forewing is similar to that of Xenotrachea albidisca, but the central white area is more extensive and that in the marginal zone near the apex is more prominent. The only Bornean specimen has a much broader and more entire area of white on the forewing compared to typical Javan material, but the male genitalia are almost identical. The generic placement requires review. The species is not a Euplexia Stephens (see Part 12: 116), its placement in Poole (1989), nor a Xenotrachea Sugi, though genitalia slides (11725, 11726) made by the late M. Hreblay were labelled with this generic combination. Though the forewing facies is similar to that of the two Bornean Xenotrachea (Part 12: Plate 3), particularly albidisca, the valves of the male genitalia lack a corona and taper to the apex; the harpe is bifid and erect rather than entire and outcurved. The anellus and juxta are extensively spiny. The aedeagus vesica is more tubular and lacks the cornuti seen in the Xenotrachea species. The species was not included by Kishida & Yoshimoto (1979) in their review of Xenotrachea. It is therefore retained in “Euplexia” as listed by Poole until a better placement can be found.
Geographical range. Java, Peninsular Malaysia (Barlow colln), Borneo.
Habitat preference. The only specimen is a male from montane forest at 1465m on Bukit Retak in Brunei.

Euplexiamonilis Moore (Part 12, p. 199; see also Part 13, p. 59). N.E. Himalaya, Borneo. (Upper montane).

Prometopus albistigma Swinhoe (Part 12, p. 125). Sundaland. (Lowland) to upper montane.

Prometopus asahana Kobes (Part 12, p. 126, as asahina). Borneo, Sumatra. (Lowland).

Checupa curvivena Prout (Part 12, p. 114). Sundaland, Wallacea. (Lowland), upper montane.

Yula muscosa Hampson (Part 12, p. 127). India, Sundaland. (Lowland to upper montane).

Tribe APAMEINI (3 species)

Apamea sodalis Butler (Part 12, p. 111). N.E. Himalaya to Japan, Luzon, Borneo. (Radio Sabah). Note 538. Note 538. The traditional concept of Apamea Ochsenheimer (e.g. as listed by Poole (1989)) was regarded by Zilli, Ronkay & Fibiger (2005) as not unambiguously resolved in a phylogenetic sense. These authors divided European Apamea amongst Apamea sensu stricto and Abromias Billberg on the basis of larval morphology and the structure of the female genitalia, but the opipositor lobes are not as narrow and acute as in most Apamea, being more as in Abromias.

Sesamia inferens Walker (Part 12, p. 130). Indo-Australian tropics. Lowland to lower montane; open habitats.

Sesamia submarginalis Hampson (Part 12, p. 131). India, Peninsular Malaysia (B), Borneo, Java, Sulawesi. (Open area, l000m).

Tribe XYLENINI (1 species)

Bornolis kamburonga Holloway (Part 12, p. 77). Endemic. Upper montane. Note 539. Note 539. Bornolis Holloway is transferred to the Xylenini from the Hadenini (see above). Since this genus was described in Part 12, it has acquired several congeners and therefore is no longer an example of Bornean generic endemism. Hacker (1992: 86‑87) transferred two N. Indian species to it, B. flavistigma Moore and B. niveiplaga Walker. He placed it in the Cuculliinae and indicated a relationship to Blepharita Hampson, a genus of the Xylenini in Fibiger & Hacker (2005). Hacker & Peks (1992: 128) added B. dufayi Boursin from the same region. The genus was extended further west to Iran, Turkmenistan, E. Turkey and Oman by Ronkay, Varga & Hreblay (1998), in the form of B. crinomima Wiltshire and its subspecies diluta Ronkay, Varga & Hreblay and jabaliya Wiltshire. The Bornean type species has an obtusely bifid structure that could be interpreted as a digitus.

Tribe HADENINI (1 species)

Dictyestra dissectus Walker (Part 12, p. 78). India and Japan to New Guinea. Upper montane.

Tribe LEUCANIINI (24 species)

Apospasta luminosa Wileman & South (Part 12, p. 79). Luzon, Borneo. Radio Sabah.

Apospasta nyei Holloway (Part 12, p. 80). Endemic. Upper montane, Radio Sabah.

Mythimna (Mythimna) albomarginata Wileman & South (Part 12, p. 86). Taiwan, Himalaya, Thailand, Borneo, Java, Philippines. (Upper montane). Note 540. Note 540. A subspecies of Mythimna albomarginata is found in Taiwan: rubea Yoshimatsu (1994). The range is more extensive in mainland Asia than indicated in Part 12.

Mythimna (Hyphilare) reversa Moore (Part 12, p. 83). India to China and New Guinea, Queensland. (Montane, cultivated).

Mythimna (Hyphilare) formosana Butler (Part 12, p. 83). Oriental tropics, Queensland. Upper montane.

Mythimna (Hyphilare) semicana Pagenstecher (Part 12, p. 84, as aroroyensis Calora). Sundaland to Vanuatu and New Caledonia. (Lowland). Note 541. Note 541. Hacker et al. (2002: 165) placed aroroyensis as a synonym of M. semicana Pagenstecher, to which Robinson (1975) stated his pseudoformosana Robinson was closely related. However, Hacker et al. excluded pseudoformosana from the synonymy of semicana, indicating that populations from Fiji were distinct. Edwards in Nielsen et al. (1996) listed xanthosticha Turner as a synonym of semicana, but without mention of aroroyensis. Edwards drew attention to the fact that the female genitalia of pseudoformosana resembled most closely those of formosana Butler, whereas the male genitalia were closer to those of semicana.

Mythimna (Hyphilare) moorei Swinhoe (Part 12, p. 86, as radiata Bremer). Oriental tropics and subtropics. Montane, cultivated areas. Note 542. Note 542. Yoshimatsu (1990) considered that M. radiata Bremer and M. moorei were distinct but very closely related species, differing only in the density of spining on the cucullus of the male genitalia, it being about twice as dense in moorei. The two taxa are largely allopatric, except perhaps for an overlap in the Himalayan area and in south‑east Asia, with radiata known from Pakistan though the Himalaya to Thailand, China, Japan, Korea and eastern Siberia. Yoshimatsu (1990) described two new species endemic to Luzon in the Philippines: honeyi Yoshimatsu; intermediata Yoshimatsu. The population in Sulawesi listed in part 12 has not been dissected and may also be distinct.

Mythimna (Hyphilare) hamifera Walker (Part 12, p. 84, as exsanguis Guenée). Oriental tropics to Japan and Sundaland. (Lowland). Note 543. Note 543. Hacker et al. (2002) listed M. hamifera Walker as distinct from M. exsanguis Guenée, following Yoshimatsu (1995b), rather than as a synonym as in Part 12. The type locality of the former is Borneo, so this must be one taxon of the pair that occurs there. Yoshimatsu (1994) still listed hamifera as a synonym of exsanguis and did not mention the taxon in his paper on Bornean Mythimna (Yoshimatsu 1995a). Yoshimatsu (1995b) supported the assertion made in Part 12 that the male genitalia of hamifera and exsanguis were almost identical except the vesica in hamifera is slightly longer. However, he recorded a greater distinction in the female genitalia where the ductus seminalis arises more left‑laterally from a distinct diverticulum on the appendix bursae in hamifera rather than more dorsally from a slight bulge as in exsanguis. Externally, hamifera can usually be distinguished by a prominent white streak running longitudinally through the discal zone of the forewing that is absent from exsanguis. Calora (1966) stated that exsanguis had a much more uniform forewing generally, but this applies only in the Philippines where this distinction forms the basis for the separation of exsanguis ssp. hiraii Yoshimatsu (1995b). It is still unclear whether exsanguis occurs in Borneo, but it is likely. However, the species is not listed here in the absence of a definite record; the male illustrated in Part 12 is too worn for firm assessment of the forewing facies character (Yoshimatsu, 1995b). Yoshimatsu placed the taxa inframicans Hampson and pryeri Leech as synonyms of hamifera, and listed subnitens Swinhoe and subdecora Wileman as synonym of exsanguis.

Mythimna (Hyphilare) decisissima Walker (Part 12, p. 85; as decississima). Oriental tropics to S. Moluccas. Lowland, open habitats, (upper montane).

Mythimna (Hyphilare) pulchra Snellen (Yoshimatsu, 1995: 240). Taiwan, Peninsular Malaysia, Sumatra, Borneo. (Lowland). Note 544. Note 544. Yoshimatsu (1994) revived M. pulchra Snellen from synonymy with decisissima (though it is still listed as such in Nielsen et al. (1996)). The group of spines on the aedeagus vesica is more elongate, with the more robust distal one straight rather than angled. The spines are also shorter and about twice as numerous. Yoshimatsu (1995) recorded a single male from Sepilok, near Sandakan in the lowlands of Sabah.

Mythimna (Hyphilare) epieixelus Rothschild (Part 12, p. 85, as calorai Holloway). Taiwan, Sundaland. (Lowland to lower montane, open habitats). Note 545. Note 545. Yoshimatsu (1994) showed that M. calorai Holloway was a synonym of epieixelus, as was longipinna Chang from Taiwan. He clarified the situation further (Yoshimatsu, 1995) by illustrating in detail the cluster of spines in the aedeagus vesica of the species involved. Holloway (1976) misidentified Bornean material as franclemonti Calora, and described it as a new species, calorai, in Part 12. The spines in the cluster are much longer than in decisissima and pulchra (see previous note), all slender, closely bunched, with an obtuse angle in the bunch at one third; in franclemonti the most distal cornutus is very broad, the rest thicker than in epieixelus, and the cluster is splayed.

Mythimna (Hyphilare) borneana Yoshimatsu (1995: 237). Endemic. Note 546. Note 546. Yoshimatsu (1995) described M. borneana from a single male without precise data from Sabah. The forewing is a fuscous brown, with faintly darker antemedial and postmedial fasciae; there is a white spot  at the end of the cell. The underside of the forewing and base of the upperside of the hindwing are ochreous, the latter grading fuscous distally. The male genitalia are illustrated by Yoshimatsu and indicate a relationship to brunneicoccinea Calora (also in Taiwan and Hong Kong) and liebherri Yoshimatsu from Luzon, and purpurpatagis Chang and formosicola Yoshimatsu from Taiwan.

Mythimna (Hyphilare) sp. (Hreblay et al., 1998). Endemic. (?Montane). Note 547. Note 547. Hreblay et al. (1998) listed a species of subgenus Hyphilare from G. Kinabalu as new. No subsequent description has been located.

Mythimna (Pseudaletia) separata Walker (Part 12, p. 87). Indo‑Australian tropics and subtropics. (Radio Sabah).

Mythimna (Pseudaletia) pallidicosta Hampson (Part 12, p. 88; as albicosta Moore). Oriental tropics. Radio Sabah. Note 548. Note 548. Poole (1989) and Yoshimatsu (1994) indicated secondary homonymy of the name albicosta Moore within Leucania. Holloway (1976 and in Part 12) associated the older homonym, Leucania albicosta Moore (1881, Proc. zool. Soc. Lond. 1881: 338), with this Pseudaletia species in error, rather than the junior homonym, Aletia albicosta Moore (1882, Descr. new Indian lepid. Insects Colln Atkinson, 2: 97). Poole (1989) indicated that pallidicosta Hampson is the available replacement name for the junior homonym. The senior homonym is currently in combination with Aletia Hübner (Poole, 1989).

Leucania (Acantholeucania) loreyi Duponchel (Part 12, p. 88). Old World tropics and subtropics. (Upper montane).

Leucania (Leucania) yu Guenée (Part 12, p. 89). Indo‑Australian tropics. Lowland to lower montane, open habitats. Note 549. Note 549. Hreblay et al. (1998) treated populations from Fiji, Vanuatu and Tonga previously attributed to Leucania yu as a distinct species, fiyu Hreblay & Yoshimatsu.

Leucania (Leucania) venalba Moore (Part 12, p. 90; Plate 6). Indo‑Australian tropics. (Radio Sabah). Note 550. Note 550. Inadvertently, L. venalba was omitted from the plates in Part 12. This is remedied in Plate 6.

Leucania (Leucania) irregularis Walker (Part 12, p. 91). Indo‑Australian tropics. Note 551. Note 551. Edwards in Nielsen et al. (1996) listed L. irregularis as a junior synonym of designata Walker, whereas Hreblay et al. (1998) treated it as a good species, adding carbo Joannis to the synonyms listed in Part 12; designata is placed as a synonym of loreyi by Hacker et al. (2002), as listed by Poole (1989). Currently (A. Legrain, pers. comm.) irregularis is still considered to be a good species, with designata regarded as a synonym of loreyi.

Leucania (Leucania) roseilinea Walker (Part 12, p. 91). Burma to New Guinea, also Hong Kong. Lowland, open habitats.

Leucania (Xipholeucania) nabalua Holloway (Part 12, p. 92). Borneo, Philippines, Hong Kong. Lowland to lower montane, open habitats. Note 552. Note 552. The range of L. nabalua has been extended to Hong Kong (A.C. Galsworthy, pers. comm.).

Leucania (Xipholeucania) simillima Walker (Part 12, p. 92). Borneo, Bali, Wallacea, China, Japan. (?Lowland).

Tiracola plagiata Walker (Part 12, p. 93). Indo‑Australian tropics. Lowland, (open habitats).

Tiracola aureata Holloway (Part 12, p. 94). N.E. Himalaya to New Guinea. Lowland to upper montane.

Tribe NOCTUINI (11 species)

Agrotis ipsilon Hufnagel (Part 12, p. 65). Cosmopolitan except high latitudes. Montane, open habitats.

Agrotis kinabaluensis Holloway (Part 12, p. 66). Endemic to Kinabalu. Upper montane, Radio Sabah.

Ochropleura costalis Moore (Part 12, p. 67). N.E. Himalaya, Borneo.

Xestia isolata Holloway (Part 12, p. 69). Endemic to Kinabalu. Radio Sabah.

Diarsia flavostigma Holloway (Part 12, p. 71). ?Endemic. Radio Sabah. Note 553. Note 553. Varga & Ronkay (2007) have reviewed the Holarctic species groups of the genus Diarsia Hübner, but only placed two of the Bornean species into the groups they recognised: stictica Poujade into the stictica group, with a sister‑species, carnipennis Chang, endemic to Taiwan; nigrosigna Moore into the nigrosigna group with postpallida Prout (Oriental‑subtropical) and deparca Butler (Manchurian‑Pacific). The other five species were unassigned, though it was suggested in Part 12 that several other Indo‑Australian species in Sundaland and extending east to Seram with bipectinate antennae in the male, including ochracea Walker and borneochracea Holloway, might be related to stictica, and that flavostigma Holloway and most of the other species extending east to Australasia might be allied to nigrosigna. The Kinabalu endemics barlowi Holloway, banksi Holloway and serrata Holloway appear to have no close relatives. The taxon pseudobarlowi Holloway (Varga & Ronkay, 2007: 179) is unknown to this author and should be treated as a nomen nudum!

Diarsia nigrosigna Moore (Part 12, p. 71). N.E. Himalaya to Wallacea. Upper montane to Radio Sabah.

Diarsia stictica Poujade (Part 12, p. 72). India, W. China, Borneo. Radio Sabah.

Diarsia borneochracea Holloway (Part 12, p. 72). Endemic. Upper montane to Radio Sabah.

Diarsia serrata Holloway (Part 12, p. 73). Endemic to Kinabalu. (Radio Sabah).

Diarsia banksi Holloway (Part 12, p. 73). Endemic to Kinabalu. Radio Sabah.

Diarsia barlowi Holloway (Part 12, p. 73). Endemic to Kinabalu. Summit.


NOCTUINAE incertae sedis (38 species)

Paradiopa parthenia Prout (Part 12, p. 142). Endemic. (Upper montane).

Paradiopa albidisca Holloway (Part 12, p. 143). Endemic. (Upper montane).

Stenopterygia calida Walker (Part 12, p. 147). Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia. Lowland to upper montane.

Stenopterygia khasiana Hampson (Part 12, p. 148; see also Part 13, p. 59). N.E. Himalaya, Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia. No precise habitat data.

Ancara replicans Walker (Part 12, p. 149). Sundaland. Lowland to upper montane.

Ancara obliterans Walker (Part 12, p. 149). N.E. Himalaya, Sundaland. Lowland to upper montane.

Dipterygina vagivitta Walker (Part 12, p. 150). Endemic. (Lowland to lower montane).

Dipterygina dorsipallens Holloway (Part 12, p. 151). Endemic. (Lowland to upper montane).

Dipterygina major Holloway (Part 12, p. 151). Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia (B). (Lowland to upper montane).

Yepcalphis dilectissima Walker (Part 12, p. 152). Oriental tropics. Lowland.

Clethrorasa pilcheri Hampson (Part 12, p. 153). N.E. Himalaya, Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia. (Lower montane). Note 554. Note 554. Behounek (1997) reviewed Clethrorasa Hampson and described a new species.

Clethrorasa micropuncta Holloway (Part 12, p. 153). Borneo, Sumatra. (Lowland to lower montane).

Corythurus nocturnus Hampson (Part 12, p. 155). Sri Lanka, Borneo. Lowland to upper montane.

Apsarasa radians Westwood (Part 12, p. 156). Oriental tropics. Lowland (to lower montane).

Iambia tessellata Prout (Part 12, p. 171). Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia. Sulawesi. (Lowland to upper montane).

Iambia lyricalis Holloway (Part 12, p. 171). Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia. Lowland, (lower montane).

Eulepa niveigutta Walker (Part 12, p. 174). Endemic. Lowland.

Eulepa altigutta Holloway (Part 12, p. 174). Borneo, Sumatra. Lower montane.

Eulepa chlorocroa Hampson (Part 12, p. 175). N.E. Himalaya, Sundaland. (Lowland, upper montane).

Eulepa fusimacula Holloway (Part 12, p. 175). Borneo, ?Philippines. Lowland. Note 555. Note 555. It is probable, from the illustrations in the original description, that Pseudosiccia Roepke (type species lichenaria Roepke, Java) is a synonym of Eulepa Walker and that the type species is closely related to, or a senior synonym of, fusimacula Holloway. Martini & Thöny (1993) recorded several specimens of fusimacula over an altitude range of 800m to 1500m, and tentatively included the Philippines in its geographical range. The potential relationship of Eulepa were discussed in Part 13, p. 59.

Eulepa gilvithorax Prout (Part 12, p. 176). Borneo, Sumatra. (Upper montane).

Borbotana nivifascia Walker (Part 12, p. 177). Indo‑Australian tropics. Lowland, especially open habitats. Note 556. Note 556. Borbotana nivifascia was reared from a larva feeding on an unidentified fern in Peninsular Malaysia (H.S. Barlow, pers. comm.).

Mudaria major Warren (Part 12, p. 189). N.E. Himalaya, ?Andamans, Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia, Sulawesi. Lowland to upper montane. Note 557. Note 557. The larva of a species tentatively identified as Mudaria major was reared from Pterospermum (Sterculiaceae) fruit in the Andamans (Robinson et al. (2001) ex IIE records).

Mudaria tayi Holloway (Part 12, p. 190). Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia (B), Sumatra. Lowland (to montane).

Mudaria magniplaga Walker (Part 12, p. 190). Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia. Lowland (?upper montane). Note 558. Note 558. Tan & Tan (1991 [1992]) recorded M. magniplaga larvae as feeding in fruits of Durio (Bombacaceae) in Peninsular Malaysia.

Mudaria turbata Walker (Part 12, p. 191). N.E. Himalaya, Burma, Borneo. (Lowland).

Mudaria luteileprosa Holloway (Part 12, p. 191). Thailand, Peninsular Malaysia, Borneo. (Lowland). Note 559. Note 559. Tan & Tan (1991 [1992]) and Kuroko & Lewvanich (1993) recorded M. luteileprosa larvae as feeding in fruits of Durio (Bombacaceae) in Peninsular Malaysia and Thailand respectively. Kuroko & Lewvanich illustrated the larva, cocoons and damage symptoms in the fruit and seed. The larva is a shiny, leathery brown with broad black plates on T1.

Mudaria minoroides Holloway (Part 12, p. 191). Endemic. (Lowland to montane).

Lignispalta incertissima Bethune-Baker (Part 12, p. 193). Sundaland to New Guinea, Queensland. Lowland to upper montane.

Lignispalta diversisigna Prout (Part 12, p. 193). Sundaland. (Upper montane).

Lignispalta viridaria Swinhoe (Part 12, p. 194). Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia. (Upper montane).

Bagada malayica Snellen (Part 12, p. 195). N.E. Himalaya, Sundaland. (Lowland).

Bagada api Holloway (Part 12, p. 196). Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia. (Lowland, lower montane, limestone).

Bagada labi Holloway (Part 12, p. 196). Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia (B), Java. Lowland.

Bagada lignigera Walker (Part 12, p. 197). Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia. (Lowland to upper montane).

Bagada poliomera Hampson (Part 12, p. 197). N.E. Himalaya, Hainan, Borneo, Sumatra. (Upper montane).

Xylostola indistincta Moore (Part 12, p. 198). Indo‑Australian tropics to New Guinea. (Lower montane, cultivation and forest).

Aucha villiana Swinhoe (new record; Plate 7, Fig 153). Singapore, Borneo. (Lowland, mangrove). Note 560. Note 560. Aucha Walker (type species velans Walker, Sri Lanka, Peninsular Malaysia, Singapore) is recorded for the first time for Borneo here. The genus contains several species and extends through the Indo‑Australian tropics to Australia, with single species in Arabia, Eritrea and Madagascar (Poole, 1989). Most species have facies similar to villiana Swinhoe, but sometimes with more patterned hindwings. The male abdomen is most unsual for a true noctuid, hence the placement of the genus in Xyleninae may well be temporary. The eighth segment is barely modified, the tergite having short but robust apodemes. The uncus is absent or totally fused with the tegumen, the combination being acute in velans but rounded in villiana. The junction of the vinculum with the tegumen on each side is complex and appears to involve a paratergal sclerite. The valves are simple, tapering in velans, but deeply bifid in villiana. The aedeagus vesica is elongate, tapering, with a basal diverticulum and numerous reversed spines in villiana (fine scobination only in velans).
The female genitalia (velans) show several unusual features. The ovipositor lobes are very short, with a dense fringe of setae on their distal margins. The seventh abdominal segment has the sternite reduced, with the result that the much broader tergite wraps around ventrally on each side; the sternite is more weakly sclerotised and has small pickets anteriorly on each side. The ductus and corpus bursae are very long and narrow, all corrugate and scobinate; the corpus is swollen basally, but with a constriction that gives rise to a pair of signa consisting of bifid spines, and has a narrow section distal to, and much longer than, this swollen section.
The genus is a mangrove specialist, with the larvae of the type species and the Bornean one recorded as feeding on Avicennia (Avicenniaceae), and that of A. nectens Walker (India, Burma, Peninsular Malaysia) being recorded from Rhizophora (Rhizophoraceae) (Robinson et al., 2001). However, Robinson et al. (ex Bell, MS) also listed A. minor Hampson as feeding on Grewia (Tiliaceae).
Aucha villiana Swinhoe (Plate 7, Fig 153)
Dinumma villiana Swinhoe, 1893, Ann. Mag. nat. Hist. (6), 12: 263.
Aucha aetha Prout, 1925, Ann. Mag. nat. Hist. (9), 16: 397
villiana Swinhoe is represented by a specimen from Kuching in BMNH and by one in FRC Sepilok taken in an area of mangrove at Kuala Penyu on Pulau Tiga near Labuan I. The forewing is medium to dark grey, with very irregular, finely zigzag, black fasciation, the antemedial and postmedial being double. In some specimens there are larger, squarish blocks in the postmedial and at the costa. The hindwing is browner, with a mere hint of a paler submarginal band. A. velans is distinguished by a more prominent and irregular pale bar in the centre of the hindwing. Both species were illustrated by Murphy (1996), who suggested that the taxon aetha Prout was a synonym of villiana.
Murphy (1990) recorded the larvae in mangrove forest in Singapore. He illustrated and described the larva as a semilooper with prolegs on both A3 and A4 equally vestigial, very small. In velans, also illustrated by Murphy, the prolegs on A3 are absent (T.R.D. Bell, MS). The larva is a pale but bright green with a pale‑edged, faintly darker dorsal band and narrow, white dorsolateral bands within which some of the pinacula of the primary setae are represented by black dots; these dots are displaced inwards on A6‑8.


NOCTUIDAE incertae sedis (9 species)

Elusa ceneusalis Walker (Part 12, p. 96). Sundaland to Bismarcks. Lowland. Note 561. Note 561. Elusa ceneusalis was reared from a larva feeding on Shorea johorensis (Dipterocarpaceae) fruit in Sabah by the late Saikeh Lantoh of the Sabah Forest Department.

Elusa penanorum Holloway (Part 12, p. 97). Endemic. Lowland forest.

Elusa simplex Warren (Part 12, p. 98). Endemic. (Montane).

Elusa puncticeps Walker (Part 12, p. 99). Endemic. (Lowland forest).

Elusa diloba Hampson (Part 12, p. 99). Endemic. (Lowland forest).

Elusa ustula Hampson (Part 12, p. 99). Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia. (Lowland forest).

Elusa cyathicornis Walker (Part 12, p. 99). Endemic. (Lowland).

Elusa mediorufa Hampson (Part 12, p. 100). Endemic.

Elusa temburong Holloway (Part 12, p. 100). Endemic. (Lowland forest).


NOCTUOIDEA incertae sedis (4 species)

Kenguichardia orbus Holloway (Part 3, p. 185). Endemic. (Lowland forest).

Plectothripa excisa Hampson (Part 18, p. 229). Sundaland, Sulawesi. (Montane).

Macrobarasa xantholopha Hampson (Part 18, p. 230). Indo-Australian tropics to New Guinea. Lower and upper montane forest.

Plagerepne torquata Tams (Part 18, p. 232). Sundaland. (Montane; forest and cultivation).


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