Superfamily ZYGAENOIDEA (178 species)

Family LIMACODIDAE (101 species)

Subfamily LIMACODINAE

Cheromettia sumatrensis Heylaerts (Part 1, p. 60). Sundaland. (Lowland).

Nagodopsis parvimargo Holloway (Part 1, p. 61). Endemic. (Montane, 1200m).

Nagodopsis albipuncta Holloway (Part 1, p. 61). Endemic. (Lower montane, limestone).

Demonarosa mediodorsata Hering (Part 1, p. 62). Sundaland. Lowland, (upper montane).

Demonarosa ochrirubra Holloway (Part 1, p. 62). Endemic. (Montane, 1760m).

Demonarosa diagonalis Holloway (Part 1, p. 62). Sundaland. Lowland.

Altha nivea Walker (Part 1, p. 64). Sundaland (but possibly more widespread). (Lowland to) upper montane. Note 24 Note 24. Solovyev & Witt (2009) observed considerable variation in the features of the asymmetric juxta of the male genitalia, particularly its length, and of the female genitalia in the Altha nivea Walker complex, to the extent that they proposed that nivea might prove to be one very variable species extending from India to Taiwan, Sundaland and Palawan. Holloway (1982) found some constancy in an admittedly small sample of males dissected in the Sundanian part of the range, but Solovyev & Witt studied a very large sample from throughout Vietnam. The complex should be explored further by means of DNA barcoding. A parallel situation may be seen in the ennomine geometrid Hyposidra Guenée, discussed in Part 11: 182.

Altha kerangatis Holloway (Part 1, p. 65). Endemic. (Lowland).

Altha adala Moore (Part 1, p. 65). S.E. Asia, Sundaland. (Lowland).

Althonarosa cretacea Holloway (Part 1, p. 66). Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia, Sumatra. Lower montane on limestone.

Althonarosa dentijuxta Holloway (Part 1, p. 66). Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia. Lowland heath forest, hill dipterocarp forest (500m), (lower montane forest).

Caelestomorpha concinna Swinhoe comb. n. (Part 1, p. 69, under Narosa). Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia, Sumatra. Lowland (mangrove?). Note 25 Note 25. The Sulawesi species attributed to Narosa by Holloway (1987a) are related to the Sundanian species concinna Swinhoe and velutina Walker, both occurring in Borneo. The group also includes an undescribed species from Waigeu and pectinata Hering from New Guinea. A preliminary phylogenetic analysis (Holloway, 1987a) indicated that the Sundanian pair was sister to a grouping of all the more easterly species. This sister pair of clades in turn related to the Himalayan endodonta Hampson. Solovyev & Witt (2009) described a new genus, Caelestomorpha Solovyev & Witt, with type species albiceris Solovyev & Witt from Thailand, Cambodia and Vietnam, but included endodonta as a second species. Despite the strong and asymmetric development of the saccular processes of the valves in taxa from Sundaland eastwards, the valve shape and structure of the uncus and gnathus are as in the generic definition of Solovyev & Witt, and so all named taxa from this more eastern complex are transferred to Caelestomorpha: C. concinna Swinhoe comb. n.; C. velutinacomb. n.; C. pectinata Hering comb. n. None of the Sulawesi species has been described, but the phylogenetic analysis of Holloway (1987) was discussed further, with more ecological detail, in the context of speciation on Sulawesi by Holloway (1991).

Caelestomorpha velutina Walker comb. n. (Part 1, p. 70, under Narosa). Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia, Sumatra. Lowland. Note 25 Note 25. The Sulawesi species attributed to Narosa by Holloway (1987a) are related to the Sundanian species concinna Swinhoe and velutina Walker, both occurring in Borneo. The group also includes an undescribed species from Waigeu and pectinata Hering from New Guinea. A preliminary phylogenetic analysis (Holloway, 1987a) indicated that the Sundanian pair was sister to a grouping of all the more easterly species. This sister pair of clades in turn related to the Himalayan endodonta Hampson. Solovyev & Witt (2009) described a new genus, Caelestomorpha Solovyev & Witt, with type species albiceris Solovyev & Witt from Thailand, Cambodia and Vietnam, but included endodonta as a second species. Despite the strong and asymmetric development of the saccular processes of the valves in taxa from Sundaland eastwards, the valve shape and structure of the uncus and gnathus are as in the generic definition of Solovyev & Witt, and so all named taxa from this more eastern complex are transferred to Caelestomorpha: C. concinna Swinhoe comb. n.; C. velutinacomb. n.; C. pectinata Hering comb. n. None of the Sulawesi species has been described, but the phylogenetic analysis of Holloway (1987) was discussed further, with more ecological detail, in the context of speciation on Sulawesi by Holloway (1991).

Sundarosa lawaii Holloway (Part 1, p. 70, under Narosa). Endemic. (Lower montane forest on limestone). Note 26 Note 26. Sundarosa Gen. n.

Type species: rosipuncta Holloway comb. n. (Peninsular Malaysia, Sumatra, Bali).

This genus is established for six Narosa species described in Part 1. The group shares with Narosa argipuncta Hampson (Sri Lanka, S. India) a small, oblique white streak at the posterior angle of the cell and a larger than average marginal spot between veins CuA1 and CuA2 on the forewing, but the male genitalia are distinct, having an extremely  narrow valve with the saccular process modified into a ventral lobe, distinguishing it from other genera segregated from the broad concept of Narosa such as Caelestomorpha, Quasinarosa Solovyev & Witt and Tennya Solovyev & Witt (this includes propoliodes Holloway, described from Peninsular Malaysia) that also have a saccular process (lacking in typical Narosa) in the form of a strongly sclerotised spine. Unique features are a spined process at the base of, and central to the valve, and a slender spined process arising from the base of the valve costa. The aedeagus has an unusual setose, rod-like process that arises from it subbasally. Females are still unknown, but the larva was described and illustrated in Cock et al. (1987). It has a pair of distinct subdorsal ridges that are yellow, contrasting with the yellow-speckled green of the rest of the larva, which is louse-like, elliptical seen from above apart from acute processes where the subdorsal ridges meet the margin. These ridges do have a small pink mark in the centre of their extent as in that of the type species of Narosa, described in Part 1, but it is unclear whether this coincides with such a marked peak as is seen in Narosa. The host plants are Elaeis (oil palm; Palmae) and possibly Coffea (cocoon only; Rubiaceae).

As well as the type species, the genus consists of four from Borneo, S. lawaii Holloway comb. n., S. nagani Holloway comb. n., S. silati Holloway comb. n. and S. harmani Holloway comb. n., and one from Luzon in the Philippines, S. luzonica Holloway comb. n.

Sundarosa nagani Holloway comb. n. (Part 1, p. 70, under Narosa). Endemic. (Lowland). Note 26 Note 26. Sundarosa Gen. n.

Type species: rosipuncta Holloway comb. n. (Peninsular Malaysia, Sumatra, Bali).

This genus is established for six Narosa species described in Part 1. The group shares with Narosa argipuncta Hampson (Sri Lanka, S. India) a small, oblique white streak at the posterior angle of the cell and a larger than average marginal spot between veins CuA1 and CuA2 on the forewing, but the male genitalia are distinct, having an extremely  narrow valve with the saccular process modified into a ventral lobe, distinguishing it from other genera segregated from the broad concept of Narosa such as Caelestomorpha, Quasinarosa Solovyev & Witt and Tennya Solovyev & Witt (this includes propoliodes Holloway, described from Peninsular Malaysia) that also have a saccular process (lacking in typical Narosa) in the form of a strongly sclerotised spine. Unique features are a spined process at the base of, and central to the valve, and a slender spined process arising from the base of the valve costa. The aedeagus has an unusual setose, rod-like process that arises from it subbasally. Females are still unknown, but the larva was described and illustrated in Cock et al. (1987). It has a pair of distinct subdorsal ridges that are yellow, contrasting with the yellow-speckled green of the rest of the larva, which is louse-like, elliptical seen from above apart from acute processes where the subdorsal ridges meet the margin. These ridges do have a small pink mark in the centre of their extent as in that of the type species of Narosa, described in Part 1, but it is unclear whether this coincides with such a marked peak as is seen in Narosa. The host plants are Elaeis (oil palm; Palmae) and possibly Coffea (cocoon only; Rubiaceae).

As well as the type species, the genus consists of four from Borneo, S. lawaii Holloway comb. n., S. nagani Holloway comb. n., S. silati Holloway comb. n. and S. harmani Holloway comb. n., and one from Luzon in the Philippines, S. luzonica Holloway comb. n.

Sundarosa silati Holloway comb. n. (Part 1, p. 71, under Narosa). Endemic. (Lower montane forest on limestone). Note 26 Note 26. Sundarosa Gen. n.

Type species: rosipuncta Holloway comb. n. (Peninsular Malaysia, Sumatra, Bali).

This genus is established for six Narosa species described in Part 1. The group shares with Narosa argipuncta Hampson (Sri Lanka, S. India) a small, oblique white streak at the posterior angle of the cell and a larger than average marginal spot between veins CuA1 and CuA2 on the forewing, but the male genitalia are distinct, having an extremely  narrow valve with the saccular process modified into a ventral lobe, distinguishing it from other genera segregated from the broad concept of Narosa such as Caelestomorpha, Quasinarosa Solovyev & Witt and Tennya Solovyev & Witt (this includes propoliodes Holloway, described from Peninsular Malaysia) that also have a saccular process (lacking in typical Narosa) in the form of a strongly sclerotised spine. Unique features are a spined process at the base of, and central to the valve, and a slender spined process arising from the base of the valve costa. The aedeagus has an unusual setose, rod-like process that arises from it subbasally. Females are still unknown, but the larva was described and illustrated in Cock et al. (1987). It has a pair of distinct subdorsal ridges that are yellow, contrasting with the yellow-speckled green of the rest of the larva, which is louse-like, elliptical seen from above apart from acute processes where the subdorsal ridges meet the margin. These ridges do have a small pink mark in the centre of their extent as in that of the type species of Narosa, described in Part 1, but it is unclear whether this coincides with such a marked peak as is seen in Narosa. The host plants are Elaeis (oil palm; Palmae) and possibly Coffea (cocoon only; Rubiaceae).

As well as the type species, the genus consists of four from Borneo, S. lawaii Holloway comb. n., S. nagani Holloway comb. n., S. silati Holloway comb. n. and S. harmani Holloway comb. n., and one from Luzon in the Philippines, S. luzonica Holloway comb. n.

Sundarosa harmani Holloway comb. n. (Part 1, p. 71, under Narosa). Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia. (Lowland). Note 26 Note 26. Sundarosa Gen. n.

Type species: rosipuncta Holloway comb. n. (Peninsular Malaysia, Sumatra, Bali).

This genus is established for six Narosa species described in Part 1. The group shares with Narosa argipuncta Hampson (Sri Lanka, S. India) a small, oblique white streak at the posterior angle of the cell and a larger than average marginal spot between veins CuA1 and CuA2 on the forewing, but the male genitalia are distinct, having an extremely  narrow valve with the saccular process modified into a ventral lobe, distinguishing it from other genera segregated from the broad concept of Narosa such as Caelestomorpha, Quasinarosa Solovyev & Witt and Tennya Solovyev & Witt (this includes propoliodes Holloway, described from Peninsular Malaysia) that also have a saccular process (lacking in typical Narosa) in the form of a strongly sclerotised spine. Unique features are a spined process at the base of, and central to the valve, and a slender spined process arising from the base of the valve costa. The aedeagus has an unusual setose, rod-like process that arises from it subbasally. Females are still unknown, but the larva was described and illustrated in Cock et al. (1987). It has a pair of distinct subdorsal ridges that are yellow, contrasting with the yellow-speckled green of the rest of the larva, which is louse-like, elliptical seen from above apart from acute processes where the subdorsal ridges meet the margin. These ridges do have a small pink mark in the centre of their extent as in that of the type species of Narosa, described in Part 1, but it is unclear whether this coincides with such a marked peak as is seen in Narosa. The host plants are Elaeis (oil palm; Palmae) and possibly Coffea (cocoon only; Rubiaceae).

As well as the type species, the genus consists of four from Borneo, S. lawaii Holloway comb. n., S. nagani Holloway comb. n., S. silati Holloway comb. n. and S. harmani Holloway comb. n., and one from Luzon in the Philippines, S. luzonica Holloway comb. n.

Flavinarosa paucispina Holloway (Part 1, p. 72, as subspecies of holoxanthia Hampson). Sundaland. (Montane). Note 27 Note 27. Solovyev & Witt (2009) promoted Flavinarosa paucispina Holloway to specific rank, considering that this was merited on genital differences. Solovyev (2010) has produced a full revision of Flavinarosa Holloway, adding four new species to the two described by Solovyev & Witt and the three described in earlier times. The range of the genus now extends through China and S.E. Asia, the nine externally similar species being allopatric according to current records.

Saccurosa calcicola Holloway (Part 1, p. 73). Borneo, Sumatra. Lower montane on limestone.

Heringarosa trifurca Holloway (Part 1, p. 74). Endemic. Lowland heath forest and hill dipterocarp forest.

Heringarosa cretacea Holloway (Part 1, p. 75). Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia, Sumatra. Limestone: lowland and lower montane.

Atosia doenia Moore (Part 1, p. 76). Sundaland. (Lowland).

Atosia spicata Holloway (Part 1, p. 77). Endemic. (Lowland).

Atosia trusmadia Holloway (Part 1, p. 77). Endemic. (Montane).

Atosioides rochei Holloway (Part 1, p. 77, under Atosia). Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia, Sumatra. (Lowland). Note 28 Note 28. Solovyev (2009) placed Atosia rochei Holloway in a new genus, Atosioides Solovyev, and described a second species, A. accola Solovyev from W. Sumatra and S. Thailand. The two specimens in his description were male, the only record of rochei from Sumatra is female, and no Bornean females have been examined. Therefore the record of rochei from Sumatra may well represent the female of accola; material from Peninsular Malaysia should be dissected.

Compsopsectra sundana Holloway (Holloway, 1990: 37; Plate 6). Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia, Sumatra. (Lowland forest).

Cania striola Hering (Part 1, p. 81). Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia, Sumatra. Lowland.

Cania minuta Holloway (Part 1, p. 81). Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia, Sumatra. (Lowland to lower montane).

Cania bandura Moore (Part 1, p. 82). N.E. Himalaya, Burma, Thailand, Sundaland. Lowland to lower montane.

Cania guichardi Holloway (Part 1, p. 83). Sundaland. (Lowland).

Cania styx Holloway (Part 1, p. 83). Endemic. (Lowland).

Chalcoscelides castaneipars Moore (Part 1, p. 84). N.E. Himalaya and Taiwan to Sundaland. (Lowland).

Chalcocelis albiguttatus Snellen (Part 1, p. 85). Vietnam, Thailand, Sundaland to New Guinea and Queensland. Lowland. Note 29 Note 29. The range given for Chalcocelis albiguttatus Snellen embraces a very broad concept of the taxon as indicated in Part 1 and by Cock et al. (1987), the latter with illustration of the variability of the male genitalia from different parts of that range, particularly in the shape of the apex of the valve and in the development of a tuft of hairs on a lobe at about one third to central on the valve costa. Populations east of Sulawesi (the type locality of albiguttatus) have the valve apex tapering and lack a hair tuft, whereas those from Sulawesi westwards have the valve apex with a triangular expansion, together with a hair tuft. The uncus also varies in shape, as described by Solovyev & Witt (2009). Only in the Philippines are both conditions found, as discussed in Part 1. Solovyev & Witt (2009) also discussed this variation and described two new species in this complex, C. dydima Solovyev & Witt that extends from N. Thailand to Vietnam, S. China and Hainan I., and C. albor Solovyev & Witt, based on a solitary male from N. Vietnam. Both these taxa have male genitalia of the ‘western’ type discussed above. There is consensus that this complex situation requires careful revision across the whole of the range, but some divergence of opinion over whether the populations defined on what could be relatively minor genital differences (see also Note 24) should be accorded full specific rank.

Mambarilla roseata Holloway (Part 1, p. 87). Endemic. (Lowland, upper montane).

Miresa bracteata Butler (Part 1, p. 89). Indian Subregion to Sundaland. Lowland. Note 30 Note 30. Solovyev & Witt (2009) have not recorded Miresa bracteata amongst the ten species they listed from Vietnam, and it may well have relatively more restricted distribution in mainland Asia than indicated in Part 1. Wu & Solovyev (in press) have reviewed the genus in China, but this paper had not appeared in Zootaxa at the time this note was drafted (February, 2010), though it was cited for that journal by Solovyev & Witt with a date of 2009.

Prapata bisinuosa Holloway (Holloway, 1990: 40). Borneo, Sumatra. (Montane). Note 31 Note 31. Solovyev & Witt (2009) described a third species of Prapata Holloway from N. Vietnam, P. owadai Solovyev & Witt, relating it to P. scotopepla Hampson (N.E. Himalaya). The genus is montane throughout its range.

Parasa sundalepida Holloway (Part 1, p. 91). Sundaland. Lowland.

Parasa bimaculata Snellen (Part 1, p. 92). Sundaland. Lowland.

Parasa canangoides Holloway (Part 1, p. 92). Endemic. Lowland.

Parasa pastoralis Butler (Part 1, p. 93). Oriental tropics to Sundaland. Lowland.

Parasa humeralis Walker (Part 1, p. 93). Endemic. Lowland, ?mangrove.

Parasa darma Moore (Part 1, p. 94). W. China, S.E. Asia, Sundaland, Palawan (see note). Lowland and upper montane races.

Parasa bicolor Walker (new record, p. 290). Indian Subregion, China, Taiwan, Sundaland. (Lowland). Note 32 Note 32. A male of Parasa bicolor was reared by R.J. Morris from a larva on an unknown host plant found at the Danum Valley Field Centre in Sabah. The adult  was illustrated by Barlow (1982), and discussed further by Holloway (1990).

Barisania lampra West (Holloway, 1990: 45; Plate 6). Borneo, Sumatra. (Lowland). Note 33 Note 33. Solovyev (2009)  and Solovyev & Witt (2009) have described the Barisania material from mainland Asia (Thailand, Vietnam, Burma) as a separate species, B. honeyi Solovyev. B. lampra is illustrated in Plate 6, a specimen from Taliwas in the lowlands of Sabah near Lahad Datu.

Hyphorma margaritacea Hering (Part 1, p. 95, as ssp. of minax Walker). Peninsular Malaysia, Sumatra, Borneo. Lowland to (lower montane). Note 34 Note 34. Solovyev & Witt (2009) treated Hyphorma margaritacea Hering as a good species, rather than as a subspecies of minax Walker, and also minor de Joannis (N. Vietnam) and capucina Snellen (Java). The species was indicated to be variable in Borneo in Part 1, and the possibility of a complex cannot be ruled out. No additional material from Borneo has been seen.

Hyphormides argentipunctata Hering (Part 1, p. 96). Sundaland. Lowland.

Scopelodes unicolor Westwood (Part 1, p. 97). Burma, Sundaland. Lowland to (lower montane).

Scopelodes pallivittata Snellen (Part 1, p. 98). Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia, Sumatra. Lowland.

Scopelodes albipalpalis Hering (Part 1, p. 99). Endemic. Lowland, heath forest.

Mahanta leworthyi Holloway (Part 1, p. 99). Thailand, Burma, Sundaland. (Upper montane). Note 35 Note 35. Solovyev (2005) has reviewed the genus Mahanta Moore, showing that the Bornean species, leworthyi Holloway, extends north into the Asian mainland. This work has also increased the number of known species in the genus to eight.

Phocoderma velutina Kollar (Part 1, p. 100). Indian Subregion to Sundaland. Lowland. Note 36 Note 36. Solovyev (2008) has reviewed the genus Phocoderma Butler, recognising two additional species in mainland Asia. Lewvanich (2000) has illustrated the larva of velutina.

Susica everetti Holloway (Part 1, p. 102). Endemic. (?Montane).

Susica heringi Holloway (Part 1, p. 102). Endemic. Lowland.

Susica obscura Holloway (Part 1, p. 103). Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia. (Lowland: heath forest).

Thosea borneensis Hering (Part 1, p. 105). Borneo, Palawan. Lowland.

Thosea rotundata Holloway (Part 1, p. 106). Endemic. (Lowland: heath forest).

Thosea medialis Holloway (Part 1, p. 106). Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia, Borneo. Lowland.

Thosea griseafurca Holloway (Part 1, p. 107). Endemic. (Lowland).

Thosea pallifurca Holloway (Part 1, p. 107). Endemic. (Lowland).

Thosea trifurcaHolloway (Part 1, p. 108). Endemic. (Montane).

Thosea lutea Heylaerts (Part 1, p. 108). Vietnam, Sundaland. Lowland, especially heath forest.

Thosea vetusta Walker (Part 1, p. 109). Sundaland, Sulawesi. Lowland to (lower montane).

Thosea vetusinua Holloway (Part 1, p. 109). Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia, Sumatra. (Lowland).

Setothosea asigna van Eecke (Part 1, p. 110). Sundaland, Palawan. Lowland.

Praesetora albitermina Hering (Part 1, p. 111). Himalaya, Sundaland. Lowland to (lower montane).

Praesetora kinabalua Holloway (Part 1, p. 112). Endemic. Upper montane.

Birthamoides junctura Walker (Part 1, p. 113). Indian Subregion, Sundaland. Lowland.

Setora cupreistriga Walker (Part 1, p. 115). Borneo, Sumatra. Lowland. Note 37 Note 37. Setora cupreistriga was omitted from the list compiled by Polaszek & Cranbrook (2006) of species described by Francis Walker from material collected by Alfred Russel Wallace in Sarawak, mostly in the genus Nyssia Walker (praeocc. by Duponchel and Herrich-Schaffer; see Fletcher & Nye (1982)). Walker described three species now referable to Setora in sequence in the same publication: cupreistriga; cupreiplaga; rudis. Polaszek & Cranbrook included rudis in their list, but in fact the holotype of rudis Walker is from Singapore (OUMNH: 2670) and still bears Wallace’s original round label with ‘Sing’ handwritten on it; rudis is a junior synonym of S. nitens Walker (Cock, Godfray & Holloway, 1987: 77).

Setora cupreiplaga Walker (Part 1, p. 115). Endemic. Lowland to (upper montane).

Setora tamsi Hering (Part 1, p. 116). Endemic. Lowland.

Birthosea bisura Moore (Part 1, p. 117). Thailand, Sundaland. Lowland. Note 38 Note 38. Leong (2010d) has reared and illustrated the final instar of Birthosea bisura in Singapore, adding Parishia (Anacardiaceae) and Calophyllum (Guttiferae) to the list of host plants. Wu & Fang (2008) have described two further species of the genus from China.

Birthamula chara Swinhoe (Part 1, p. 118). Sundaland. Lowland, possibly more on acid soils.

Birthamula altichara Holloway (Part 1, p. 119). Endemic. Upper montane.

Matsumurides lola Swinhoe (Part 1, p. 120, under Allothosea Hering). Sundaland. Lowland. Note 39 Note 39. Solovyev & Witt (2009) placed Allothosea Hering as a synonym of Matsumurides Hering (= Hyphormoides Matsumura, praeocc.; the type species of both genera is okinawanus Matsumura, Ryukyu Is.).

Matsumurides montana Holloway (Part 1, p. 121, under Allothosea Hering). Endemic. (Upper montane). Note 39 Note 39. Solovyev & Witt (2009) placed Allothosea Hering as a synonym of Matsumurides Hering (= Hyphormoides Matsumura, praeocc.; the type species of both genera is okinawanus Matsumura, Ryukyu Is.).

Birthama rubicunda Walker (Part 1, p. 122). Sundaland. Lowland, (lower montane).

Mambarona congrua Walker (Part 1, p. 123, under Birthama). Thailand, Cambodia, Vietnam, Sundaland, Sulawesi. Lowland, (lower montane). Note 40 Note 40. Solovyev & Witt (2009) revived the genus Mambarona Hering for congrua Walker, and treated M. pelochroa West, (Philippines), M. florensis Hering (Lombok, Flores) and M. timorensis (Timor) as distinct species rather than as subspecies of congrua, though the taxon M. obliquifascia Hampson (S. India, Sri Lanka) was suggested to be a synonym of congrua. Further work is needed on this wide-ranging complex, probably at a molecular level, and on the relationship between Mambarona and Birthama Walker as discussed in Part 1.

Griseothosea cruda Walker (Part 1, p. 124). Sundaland. Lowland, especially dry heath forest and swamp forest, (upper montane).

Griseothosea kinabaluensis Holloway (Part 1, p. 125). Endemic. (Upper montane).

Idonauton apicalis Walker (Part 1, p. 126). N.E. Himalaya, Thailand, Sundaland. Lowland, (lower montane).

Pseudidonauton bhaga Swinhoe (Part 1, p. 127). Sundaland. Lowland, (lower montane). Note 41 Note 41. Solovyev (2009) described three new species of Pseudidonauton: siamica Solovyev and vexa Solovyev from Thailand and Vietnam; chihpyla Solovyev from Taiwan. This brings the total of species in the genus to five. P. admirabile Hering is retained as a subspecies of P. bhaga Swinhoe here as in Part 1; the differences are relatively minor compared to those between all other taxa.

Nirmides basalis Walker (Part 1, p. 128). Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia, Sumatra. Lowland to lower montane.

Nirmides manwahi Holloway (Holloway, 1990: 54). Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia, Sumatra. Lowland to lower montane. Note 42 Note 42. Holloway (1990: 54) distinguished between two very similar species in Nirmides, basalis Walker and manwahi Holloway, the presence of the latter having been undetected in 1986.

Nirmides purpurea Holloway stat. rev. (Part 1, p. 129). Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia, Sumatra. Lowland. Note 43 Note 43. Solovyev & Witt (2009) placed Nirmides purpurea Holloway as a synonym of N. fusca Hering, a taxon that they promoted to full species status. It was originally described as a form of N. basalis, but is similar in external features and male genital characters to purpurea and therefore probably conspecific. However,  it is clear from the original description (‘fusca forma nov. which rarely flies among the nomenclatural form’) that this name is infrasubspecific (and was regarded as such when examined for Part 1) and therefore not available under articles 45.5, 45.6.1 and 45.6.4 of the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature. It is even more clear (K. Sattler, pers. comm.) from the original German text that Hering was referring to a rare variant flying amongst the typical (‘nomenclatural’ in the English version) form, i.e. an infrasubspecific entity. Therefore the name purpurea Holloway must prevail for this species, stat. rev.

Nirmides flavissima Holloway(Part 1, p. 129). Sundaland. Lowland, (upper montane).

Nirmides montana Holloway (Part 1, p. 130). Endemic. Upper montane.

Pseudonirmides sola Swinhoe (Part 1, p. 13 1). Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia (B), Philippines, Sulawesi (see p. 286). Lowland. Note 44 Note 44. Solovyev & Witt (2009) transferred cyanopasta Hampson (Burma, Thailand, Vietnam) into Pseudonirmides. Reference in Part 1 was also made to Nirmides cuprea Moore (Himalaya) but, contra Solovyev & Witt (2009: 183), this was not transferred to Pseudonirmides at that time. Solovyev & Witt (2009) transferred cuprea to Mummu Solovyev & Witt, a new genus with similarities to Pseudonirmides.

Bornethosea nigrina Holloway (Part 1, p. 132). Endemic. Lowland, especially swamp forest.

Marsuplectra parasina Hering (Part 1, p. 133). Endemic. Lowland, especially wet heath forest, (lower montane).

Limacosilla pirifera Hering (Part 1, p. 134). Sundaland. (Lowland).

Trichogyia semifascia Hampson (Part 1, p. 135). N.E. Himalaya to Sundaland, Philippines. (Lowland).

Striogyia snelleni Holloway (Part 1, p. 13). Sundaland. (Lowland).

Darna metaleuca Walker (Part 1, p. 146). Sundaland. Lowland, (upper montane). Note 45 Note 45. Darna Walker was treated in a broad sense in Part 1 and by Cock et al. (1987), with Orthocraspeda Hampson, Oxyplax Hampson and Ploneta Snellen brought in as subgenera on the basis of features of the base of the valve costa, the uncus and of the lateral scoli of larval segments A2 and A7. These were challenged as synapomorphies by Solovyev & Witt (2009), who treated all the above as full genera. This is followed here, but with the recommendation that, in any future morphological and/or molecular analyses, all these genera, together with Devas Solovyev & Witt (type species Darna senescoides Holloway, Sumatra), should be treated as the in-group. See also the next note and Nagamine & Epstein (2007: 133).

Orthocraspeda bornesordida Holloway (Part 1, p. 146, under Darna). Endemic. (Lowland).

Orthocraspeda trima Moore (Part 1, p. 147, under Darna). Sundaland. (Lowland).

Orthocraspeda tuaranensis Holloway (Part 1, p. 148, under Darna). Borneo, ?Palawan. (Lowland).

Ploneta diducta Snellen (Part 1, p. 144, under Darna). S. Thailand, Sundaland; Philippines. No precise habitat data available.

Ploneta bradleyi Holloway (Part 1, p. 144, under Darna). Borneo, Sumatra. Lowland.

Ploneta hosei Holloway (Cock, Godfray & Holloway, 1987: 96, under Darna). Endemic. No precise habitat data available.

Oxyplax ?pallivitta Moore (Part 1, p. 145, under Darna). China, Sundaland; introduced to Hawaii (see Nagamine & Epstein, 2007; Solovyev & Witt, 2009). No precise habitat data available. Note 46 Note 46. Nagamine & Epstein (2007) described the establishment of Oxyplax pallivitta on the island of Hawaii and gave a detailed, illustrated description of its biology, in particular noting details of the early instars. The first instar has elongate tubercles that later develop into urticating scoli with secondary setae, rather than being lost in later instars, represented by setae only, or retained as hairy tubercles as occurs in other limacodids with first instar tubercles. Larvae from the sixth instar on have delayed expression of SD2 verrucae close to the spiracles on A2 to A7, and the larvae can go through between eight and eleven instars, the highest number equalling the maximum recorded for the family. The first instar is pale yellow with a darker red-brown area centrally. Later instars develop a variegated pattern of black patches on lighter orange brown, contrasting with the lighter yellow or sometimes pink scoli. The dorsum is broadly black, with a fine pale dorsal line along the central segments of the abdomen that coincides with a flatly triangular area of the lighter orange brown along the flanks. Anterior and posterior to this, the segments are crossed by a series of similarly fine pale lines. The paler triangular area on the flanks in Oxyplax is also seen in Orthocraspeda and Ploneta; it may be a synapomorphy for the three genera (see the previous note).

Nagamine & Epstein (2007) noted that s had non-feeding first instar larvae in common with other limacodids that have spines on scoli or verrucae in later instars. They noted a tendency for spiny limacodids to lay eggs in clusters, and non-feeding by hatchlings might therefore be an adaptation for avoiding egg cannibalism. The first instar are gregarious.

The hosts recorded in Hawaii were palms (Chrysalidocarpus, Cocos, Rhapis) but also Cordyline and Dracaena (Agavaceae).

Limantricodes parva Holloway (Part 1, p. 149). Endemic. (Lowland).

 


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