Superfamily LASIOCAMPOIDEA (72 species)

Family LASIOCAMPIDAE (72 species)

Subfamily LASIOCAMPINAE (72 species)

Tribe PINARINI (28 species)

Pyrosis borneana Holloway (Part 3, p. 16, under Bhima; Plate 7. S. Burma, Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia, Sulawesi. Lowland, lower montane. Note 51. Note 51. Pyrosis Oberthür is an older generic name than Bhima Moore. The genus was reviewed by Zolotuhin & Witt (2007) who described P. borneana ssp. celebica from Sulawesi and ssp. nagana from S Burma. The female of borneana was reared by Dr K. Martini who kindly presented one of each sex to BMNH. As with other species in the genus, it is very much larger than the male, with more rounded wings, the hindwings more equal in area to the forewings than in the male. The patterning is relatively less distinct and contrasted than in congeners, a paler brown. It is illustrated in Plate 7. The species is now known from the Malay Peninsula and southern Burma, and has a distinct subspecies on Sulawesi (Zolotuhin & Holloway, 2006; Zolotuhin & Witt, 2007). Dr Martini provided some details of the life history, rearing the species on Quercus in Germany, having brought eggs back from Borneo. The eggs hatched after eight days, and the larva took six months to reach full size. The pupal stage lasted three weeks. The larvae cluster together during the day in a nest, and are protected by irritant hooked hairs. They eat during the hours of darkness after imbibing water. The distinctly hairy larva of another species was illustrated by Zolotuhin (2009b).

Metanastria gemella Lajonquière (Part 3, p. 18). India to S. China and Thailand, Sundaland, Philippines. Lowland.

Metanastria hyrtaca Cramer (Zolotuhin & Pinratana, 2005: 96). Oriental tropics to Sundaland. No precise habitat data.

Lebeda cognata Grünberg (Part 3, p. 20). Thailand, Sundaland. Lowland.

Lebeda brauni Lajonquière (Part 3, p. 21). Sundaland. (Upper montane).

Lebeda pruetti Holloway (Part 3, p. 2 1). Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia (B); Philippines. (Lowland). Note 52. Note 52. There is a distinct subspecies of Lebeda pruetti on Samar in the Philippines, L. pruetti bondora Zolotuhin, Treadaway & Witt (1998: 156).

Lebeda intermedia Holloway (Part 3, p. 21). Sundaland. (Lowland). Note 53. Note 53. It is possible that L. intermedia is synonymous with, or a subspecies of, L. metaspila Walker (Sulawesi). Both taxa occur in the Philippines, the former on Palawan and the latter on Mindanao (Zolotuhin et al., 1998). These authors indicate the two taxa are sympatric in Sumatra (only intermedia was recorded by Holloway & Bender, (1990)), and that metaspila occurred in Thailand, though this was not  confirmed by Zolotuhin & Pinratana (2005). Zolutuhin & Holloway (2006) also comment on the possible synonymy, but restrict metaspila to Sulawesi. Chung (2008) recorded large numbers (thousands) of the larva on Terminaliacatappa (Combretaceae) trees in Sabah. The larvae gathered in clusters of various sizes by day on the trunk and fed on the foliage of branches immediately adjacent to the clustering areas during the night. Pupation occurred in cocoons covered with frass found on the ground or concealed positions on the lower branches or in the basal trunk area.

Paralebeda lucifuga Swinhoe (Part 3, p. 23). Thailand, Sundaland, Palawan. Lowland.

Paralebeda crinodes Felder (Part 3, p. 23, as uniformis). S. Burma, S. Thailand, S. Vietnam, S. China, Sundaland, Philippines. Lowland. Note 54. Note 54. Paralebeda uniformis Holloway is now treated as the subspecies of P. crinodes Felder (Java, Bali) that flies in the rest of Sundaland and the Philippines (Zolotuhin et al., 1998: 150). Zolotuhin & Pinratana (2005: 85) noted uniformis from S. Thailand, Burma and Vietnam, with a third subspecies, paos Zolotuhin, in S.E. China. Zolotuhin et al. (1998) described three further species of the genus from the Philippines, one of which was noted in Part 3: 22.

Streblote dorsalis Walker (Part 3, p. 25, as helpsi Holloway). Borneo, Sumatra, S. Thailand. Coastal. Note 55. Note 55. When Streblote helpsi was described in 1987, it was overlooked that the type locality of S. dorsalis Walker was also Borneo; the female type material of dorsalis was associated with a series of Indian specimens in BMNH. Therefore helpsi is a synonym of dorsalis Walker, syn. n., occurring in Borneo and probably Sumatra (Holloway & Bender, 1990: 150, as Streblote sp.; Zolotuhin & Pinratana, 2005: 89).

Suana concolor Walker (Part 3, p. 26). Oriental tropics to Java, Philippines, ?Flores. Lowland.

Suana riemsdyki Heylaerts (Part 3, p. 27, as sundana Holloway). Sundaland. Lowland to upper montane. Note 56. Note 56. In 1987, Suana sundana Holloway was described as new, as Bornean males could readily be divided into two distinct facies types. Holloway & Bender (1990: 151) placed sundana as a synonym of riemsdyki Heylaerts (see also Part 6, p. 99). They also described S. zahmi Holloway & Bender from Nias, a taxon with the riemsdyki facies type but very much darker. Zolotuhin et al. (1998: 187) treated all Philippines material as concolor Walker. This material is very variable in the male: the discal spot when present is round, not lunulate; the hindwing margin is round as in riemsdyki, not angular as in Sundanian and Thai (Zolotuhin & Pinratana, 2005: Plate 13) concolor. Zolotuhin & Pinratana suggested (p. 93) that all this variation could be attributed to concolor, with the possibility that some of these taxa could be local races or subspecies. The situation will probably require molecular analysis to resolve it, but riemsdyki is retained as a good species here for the time being. The situation was also noted by Zolotuhin & Holloway (2006) when describing a new species from Sulawesi and by Zolotuhin & Witt (2005) in relation to the fauna of Flores.

Lajonquierea mediofasciata Grünberg (Part 3, p. 28). Endemic. Lower to upper montane, (lowland kerangas).

Lajonquierea derunoides Holloway (Part 3, p. 28). Endemic. Lower to upper montane forest.

Lajonquierea variabile Holloway (Part 3, p. 29). Endemic. Lowland.

Lajonquierea poeciloptera Grünberg (Zolotuhin & Pinratana, 2005: 141). Sundaland. No precise habitat data. Note 57. Note 57. The only Bornean record for Lajonquierea poeciloptera is from Sapulut (Zolotuhin & Pinratana, 2005; as Sipulut), in an area of logged-over forest at about 300m in Sabah. The record from northern Thailand is a singleton from Sansai on 17 September 1985 (Zolotuhin & Pinratana, 2005: 141). This locality is suspect, as the data are exactly the same as for several other highly disjunct records for Sundanian species. The others are otherwise Bornean endemics (Kononenko & Pinratana, 2005: 131; de Vos, 2007). The male genitalia of poeciloptera are illustrated in Part 3: Fig 25, and the moth is illustrated by Holloway & Bender (1990: Plate 1).

     The larva of a species that may be poeciloptera has been reared by T.M. Leong (pers. comm.) in Singapore on Syzygium (Myrtaceae), probably the first record for the genus. The larva (photographed by T.M. Leong) is typical of the family, with numerous secondary setae generally distributed and on lateral lappets. No transverse saddles of short black spines have been observed on the thoracic segments. The larva is mostly pale brown, speckled darker, but the head is much paler with blackish markings: a pair of longitudinal black bars dorsally; “head and T-shirt” markings on each side dorsolaterally; a triangle on the frons. The scoli on T1 are particularly prominent, the laterals twice as long as the dorsolaterals, each pale-tipped, the tips giving rise to brushes of long black hairs with a distinctly paler distal quarter. The dorsolateral scoli are darker than the lateral ones, though the latter grade darker distally before the pale tips.

Lajonquierea piccoloptera Holloway (Part 3, p. 29). Endemic. Lowland.

Lajonquierea jermyi Holloway (Part 3, p. 30). Endemic. (Montane).

Kunugia latipennis Walker (Part 3, p. 32, as basimacula). Himalaya to S. China and Sundaland, Philippines. Lowland. Note 58. Note 58. Holloway & Bender (1990) placed Kunugia basimacula Walker as a synonym of latipennis Walker. The species was recorded in the Philippines by Zolotuhin et al. (1997).

Kunugia rectifascia Holloway (Part 3, p. 32). Endemic. Upper montane.

Kunugia leucopicta Tams (Part 3, p. 33). Sundaland. (Lower to upper montane).

Kunugia suanoides Holloway (Part 3, p. 33). Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia. Lowland to (upper montane).

Kunugia austroplacida Holloway (Part 3, p. 34). S. Vietnam, Thailand, Sundaland. Lowland to (upper montane).

Kunugia ferox Holloway (Part 3, p. 34). Borneo, Sumatra. Lowland.

Kunugia gynandra Swinhoe (Part 3, p. 35). Thailand, Sundaland, Palawan. Lowland to (upper montane).

Kunugia quadrilineata Holloway (Part 3, p. 35). Sundaland, Palawan. Lowland to (upper montane). Note 59. Note 59. Relatives of K. quadrilineata have been described from the Philippines by Zolotuhin et al. (1997): K. pippae Zolotuhin, Treadaway & Witt from Mindanao; K. hollowayi Zolotuhin, Treadaway & Witt from Negros. They recorded quadrilineata from Palawan. The Sulawesi relative mentioned in the Part 3 account was described as K. varuna Zolotuhin & Holloway (2006); K. grjukovae Zolotuhin represents the group in Thailand; K. labahnigra Zolotuhin has been described from Laos (Zolotuhin & Ihle, 2008). Four further species from Bhutan and the S.E. Asian peninsula are currently under description (V.V. Zolotuhin, pers. comm.).

Kunugia basinigra Roepke (Part 3, p. 36). Vietnam, S. China, Thailand, Sundaland, Palawan. Upper montane.

Kunugia drakei Holloway (Part 3, p. 36). Sundaland. Lowland to (upper montane).

Tribe ODONESTINI (22 species)

Takanea diehli Lajonquière (Part 3, p. 37). Thailand, Sundaland. Lowland.

Arguda rectilinea Hampson (Part 3, p. 38). N.E. India, Burma, Sundaland, Palawan. Lowland.

Arguda insulindiana Lajonquière (Part 3, p. 39). ?N.E. India, S. China, S.E. Asia, Sundaland. Lowland, upper montane. Note 60. Note 60. The mainland extension to the range of Arguda insulindiana is through the discovery of ssp. inexpectata Zolotuhin & Witt.

Arguda rosemariae Holloway (Part 3, p. 39). Borneo, Sumatra. (Lowland).

Arguda viettei Lajonquière (Zolotuhin & Pinratana, 2005: 121‑122). S. China, Vietnam, Thailand, Burma, Sundaland. No precise habitat data. Note 61. Note 61. The possible occurrence of A. viettei in Borneo (Part 3: 39) is confirmed by Zolotuhin & Pinratana (2005: 122). These authors noted a considerable extension of the range into mainland Asia.

Arguda albiscutulata Lajonquière (Part 3, p. 40). Borneo, Sumatra. (Lowland).

Radhica flavovittata Moore (Zolotuhin & Pinratana, 2005: 113). Himalaya to S. China, Taiwan and Sundaland. No precise habitat data.

Radhica holoxantha Grünberg (Part 3, p. 40). Burma, Thailand, Sundaland. Lowland, (lower montane). Note 62. Note 62. The larva of a member of the genus Radhica was illustrated and described for the first time by Pellinen (2009). The resulting female adult bore some resemblance to males of holoxantha, but may possibly be of a new species. The host plant was Shorea obtusa (Dipterocarpaceae).

Radhica elisabethae Lajonquière (Part 3, p. 40). India, S. China, S.E. Asia, Sundaland. Lowland to upper montane.

Radhica himerta Swinhoe (Part 3, p. 41). Thailand, Sundaland, Palawan. Lowland.

Syrastrena lanaoensis Tams (Part 3, p. 42). Vietnam, Thailand, Sundaland, Philippines. Lowland. Note 63. Note 63. The mainland extension of S. lanaoensis is through ssp. continentalis Zolotuhin & Witt (2000a) from Vietnam, Thailand and Peninsular Malaysia (Zolotuhin & Pinratana, 2005: 111).

Syrastrena tamsi Holloway (Part 3, p. 42). Borneo, Sumatra, Java, Bali. (Lowland).

Syrastrena borneensis Tams (Part 3, p. 41, as ssp. of sumatrana Tams). Vietnam, Thailand, Peninsular Malaysia, Sumatra, Borneo. (Lowland) to upper montane forest. Note 64. Note 64. Zolotuhin & Pinratana (2005) treated Syrastrena borneensis as a good species, extending the range to Vietnam and Thailand. S. sumatrana appears to be endemic to Sumatra (V.V. Zolotuhin, pers. comm.). A. Zwick (pers. comm.) considers that the taxon malayensis Holloway (1982) is a synonym of borneensis, having made a study based on a more extensive sample of material, focusing in particular on the condition of the three patches of cornuti in the aedeagus vesica that are characteristic of the sumatrana Tams complex.

Syrastrena sp. n. A (A. Zwick, pers. comm.). Borneo. Montane. Note 65. Note 65. A. Zwick (pers. comm.) has identified two further species of the sumatrana group from Borneo, in addition to borneensis (Note 64). Species A has been recorded from G. Kinabalu and G. Trus Madi in Sabah over an altitude range of 1100m to 1500m. One of the specimens from the Mulu survey attributed to borneensis in Part 3 has been determined as Species A by A. Zwick (pers. comm.); it was taken in lower montane forest at 900m on the limestone G. Api (slide 941). Species B has also been taken on G. Trus Madi, but occurs also in S. Kalimantan at the site 15km NE of Loksado; it has been recorded at altitudes from 800m to 1250m. All three Bornean species have the three patches of cornuti in the aedeagus vesica that typify the sumatrana complex, situated to the right, dorsally and to the left (A. Zwick, pers. comm.): the left patch is particularly long and narrow in borneensis; the same patch has a distinct gap or excavation in its lateral edge in species A; the dorsal patch in species B is much reduced, with very few spines.

Syrastrena sp. n. B (A. Zwick, pers. comm.). Borneo. Montane. Note 65. Note 65. A. Zwick (pers. comm.) has identified two further species of the sumatrana group from Borneo, in addition to borneensis (Note 64). Species A has been recorded from G. Kinabalu and G. Trus Madi in Sabah over an altitude range of 1100m to 1500m. One of the specimens from the Mulu survey attributed to borneensis in Part 3 has been determined as Species A by A. Zwick (pers. comm.); it was taken in lower montane forest at 900m on the limestone G. Api (slide 941). Species B has also been taken on G. Trus Madi, but occurs also in S. Kalimantan at the site 15km NE of Loksado; it has been recorded at altitudes from 800m to 1250m. All three Bornean species have the three patches of cornuti in the aedeagus vesica that typify the sumatrana complex, situated to the right, dorsally and to the left (A. Zwick, pers. comm.): the left patch is particularly long and narrow in borneensis; the same patch has a distinct gap or excavation in its lateral edge in species A; the dorsal patch in species B is much reduced, with very few spines.

Hallicarnia albipectus Walker (Part 3, p. 43). N.E. Himalaya, S.E. Asia, Sundaland. Lowland to lower montane forest.

Odonestis erectilinea Swinhoe (Part 3, p. 44). N.E. India to S. China and Sundaland, Palawan. Lowland.

Odonestis lipara Tams (Part 3, p. 44). Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia. Upper montane. Note 66. Note 66. Zolotuhin & Pinratana (2005: 137) recorded Odonestis lipara for N. Thailand on the basis of a possible female labelled as from Sansai on 17 September 1985. Note 57 indicates why this record is probably spurious. They also recorded the species from Peninsular Malaysia.

Odonestis germari Sergeev & Zolotuhin (Sergeev & Zolotuhin, 2010). Borneo, Sumatra. (Montane). Note 67. Note 67. A new species related to O. schalicteta Tams (Peninsular Malaysia, Sumatra, Nias) has been described from Borneo, O. germari Sergeev & Zolotuhin (2010). A Sumatran specimen of germari was illustrated as schalicteta by Holloway & Bender (1990; plate 7: 10). The ground colour is distinctly more blackish red than in schalicteta, and the forewing apex is more strongly produced and falcate. The hindwing margin is straight to slightly concave centrally. The male genitalia are illustrated in the original description. Single specimens have been taken at 1200m on G. Trus Madi and at 800m, 15km N.E. of Loksado in Kalimantan.

Odonestis vita Moore (Part 3, p. 45). Indian Subregion to Sundaland, Philippines. (Lowland).

Odonestis angulata Grünberg (Part 3, p. 45). Sundaland. Lowland.

Odontocraspis hasora Swinhoe (Part 3, p. 46). N.E. Himalaya to S. China and Sundaland. (Montane).

Tribe TRABALINI (11 species)

Trabala owadai Holloway & Bender (Part 3, p. 50, as irrorata; Holloway & Bender, 1990: 171). Endemic. Lowland. Note 68. Note 68. Holloway & Bender (1990: 171) discussed the potential for confusion of Trabala owadai with irrorata Moore. The concept of irrorata in Part 3 is referable to owadai.

Trabala krishna Roepke (Part 3, p. 51). Burma, Thailand, Vietnam, Sundaland, Palawan. Lowland.

Trabala viridana Joicey & Talbot (Part 3, p. 52). Vietnam, S. Thailand, Sundaland, Philippines. Lowland, (upper montane). Note 69. Note 69. The Sumatran taxon T. bhatara Roepke (1955, Z. Lepid. 3: 148-149) was not mentioned in Part 3 or by Holloway & Bender (1990). However, a note against the name in the BMNH collection suggests that it had been checked by JDH at some stage, and that it is probably a synonym of T. viridana; Roepke drew attention in his description of bhatara to the marked similarity to viridana in facies and male genitalia. Roepke had also described Sumatran females of viridana as indra Roepke as discussed in Part 3.

Trabala ganesha Roepke (Part 3, p. 52). Laos, S. Thailand, Sundaland, Philippines. Lowland.

Trabala shiva Roepke (Part 3, p. 53). Vietnam, Thailand, Sundaland. Lowland.

Trabala pallida Walker (Part 3, p. 53). Burma to S.E. China and Sundaland. Lowland to upper montane.

Trabala irrorata Moore (Part 3, p. 54, as hantu Roepke; Holloway & Bender, 1990: 171). Burma, Laos, Thailand, Sundaland, Philippines. (Upper montane). Note 70. Note 70. On identifying the novelty of T. owadai, Holloway & Bender (1990) concluded that the species identified as hantu Roepke in 1987 was probably irrorata.

Trabala garuda Roepke (Part 3, p. 54). Borneo, Sumatra. (Upper montane).

Trabala gautama Roepke (Part 3, p. 54). Sundaland. (Upper montane).

Trabala rotundapex Holloway (Part 3, p. 55). Endemic. Upper montane.

Trabala bouraq Holloway (Part 3, p. 55). Borneo, Philippines (Palawan, Negros). (Montane).

Tribe GASTROPACHINI (5 species)

Gastropacha leopoldi Tams (Part 3, p. 56). S. Vietnam (Zolotuhin, 2009), Sundaland. Lowland to upper montane.

Gastropacha philippinensis Tams (Zolotuhin & Pinratana, 2005: 107). India and Pakistan to S. China and Sundaland, Philippines. No precise habitat data. Note 71. Note 71. Gastropacha philippinensis was illustrated for Sumatra by Holloway & Bender (1990). It was very likely that it would prove to occur in Borneo, given that it occurred in all neighbouring areas, and V.V. Zolotuhin (pers. comm.) has confirmed this from material in Museum Witt, Munich.

Gastropacha acutifolia Roepke (Zolotuhin & Pinratana, 2005: 104). Thailand, Sundaland. No precise habitat data. Note 72. Note 72. G. acutifolia was placed as a subspecies of sikkima Moore by Holloway & Bender (1990: 174), but the two taxa are in fact sympatric in Thailand (Zolotuhin & Pinratana, 2005: 104) in at least one locality and are therefore distinct. It differs from sikkima in its deeper red ground colour and in ornamentation of the aedeagus vesica (Zolotuhin & Pinratana, 2005).

Gastropacha minima Lajonquière (Holloway & Bender, 1990: 174; new record). Sundaland. (Lowland). Note 73. Note 73. A male of G. minima was taken by G. Ping at Rampayoh in the lowlands of Brunei (C.G. Treadaway, pers. comm.). The male bears some resemblance to Paradoxopla Lajonquière in wing shape, but has a transparent patch divided by venation in the centre of the hindwing. The female is similar to those of the Estigena Moore section of the genus. Both sexes and the male genitalia are illustrated by Holloway & Bender (1990: 174).

Paradoxopla javanica Draeseke (Part 3, p. 58, as cardinalis Holloway). Java; Borneo. (Upper montane). Note 74. Note 74. The taxon cardinalis Holloway is placed as a subspecies of Paradoxopla javanica Draeseke in Zolotuhin & Pinratana (2005: 109), who suggested a host plant association with conifers. The relationship was originally established by Zolotuhin (1996a).

Tribe SELENEPHERINI (3 species)

Micropacha roepkei Holloway (Part 3, p. 59). S. Thailand, Sundaland. Lowland.

Euthrix laeta Walker (Part 3, p. 60). Oriental tropics to Sundaland, Palawan. Lowland.

Euthrix sp. (Part 3, p. 60). Borneo. (Montane).

LASIOCAMPINAE incertae sedis (3 species)

Alompra roepkei Tams (Part 3, p. 48). N.E. Himalaya to Sundaland, Palawan. (Lowland to upper montane).

Alompra ferruginea Moore (Part 3, p. 49). N.E. Himalaya to S. China and Borneo, Sumatra, Mindanao. (Lowland). Note 75. Note 75. Leong (2010c) described and illustrated a newly emerged female of Alompra ferruginea in Singapore. It had eclosed from a cocoon within a curled up leaf of a Garcinia (Guttiferae) sapling. The cocoon incorporated larval setae and was covered with a whitish powdery bloom that also extended onto the leaf. The moth repeatedly extruded a bright yellow gland dorsally on the intersegmental membrane between the terminal abdominal segment and the genital segments for a period of over half an hour, possibly some sort of calling behaviour for males.

     Zolotuhin (2009b) illustrated the first instar larva of ferruginea. it is very similar in appearance to the early instar Trabala larva illustrated by Chung et al. (2008), with each segment having several pale yellow rings close together, separated by a black ring at the junction with neighbouring segments. In Alompra, the number of these rings varies from two to (on the middle abdominal segments) three, compared with four closely packed ones in Trabala. The head in both is dull orange.

Chonopla tecta Lajonquière (Part 3, p. 47). Sundaland. (Lowland).

 


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