Superfamily GEOMETROIDEA (1189 species)

Family GEOMETRIDAE (1098 species)

Subfamily LARENTIINAE (203 species)

Tribe TRICHOPTERYGINI (43 species)

Goniopteroloba biconjunctaProut (Part 10, p. 101). Endemic. (Upper montane).

Goniopteroloba biconcavaProut (Part 10, p. 101). Endemic. (Lowland to lower montane).

Goniopteroloba solivagaProut (Part 10, p. 101). Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia (B). (Upper montane).

Goniopteroloba sinuosaWarren (Part 10, p. 101). Borneo, Sumatra (MS), Peninsular Malaysia. (Lower montane).

Goniopteroloba caeruleata Holloway(Part 10, p. 102). Endemic. Upper montane.

Goniopteroloba kerangaphila Holloway(Part 10, p. 102). Endemic. (Lowland forest, particularly heath forest).

Trichopterigia sanguinipunctata Warren (Part 10, p. 103). N. E. Himalaya to Taiwan, Thailand (Hashimoto, 1995), Borneo, Philippines. (Upper montane). Note 160. Note 160. Hashimoto (1995) described two new species of Trichopterigia Hampson from Thailand. He also (Hashimoto, 1982) described in detail the chaetotaxy of larvae of Japanese species of the genus.

Brabira emeritaProut (Part 10, p. 104). Sundaland. Upper montane.

Tristeirometa bostryxProut (Part 10, p. 105). Endemic. (Upper montane).

Tristeirometa curvistrigaWarren (Part 10, p. 105). Sundaland. (Montane).

Tristeirometa bathylimaProut (Part 10, p. 106). Endemic. (Upper montane).

Tristeirometa mesogrammataWalker (Part 10, p. 106). Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia, Seram. (Lowland).

Hypocometa claudaWarren (Part 10, p. 107). Himalaya, Taiwan, Thailand (Hashimoto, 1995), Sumatra (MS), Borneo, ?Flores. Upper montane.

Hypocometa definitaJoicey & Talbot (Part 10, p. 107). New Guinea, S. Moluccas, Borneo. (Montane).

Hypocometa titanisProut (Part 10, p. 107). Endemic. Kinabalu summit zone.

Hypocometa leptomitaProut (Part 10, p. 108). Endemic. Upper montane.

Phthonoloba bracteolaHolloway (Part 10, p. 108). Endemic. Upper montane.

Phthonoloba stigmatephoraProut (Part 10, p. 108). Endemic, Kinabalu only. Upper montane.

Phthonoloba caliginosaHolloway (Part 10, p. 109). Endemic, Kinabalu only. (Radio Sabah zone).

Phthonoloba lutosaHolloway (Part 10, p. 109). Endemic. Upper montane.

Phthonoloba altissimaHolloway (Part 10, p. 109). Endemic, Kinabalu only. Radio Sabah zone.

Dystypoptila triangularisWarren (Part 10, p. 110). Sundaland. (Upper montane).

Tympanota erectaWarren (Part 10, p. 111). Borneo, Seram. Kinabalu Radio Sabah zone.

Tympanota ceramicaRothschild (Part 10, p. 111). Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia (B), Sulawesi. S. Moluccas. Upper montane.

Tympanota arfakensisJoicey & Talbot (Part 10, p. 111). Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia, Philippines, S. Moluccas, New Guinea. Kinabalu Radio Sabah zone.

Tympanota patefactaProut (Part 10, p. 112). Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia, Sumatra (MS). (Upper montane).

Episteira vacuefactaProut (Part 10, p. 112). Sundaland. Upper montane. Note 161. Note 161. Larvae of two Japanese species of Episteira Warren were described by Hashimoto (1991), with details of chaetotaxy. Both are only known to feed on Podocarpus (Podocarpaceae).

Episteira nigrifronsWarren (Part 10, p. 113). Indo-Australian tropics. (Lower to upper montane).

Episteira infirmaSwinhoe (Part 10, p. 113). Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia. (Lowland).

Sauris eupitheciataSnellen (Part 10, p. 114). Indo-Australian tropics. No precise habitat data.

Sauris hirudinataGuenée (Part 10, p. 114). Sri Lanka, Ryukyu Is., Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia. (Lowland).

Sauris curticornisWarren (Part 10, p. 115). Endemic. (Lowland).

Sauris contortaWarren (Part 10, p. 115). Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia. (Lowland, lower montane).

Sauris interruptataMoore (Part 10, p. 116). Oriental tropics, ?Moluccas and New Guinea. (Lowland, upper montane).

Sauris pallidiplagaWarren (Part 10, p. 116). Sundaland. (Upper montane).

Sauris mesilauensisHolloway (Part 10, p. 116). Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia (B), Sulawesi. (Upper montane).

Sauris denigrataWarren (Part 10, p. 117). Sundaland. (Lowland to lower montane).

Sauris auriculaWarren (Part 10, p. 117). Sundaland. (Upper montane).

Sauris inscissoidesHolloway (Part 10, p. 118). Endemic. Upper montane.

Sauris inscissaProut (Part 10, p. 118). India to Sundaland. No precise habitat data.

Sauris quassaProut (Part 10, p. 118). Endemic. Upper montane.

Sauris ustaWarren (Part 10, p. 118). Sundaland. Upper montane.

Sauris coalitaProut (Part 10, p. 119). Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia. (Upper montane).

[Sauris improsperaProut (Part 10, p. 119). N. E. Himalaya to Sundaland. (Upper montane)].

Tribe EUPITHECIINI (137 species)

Collix ghoshaWalker (Part 10, p. 121). Indo-Australian tropics. (Lowland).

Collix rufidorsataProut (Part 10, p. 122). Borneo, Java, New Guinea, Bismarcks. No precise habitat data.

Collix stellataWarren (Part 10, p. 122, as griseipalpis). Oriental tropics to Sundaland. (Lowland). Note 162. Note 162. Inoue, in Heppner & Inoue (1992), placed griseipalpis Wileman as a synonym of Collix stellata Warren.

Collix stenopliaProut (Part 10, p. 122). Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia. (Lower and upper montane).

Collix blosyraProut (Part 10, p. 123). Endemic. Upper montane.

Collix mesoporaProut (Part 10, p. 123). Borneo, Wallacea. Upper montane.

Collix intrepidaProut (Part 10, p. 123). Endemic. Upper montane.

Collix sp. 18718(Part 10, p. 124). Borneo. (Lowland).

Pseudocollix hyperythra Hampson (Part 10, p. 125). Oriental tropics. Upper montane zone on G. Kinabalu.

Scintillithex glaucisparsaProut (Part 10, p. 125). Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia. (Upper montane).

Carbia calescensWalker (Part 10, p. 127). Sundaland. (Lowland). Note 163. Note 163. Holloway & Intachat (2003) recorded Carbia calescens Walker for the first time in Peninsular Malaysia, in lowland forest of the Pasoh Forest Reserve.

Carbia moderescensHolloway (Part 10, p. 127). Endemic. (Upper montane).

Carbia calefactaProut (Part 10, p. 127). Endemic. Upper montane.

Carbia brunnefactaHolloway (Part 10, p. 127). Borneo, Sumatra (MS). (Lowland).

Carbia nexilineaWarren (Part 10, p. 128). N.E. Himalaya, Andamans, Peninsular Malaysia (B), Borneo. (Lowland).

Carbia moderataWalker (Part 10, p. 128). Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia. Lowland, (montane).

Carbia pulchrilineaWalker (Part 10, p. 128). Indo-Australian tropics. (Lower to upper montane).

Pomasia vernaculariaGuenée (Part 10, p. 129). Endemic. (Lowland, upper montane).

Pomasia salutarisProut (Part 10, p. 130). Sundaland. Upper montane.

Pomasia sacculobataHolloway (Part 10, p. 130). Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia. Upper montane.

Pomasia reticulataHampson (Part 10, p. 130). Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia. (Lowland).

Pomasia galastisMeyrick (Part 10, p. 131). Borneo, N.E. Himalaya. (Lowland to lower montane).

Pomasia lamuninHolloway (Part 10, p. 131). Borneo, Sumatra (MS). (Lowland to upper montane).

Pomasia lacunariaHolloway (Part 10, p. 131). Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia. (Lowland, upper montane).

Pomasia luteataHolloway (Part 10, p. 132). Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia. (Lowland to upper montane).

Pomasia nuriae Holloway(Part 10, p. 132). Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia? (Lowland). Note 164. Note 164. Scoble (1999) listed the paratype specimen of Pomasia nuriae as the holotype, rather than the one from the Moore collection designated.

Pomasia euryopisMeyrick (Part 10, p. 132). Sundaland. (Lowland).

Pomasia obliterata Walker (Part 10, p. 133). Sundaland. Lowland.

Ziridava xylinariaWalker (Part 10, p. 134). Borneo, Sumatra to Queensland and New Caledonia. Lowland (to upper montane).

Ziridava kanshireiensisProut (Part 10, p. 134). Taiwan, Philippines, Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia. (Lower montane).

Ziridava rufinigraSwinhoe (Part 10, p. 134). Indo-Australian tropics. (Lowland).

Ziridava asterotaProut (Part 10, p. 134). Endemic. No precise habitat data.

Chrysoclystis morbosa Prout (Part 10, p. 135). Sundaland. Lowland.

Eupithecia mundiscriptaWarren (Part 10, p. 136). N.E. Himalaya, Taiwan, Vietnam, Thailand (Mironov & Galsworthy, 2009b), Sundaland to New Guinea. (Lower to) upper montane.

Eupithecia kamburongaHolloway (Part 10, p. 136). Endemic. Upper montane.

Eupithecia hollowayiMironov & Galsworthy (2010). Endemic. (Montane). Note 165. Note 165. Eupithecia hollowayi Mironov & Galsworthy (Plate 8) was described from a single male taken on G. Kinabalu in the altitude range of 1550-1700m. It belongs to the proterva Butler group which is extremely species‑rich in Asia (Mironov & Galsworthy, 2010).

Eupithecia subtacinctaHampson (Part 10, p. 136; as tabidaria Inoue). Himalaya to Russian Far East, Japan, China, Taiwan, S.E. Asia, Borneo. (Upper montane). Note 166. Note 166. Mironov, Galsworthy & Ratzel (2008) placed tabidaria Inoue as a synonym of E. subtacincta Hampson; the revised synonymy of the latter also included the taxa ussurii Vojnits and minibursae Vojnits. This has greatly expanded the known range of the species; see also Mironov & Galsworthy (2009b).

Eupithecia melanolophaSwinhoe (Part 10, p. 137). Oriental tropics to Sundaland. Upper montane.

Eupithecia costalisWalker (Part 10, p. 137). Oriental tropics and subtropics to Sundaland. (Lowland to lower montane, possibly in open habitats).

Eupithecia rigidaSwinhoe (Part 10, p. 137). Old World tropics. (Upper montane).

Eupithecia delozonaProut (Part 10, p. 138; also Part 8, p. 133). Endemic. (Upper montane).

Eupithystis infuscata Warren (Part 10, p. 138). Borneo, Sumatra. (Lowland).

Mnesiloba dentifasciaHampson (Part 10, p. 139). Oriental tropics. (Upper montane).

Mnesiloba intentataWalker (Part 10, p. 139). Sundaland, Philippines, New Guinea. (Lowland).

Chloroclystis semiscriptaWarren (Part 10, p. 141). Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia, Sulawesi, New Guinea. Lower and upper montane.

Chloroclystis obturgescensProut (Part 10, p. 141). Endemic. Upper montane.

Chloroclystis rubroviridisWarren (Part 10, p. 142). N.E. Himalaya to Sundaland. Upper montane.

Ardonis filicataSwinhoe (Part 10, p. 142). N.E. Himalaya to New Guinea. (Upper montane).

Pasiphila rubrifusaWarren (Part 10, p. 145). Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia. Upper montane.

Pasiphila chlorocampsisProut (Part 10, p. 145). Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia. (Upper montane) to Kinabalu Radio Sabah zone.

Pasiphila palpataWalker (Part 10, p. 145). Oriental tropics to Sundaland. Kinabalu Radio Sabah zone.

Pasiphila subpalpataProut (Part 10, p. 146). Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia, Philippines. Upper montane.

Pasiphila coelicaProut (Part 10, p. 146). Endemic. Kinabalu Radio Sabah zone.

Pasiphila sayataHolloway (Part 10, p. 146). Endemic. Kinabalu summit zone.

Pasiphila luteataHolloway (Part 10, p. 147). Endemic. Upper montane and Radio Sabah zones on G. Kinabalu.

Pasiphila eurystalidesProut (Part 10, p. 147). Endemic. Kinabalu Radio Sabah zone.

Pasiphila rufogriseaHolloway (Part 10, p. 147). Endemic. Upper montane.

Tripteridia subcomosaWarren (Part 10, p. 148). Borneo. S. Moluccas, New Guinea. Upper montane.

Tripteridia dinosiaProut (Part 10, p. 149). Endemic. Upper montane.

Tripteridia latistrigaWarren (Part 10, p. 149). Borneo, New Guinea. Upper montane zone on G. Kinabalu.

Tripteridia fletcheriHolloway (Part 10, p. 149). Borneo, ?New Guinea. Upper montane and Radio Sabah zones on G. Kinabalu.

Syncosmia dissographaProut (Part 10, p. 150). Sundaland, Sulawesi. (Lower montane, cultivated area).

Syncosmia xanthocomesProut (Part 10, p. 150). N.E. Himalaya to Sundaland. Upper montane.

Syncosmia eurymesaProut (Part 10, p. 151). Endemic. Upper montane and Kinabalu Radio Sabah zone.

Syncosmia layangaHolloway (Part 10, p. 151). Endemic. Kinabalu Radio Sabah zone.

Syncosmia discisuffusaHolloway (Part 10, p. 151). Endemic. Upper montane and Radio Sabah zones on G. Kinabalu.

Celaenaclystis celaenacrisProut (Part 10, p. 152). Endemic. Upper montane.

Celaenaclystis telygetaProut (Part 10, p. 152; also Part 8, p. 133). Endemic. (Lower montane).

Axinoptera turgidataWalker (Part 10, p. 153). Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia. (Lowland).

Axinoptera penataran Holloway (Part 10, p. 154). Endemic. Upper montane, Kinabalu only.

Axinoptera orphnobathraProut (Part 10, p. 154). Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia. (Lowland).

Axinoptera ruficostaHolloway (Part 10, p. 154). Endemic. (Lower and upper montane).

Axinoptera infusataWalker (Part 10, p. 155). Endemic. (?Lowland).

Bosara dilatataWalker (Part 10, p. 156). Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia, Sulawesi, New Guinea, ?Queensland. (Lowland).

Bosara reductata Holloway (Part 10, p. 156). ?Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia. Upper montane.

Bosara emarginariaHampson (Part 10, p. 157). Indian Subregion, S. China, Peninsular Malaysia (B), Borneo. (Lowland forest).

Bosara festivataWarren (Part 10, p. 157). Borneo, Bali, Sulawesi, Seram. (Lower montane).

Bosara bursacristataHolloway (Part 10, p. 157). Endemic. (Lower and upper montane).

Bosara bursalobata Holloway (Part 10, p. 158). Borneo, Bali. Upper montane.

Bosara longipectenHolloway (Part 10, p. 158). Endemic. Upper montane.

Bosara brevipectenHolloway (Part 10, p. 159). Borneo, Seram. (Upper montane).

Bosara refusaria Walker (Part 10, p. 159). Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia (B), Bali, Philippines. (Lowland).

Casuariclystis latifascia Walker (Part 10, p. 160). Old World tropics. (Lowland, lower montane). Note 167. Note 167. P.E.L. Viette (pers. comm.) notified the author that Casuariclystis latifascia has also been recorded from La Réunion (Viette & Guillermet, 1996) and that the biological information should have been cited as Legrand (1965 [1966]).

Glaucoclystis polyclealisWalker (Part 10, p. 162). Sri Lanka, Sundaland. (Lowland).

Glaucoclystis griseorufaHampson (Part 10, p. 162). N.E. Himalaya, Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia. (Lowland, lower montane).

Glaucoclystis sinuosoidesHolloway (Part 10, p. 162). Endemic. (Lowland forest).

Glaucoclystis polyodonta Swinhoe (Part 10, p. 163). Indo-Australian tropics. (Lowland), lower montane, (upper montane).

Eriopithex lanaris Warren (Part 10, p. 164). Indo-Australian tropics. (Upper montane).

Eriopithex recensitaria Walker (Part 10, p. 164). Indo-Australian tropics. (Lowland), upper montane.

Gymnoscelis fasciata Hampson (Part 10, p. 165). Oriental tropics. (Lower montane, ?cultivation).

Gymnoscelis prouti Holloway (Part 10, p. 165). N.E. Himalaya, Sundaland. Upper montane.

Gymnoscelis derogata Walker (Part 10, p. 166). Indo-Australian tropics. (Upper montane).

Gymnoscelis pseudotibialis Holloway (Part 10, p. 167). Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia. (Montane).

Gymnoscelis celebensis Prout (Part 10, p. 167). Borneo, Sulawesi, Seram. (Lowland).

Gymnoscelis latipennis Prout (Part 10, p. 168). Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia. (Lowland, lower montane).

Gymnoscelis albicaudata Warren (Part 10, p. 168). N.E. Himalaya, Sundaland, Philippines. (Upper montane).

Gymnoscelis merochyta Prout (Part 10, p. 168). Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia. (Upper montane).

Gymnoscelis phoenicopus Prout (Part 10, p. 168). Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia, Sulawesi, Seram. (Lower and upper montane).

Gymnoscelis transapicalis Holloway (Part 10, p. 169). Endemic. (Upper montane, Kinabalu only).

Gymnoscelis semialbida Walker (Part 10, p. 170). Oriental tropics. (?Lowland).

Gymnoscelis confusata Walker (Part 10, p. 170). Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia, ?India. (Lowland to upper montane).

Gymnoscelis imparatalis Walker (Part 10, p. 171). Indo-Australian tropics. (Lowland to lower montane).

Gymnoscelis admixtaria Walker (Part 8, p. 133). Oriental tropics. (Montane).

Calluga costalis Moore (Part 10, p. 172). Indo-Australian tropics. (Lowland, montane).

Calluga punctinervis Holloway (Part 10, p. 172). Endemic. (Upper montane).

Spiralisigna minutissima Swinhoe (Part 10, p. 173). Sumbawa, Bali, Peninsular Malaysia (B), Borneo, Philippines. (Lowland, ?mangrove).

Pasiphilodes subtrita Walker (Part 10, p. 173). Indo-Australian tropics, Seychelles, Aldabra. (?Coastal). Note 168. Note 168. The reference to latifascia in the habitat preference section on p. 174 of Part 10 was in error for subtrita.

Micrulia medioplaga Swinhoe (Part 10, p. 174). Oriental tropics. Lowland, (lower montane).

Micrulia catocalaria Snellen (Part 10, p. 175). Indo-Australian tropics. (Lowland) to montane.

Micrulia subzebrinaHolloway (Part 10, p. 175). Endemic. (Upper montane).

Onagrodes victoria Prout (Part 10, p. 176). S. Burma, Borneo. (Lowland forest).

Onagrodes oosyndica Prout (Part 10, p. 176). Sundaland, Sulawesi. (Upper montane).

Onagrodes eucineta Prout (Part 10, p. 177). Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia. (Upper montane).

Mariaba convoluta Walker (Part 10, p. 177). N.E. Himalaya, Burma, Borneo. (Lowland to upper montane).

Hybridoneura abnormis Warren (Part 10, p. 178). Oriental tropics. (Lowland to upper montane).

Hybridoneura picta Warren (Part 10, p. 178). Indo-Australian tropics. (Lowland, upper montane).

Symmimetis muscosa Turner (Part 10, p. 180). Borneo, ?Bali, New Guinea, Queensland. (Lowland forest).

Symmimetis heveli Holloway (Part 10,2 p. 180). N.E. Himalaya, Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia, Sumatra (MS). (Lowland, upper montane).

Symmimetis kolopis Holloway (Part 10, p. 181). Endemic. Upper montane.

Antimimistis attenuata Moore (Part 10, p. 181). Indo-Australian tropics. (Lowland to upper montane).

Poecilasthena characterProut (Part 10, p. 182). Sundaland. Upper montane to Radio Sabah zone. Note 169. Note 169. Xue & Scoble (2002) attempted to distinguish the tribe Asthenini from the Eupitheciini, but, as suggested in Part 10 of this series, harboured some doubts that the tribes were distinct. They suggested that asthenines are best distinguished by the presence of a distinctive signum consisting of spines or denticles arising from a central line or ridge formed by their bases. Also, in the male genitalia, the uncus tends to be reduced or lost, and the labides are narrow and seldom united. Bornean genera definitely included in this new concept of Asthenini are Poecilasthena Warren, Parasthena Warren and Polynesia Swinhoe. Xue & Scoble (2002) excluded Eois Hübner and Pseudopolynesia Holloway from their Asthenini, but did not comment on whether they might fall within a broader Eupitheciini + Asthenini grouping. This broader grouping is retained in the checklist, but the three Asthenini genera and the two of uncertain placement are listed at the end. Strutzenberger et al. (2010) confirmed the monophyly of Eois, and their molecular analysis assigned Old World and New World taxa sampled to sister-clades. They found no confirmation of a relationship of Eois with the Eupitheciini, but did demonstrate a strong host plant association of Eois with Piperaceae. Five Bornean species of Eois were included in their analysis and fell into a well supported clade with structure as follows; ((plumbacea, unidentified African species) (phaneroscia (memorata (pallidula, obliviosa)))). Strutzenberger & Fiedler (2011) have also attempted to date the initiation and diversification of the New World clade, and established the former at around 31 Mya in the middle of the Oligocene. This date would also apply to the Old World clade if the sister relationship of the two clades continues to be supported.

Poecilasthena nubivagaProut (Part 10, p. 183). Endemic. Kinabalu summit zone.

Parasthena flexilinea Warren (Part 10, p. 183). Borneo, Wallacea. (Upper montane). Note 169. Note 169. Xue & Scoble (2002) attempted to distinguish the tribe Asthenini from the Eupitheciini, but, as suggested in Part 10 of this series, harboured some doubts that the tribes were distinct. They suggested that asthenines are best distinguished by the presence of a distinctive signum consisting of spines or denticles arising from a central line or ridge formed by their bases. Also, in the male genitalia, the uncus tends to be reduced or lost, and the labides are narrow and seldom united. Bornean genera definitely included in this new concept of Asthenini are Poecilasthena Warren, Parasthena Warren and Polynesia Swinhoe. Xue & Scoble (2002) excluded Eois Hübner and Pseudopolynesia Holloway from their Asthenini, but did not comment on whether they might fall within a broader Eupitheciini + Asthenini grouping. This broader grouping is retained in the checklist, but the three Asthenini genera and the two of uncertain placement are listed at the end. Strutzenberger et al. (2010) confirmed the monophyly of Eois, and their molecular analysis assigned Old World and New World taxa sampled to sister-clades. They found no confirmation of a relationship of Eois with the Eupitheciini, but did demonstrate a strong host plant association of Eois with Piperaceae. Five Bornean species of Eois were included in their analysis and fell into a well supported clade with structure as follows; ((plumbacea, unidentified African species) (phaneroscia (memorata (pallidula, obliviosa)))). Strutzenberger & Fiedler (2011) have also attempted to date the initiation and diversification of the New World clade, and established the former at around 31 Mya in the middle of the Oligocene. This date would also apply to the Old World clade if the sister relationship of the two clades continues to be supported.

Polynesia curtitibia Prout (Part 10, p. 189). N.E. Himalaya, Thailand, Borneo. (Lowland, upper montane). Note 169. Note 169. Xue & Scoble (2002) attempted to distinguish the tribe Asthenini from the Eupitheciini, but, as suggested in Part 10 of this series, harboured some doubts that the tribes were distinct. They suggested that asthenines are best distinguished by the presence of a distinctive signum consisting of spines or denticles arising from a central line or ridge formed by their bases. Also, in the male genitalia, the uncus tends to be reduced or lost, and the labides are narrow and seldom united. Bornean genera definitely included in this new concept of Asthenini are Poecilasthena Warren, Parasthena Warren and Polynesia Swinhoe. Xue & Scoble (2002) excluded Eois Hübner and Pseudopolynesia Holloway from their Asthenini, but did not comment on whether they might fall within a broader Eupitheciini + Asthenini grouping. This broader grouping is retained in the checklist, but the three Asthenini genera and the two of uncertain placement are listed at the end. Strutzenberger et al. (2010) confirmed the monophyly of Eois, and their molecular analysis assigned Old World and New World taxa sampled to sister-clades. They found no confirmation of a relationship of Eois with the Eupitheciini, but did demonstrate a strong host plant association of Eois with Piperaceae. Five Bornean species of Eois were included in their analysis and fell into a well supported clade with structure as follows; ((plumbacea, unidentified African species) (phaneroscia (memorata (pallidula, obliviosa)))). Strutzenberger & Fiedler (2011) have also attempted to date the initiation and diversification of the New World clade, and established the former at around 31 Mya in the middle of the Oligocene. This date would also apply to the Old World clade if the sister relationship of the two clades continues to be supported.

Eois phaneroscia Prout (Part 10, p. 185). N.E. Himalaya, Sundaland. Lowland to upper montane. Note 169. Note 169. Xue & Scoble (2002) attempted to distinguish the tribe Asthenini from the Eupitheciini, but, as suggested in Part 10 of this series, harboured some doubts that the tribes were distinct. They suggested that asthenines are best distinguished by the presence of a distinctive signum consisting of spines or denticles arising from a central line or ridge formed by their bases. Also, in the male genitalia, the uncus tends to be reduced or lost, and the labides are narrow and seldom united. Bornean genera definitely included in this new concept of Asthenini are Poecilasthena Warren, Parasthena Warren and Polynesia Swinhoe. Xue & Scoble (2002) excluded Eois Hübner and Pseudopolynesia Holloway from their Asthenini, but did not comment on whether they might fall within a broader Eupitheciini + Asthenini grouping. This broader grouping is retained in the checklist, but the three Asthenini genera and the two of uncertain placement are listed at the end. Strutzenberger et al. (2010) confirmed the monophyly of Eois, and their molecular analysis assigned Old World and New World taxa sampled to sister-clades. They found no confirmation of a relationship of Eois with the Eupitheciini, but did demonstrate a strong host plant association of Eois with Piperaceae. Five Bornean species of Eois were included in their analysis and fell into a well supported clade with structure as follows; ((plumbacea, unidentified African species) (phaneroscia (memorata (pallidula, obliviosa)))). Strutzenberger & Fiedler (2011) have also attempted to date the initiation and diversification of the New World clade, and established the former at around 31 Mya in the middle of the Oligocene. This date would also apply to the Old World clade if the sister relationship of the two clades continues to be supported.

Eois mixosemia Prout (Part 10, p. 185). Endemic. Upper montane.

Eois memorata Walker (Part 10, p. 185). Indian Subregion to Sundaland. (Lowland, disturbed forest).

Eois obliviosa Holloway (Part 10, p. 186). Endemic. Lowland to lower montane forest.

Eois pallidula Warren (Part 10, p. 186). Sundaland. (Lowland).

Eois ephyrata Walker (Part 10, p. 186). Endemic. (Lowland forest on limestone).

Eois sundasimilis Holloway (Part 10, p. 187). Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia. (Lowland forest).

Eois willotti Holloway (Part 10, p. 187). Endemic. (Lowland forest).

Eois versata Walker (Part 10, p. 187). Borneo, Mentawi. (Lower montane).

Eois plumbacea Warren (Part 10, p. 188). Borneo, Mentawi. (Lower and upper montane).

Eois grataria Walker (Part 10, p. 188). Indian Subregion, Sundaland, Christmas I. (Lowland, plantation).

Eois discata Warren (Part 10, p. 188). Sundaland. Lowland forest, including secondary.

Pseudopolynesia amplificata Walker (Part 10, p. 190). Borneo, Sumatra (MS), Peninsular Malaysia, Philippines. Lowland forest, (upper montane).

Tribe XANTHORHOINI (7 species)

Xanthorhoe mesilauensis Holloway (Part 10, p. 191). Endemic. Upper montane on G. Kinabalu.

Xanthorhoe liwagu Holloway (Part 10, p. 191). Endemic. (Upper montane on G. Kinabalu).

Visiana hollowayi Schmidt (Part 10, p. 192, as sordidata Moore). Endemic. (Lowland, secondary forest). Note 170. Note 170. Schmidt (2006b) showed that Visiana sordidata Moore was a species complex, with sordidata restricted to India and Burma, robinsoni Prout restricted to Sumatra, inimica Prout in Java and Bali, and tamborica Prout in Lombok and Sumbawa.

Scotocymaasiatica Holloway (Part 10, p. 200). Borneo, Sulawesi. (Upper montane). Note 171. Note 171. Schmidt (2005; 2006a) revised Scotocyma Turner and presented a phylogenetic hypothesis that indicated that the Borneo/Sulawesi species is sister to the Sumatran endemic, S. sumatrensis Schmidt, these then being related to a species from Queensland. She placed the genus in the Xanthorhoini, with a possible relationship to the temperate Australasian genus Austrocidaria Dugdale. The only host record for Scotocyma is for Coprosma (Rubiaceae), a genus also utilised (but not exclusively) by Austrocidaria.

Gonanticlea aversa Swinhoe (Part 10, p. 193). Oriental tropics to Sundaland. (Upper montane).

Gonanticlea occlusata Felder & Rogenhofer (Part 10, p. 194). Oriental tropics to Sundaland. (Upper montane).

Gonanticlea amplior Thierry-Mieg (Part 10, p. 194). Sundaland. (Upper montane).

Tribe CIDARIINI (7 species)

Ecliptopera rectilinea Warren (Part 10, p. 195). Oriental tropics to Sulawesi and Sumbawa. Lowland to upper montane.

Ecliptopera zaes Prout (Part 10, p. 196). Endemic. (Upper montane on G. Kinabalu).

Ecliptopera furvoides Thierry-Mieg (Part 10, p. 196). Endemic. Upper montane to Radio Sabah zone on G. Kinabalu.

Dysstroma pendleburyi Prout (Part 10, p. 197). Endemic. Upper montane to Radio Sabah zone on G. Kinabalu.

Lampropteryx moroessa Prout (Part 10, p. 197). Endemic. (Upper montane zone on G. Kinabalu).

Photoscotosia sp. (new record, p. 323, Plate 8). Endemic. (Summit zone of Kinabalu). Note 172. Note 172. Photoscotosia Warren

Type species: miniosata Walker, Himalaya.

Synonyms: Lasiogma Meyrick (unnecessary replacement name for Trichopleura Staudinger); Trichopleura Staudinger (type species palaearctica Staudinger, Central Asia) praeocc.

This genus has recently been recorded from Borneo as related below. It consists of large to very large species with forewings similar to those of Ecliptopera Warren, but lacking the triangular marginal zone to the forewing that typifies the latter. Also, there is in most species a brush of hairs on the underside in males extending forward over the cell from  a basal line of origin posterior to the anterior cubital vein of the cell up to vein CuA2. The male genitalia have a strong expansion to the valve costa, with a slender hair-pencil extending over it from a position interior to it. The base of the costa has a small lobe directed dorsally or towards the posterior of the genitalia. The aedeagus vesica has a row of fine spines. The female genitalia have a narrow longitudinal scobinate band within the corpus bursae similar to that in Ecliptopera. The genus Amnesicoma Warren bears a close relationship to Photoscotosia, sharing most of the distinctive features of the male genitalia; however, the male forewing lacks the brush of hairs as seen in Photoscotosia.

The genus is diverse in western China, the Himalaya and the mountains of Central Asia, but extends weakly into the mountains of Sundaland and the Philippines. Amnesicoma contains far fewer species and is restricted in distribution to the centre of diversity of Photoscotosia. Both genera are illustrated extensively by Xue & Zhu (1999).

The re‑survey of the 1965 Kinabalu transect (Holloway, 1970, 1976) by I‑Ching Chen and colleagues (Chen et al., 2009, 2011) resulted in the capture of a single male and female of a Photoscotosia species (Plate 8) at the Paka Cave (3085m) and Panar Laban (3315m) sites. In facies it bears some resemblance to P. insularis Bastelberger from Taiwan, and to P. miniosata, P. dejuta Prout (W. China) and the taxon cupha Prout from Luzon. It also resembles a female from G. Leuser in N. Sumatra which shows genetic distinctiveness (DNA barcoding) from Himalayan material. However, the Bornean and Sumatran populations have also proved to be genetically distinct (M.D. Sommerer, pers. comm.). The genus is highly diverse in the mountains of western China and the Himalayan region (Scoble, 1999; Xue & Zhu, 1999). In Sundaland, apart from the taxa just mentioned, P. multiplicata Warren flies in the mountains of Java. The Bornean species is under study by M.D. Sommerer (pers. comm.) in conjunction with other Sundanian taxa; DNA barcoding has not indicated any clear affinities amongst them.

Pareustromainterruptatasp. n. (p. 324, Plate 6, Fig 88). Endemic. (Upper montane forest). Note 173. Note 173. Pareustroma Sterneck

Type species: propriaria Leech, China.

A single female of a species that most probably belongs to this genus has been taken on G. Kinabalu and is described below. All other species occur in the region from the Himalaya to western China and were illustrated by Xue & Zhu (1999), who recognised seven species, two described as new. The facies resembles that of some Eustroma Hübner and also has similarities to Ecliptopera Warren and Photoscotosia. The medial band of the forewing has a paler central zone at the costal end particularly prominent in the new Bornean species, and may be interrupted along CuA2. In the male, both the forewing and the hindwing have a tuft or row of hairs along the underside on their dorsal margins, features shared with Hysterura Warren, another closely related genus, but one where the hindwing margin is angled at CuA1, this vein being stalked with M3.

The male genitalia, are typical of the Cidariini, with the valves simple, with a diagnostic setose lobe at the base of the costa but arising from the anellus as described in Part 10 (p. 194). These lobes are unusually doubled in Pareustroma and Hysterura, each component bearing an apical hair-pencil. The aedeagus vesica in both genera has two rows of spines.

In the female genitalia, the signum in both genera is a scobinate patch restricted to the centre of the corpus bursae as most Eustroma rather than more of a band as in Ecliptopera. However, Pareustroma is distinguished by an area of sclerotisation with some pleating at the base of the corpus bursae, a feature that appears to be present in the seemingly deformed corpus bursae of the Bornean species (Fig 88), though a signum is not evident.

Pareustroma interruptata sp. n. (Plate 6, Fig 88)

E 18mm. This species, as indicated above, bears some resemblance to Photoscotosia species with a white central component on the costal side of the medial zone of the forewing such as rivularia Leech, amplicata Walker and leuconia Xue. However, this medial dark-brown zone of the forewing is interrupted narrowly subdorsally in the vicinity of vein CuA2 rather than being entire as in Photoscotosia. Such interruption is seen in a similar position in some Ecliptopera, such as zaes Prout, but interruptata lacks the marginal triangular zone of the forewing that characterises Ecliptopera. The facies is generally closest to that of Pareustroma fissisignis Butler, but this has the medial zone of the forewing much narrower anteriorly and broadly interrupted in the discal area; the paler band in from the costa in this zone is similar in tone to the subdorsal break rather than whitish. The antemedial fascia is more basal and more regular in interruptata. The genitalia are as discussed in the generic account above.

Holotype E. SABAH: Ranau, Mt Kinabalu, Kamborangoh, MV trap, 2258m,  23.viii.2007, (I-Ching Chen & Hau-Jie Shiu) (in FRC, Sepilok).

Geographical range. Borneo.

Habitat preference. The only specimen was taken in an area of upper montane forest.

LARENTIINAE incertae sedis (9 species)

Papuarisme murudensis Prout (Part 10, p. 199). Endemic. Upper montane.

Papuarisme lagadaniHolloway(Part 10, p. 199). Endemic. Kinabalu Radio Sabah zone.

Papuarisme maerens Holloway (Part 10, p. 199). Endemic. (Upper montane).

Papuarisme submontana Holloway (Part 10, p. 200). Endemic. Upper montane.

Matanga rubicunda Swinhoe (Part 10, p. 201). Sundaland. (Lower montane).

Acolutha pictaria Moore (Part 10, p. 202). Indo-Australian tropics. Lowland (to upper montane).

Acolutha flavipictaria Prout (Part 10, p. 202). Indian Subregion, Borneo. (Upper montane).

Acolutha flavivitta Holloway (Part 10, p. 203). Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia. (Upper montane).

Acolutha albipunctata Holloway (Part 10, p. 203). Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia. Upper montane to Radio Sabah zone on G. Kinabalu.

Subfamily STERRHINAE (177 species)

Tribe TIMANDRINI (3 species)

Timandra punctinervis Prout (Part 10, p. 20). Sundaland. Upper montane.

Synegiodes diffusifascia Swinhoe (Part 10, p. 21). N. E. Himalaya, Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia, Sumatra (MS). (Upper montane).

Traminda aventiaria Guenée (Part 10, p. 22). Indo-Australian tropics. Lowland, ?disturbed habitats.

Tribe COSYMBIINI (95 species)

Chrysocraspeda porphyrochlamys Prout (Part 10, p. 24). Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia. (Lowland to lower montane).

Chrysocraspeda marginata Warren (Part 10, p. 24). N. E. Himalaya, Sumatra (MS), Borneo. (Lowland forest).

Chrysocraspeda tristicula Swinhoe (Part 10, p. 25). Indian Subregion, Sumatra (MS), Borneo, Philippines, Sumbawa. (Lowland Eucalyptus plantation).

Chrysocraspeda truncipennis Prout (Part 10, p. 25). Endemic. No precise habitat data.

Chrysocraspeda dilucida Warren (Part 10, p. 25). Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia, Sumatra (MS). (Lowland forest).

Chrysocraspeda tigrina Meyrick (Part 10, p. 25). Endemic. (?Lowland).

Chrysocraspeda medioplaga Swinhoe (Part 10, p. 26). Endemic. (Lowland).

Chrysocraspeda sanguinipuncta Swinhoe (Part 10, p. 26). Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia, Sumatra (MS). (Lowland forest).

Chrysocraspeda oophora Prout (Part 10, p. 26). Endemic. (Lowland).

Chrysocraspeda phlogea Prout (Part 10, p. 26). Endemic. (?Lowland).

Chrysocraspeda dracontias Meyrick (Part 10, p. 27). Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia, Sumatra (MS). Lowland.

Chrysocraspeda dipyramida Prout (Part 10, p. 27). S. Burma, Sumatra (MS), Borneo. (Lowland forest).

Chrysocraspeda pagonHolloway(Part 10, p. 27). Endemic. (Upper montane).

Chrysocraspeda vinosa Prout (Part 10, p. 28). Sundaland. (Lowland).

Chrysocraspeda conversata Walker (Part 10, p. 28). Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia (B), Sumatra. Lowland (swamp) forest.

Chrysocraspeda anisocosma Prout (Part 10, p. 28). Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia, Sumatra (MS). (Lowland forest).

Chrysocraspeda juriaeHolloway(Part 10, p. 28). Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia. (Lowland forest).

Chrysocraspeda ozophanes Prout (Part 10, p. 29). Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia, Sumatra (MS). (Lowland forest).

Chrysocraspeda dramaturgis Holloway(Part 10, p. 29). Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia, Sumatra (MS). (Lowland forest).

Chrysocraspeda orgalea Meyrick (Part 10, p. 29). Endemic. (Lowland).

Chrysocraspeda planctogrammaProut (Part 10, p. 30). Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia, Sumatra (MS). (Lowland).

Chrysocraspeda abhadraca Walker (Part 10, p. 30). Indian Subregion, Sundaland. Upper montane.

Chrysocraspeda dysmothaumaProut (Part 10, p. 30). Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia, Sumatra (MS). Lowland (swamp) forest.

Chrysocraspeda baderi Herbulot (Part 10, p. 30). Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia. (Lowland and lower montane).

Chrysocraspeda plumbeofusa Swinhoe (Part 10, p. 31). N. E. Himalaya, Sundaland. (Lowland forest).

Chrysocraspeda pryeri Holloway(Part 10, p. 31). Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia, Sumatra (MS). (Lowland).

Chrysocraspeda mitigataWalker (Part 10, p. 32). India, Burma, Peninsular Malaysia (B), Borneo. (Lowland forest).

Chrysocraspeda comptaria Swinhoe (Part 10, p. 32). Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia, Sumatra (MS), Wallacea, New Guinea. (Lowland).

Chrysocraspeda lunulata Swinhoe (Part 10, p. 32). Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia, Sumatra (MS). (Lowland forest).

Chrysocraspeda croceomarginata Warren (Part 10, p. 32). Sundaland. (Lowland).

Chrysocraspeda remutansProut (Part 10, p. 33). Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia, Sumatra (MS). Lower montane on limestone.

Chrysocraspeda convergens Holloway(Part 10, p. 33). Borneo, Sumatra (MS). (Lowland forest).

Chrysocraspeda deltalutea Holloway(Part 10, p. 33). Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia, Sumatra (MS), Java, Sulawesi. (Lowland forest).

Chrysocraspeda rubraspersa Holloway(Part 10, p. 34). Borneo, Sumatra (MS). Lowland (acid) forest.

Chrysocraspeda argentimacula Holloway(Part 10, p. 34). Sundaland. (Lowland forest).

Chrysocraspeda rubricata Swinhoe (new record, Plate 6). Thailand, Sumatra, Borneo. (Disturbed lowland forest). Note 174. Note 174. Two specimens of Chrysocraspeda rubricata Swinhoe have been taken in the course of a Rothamsted light-trap sampling project coordinated by H.S. Barlow at the Borneo Rainforest Lodge near the Danum Valley Field Centre. This is a new record for Borneo.

Chrysocraspeda rubricata Swinhoe (Plate 6)

Chrysocraspeda rubricata Swinhoe (1903), Fasc. malayenses (Zool.) 1: 94.

Diagnosis. The ground colour of the wings is primrose-yellow. The forewings are angled on the distal margin near the end of CuA2 and generally suffused greyish with some red. There is a transverse black discal dash and a crescent of ground colour distal to it. The hindwings are extensively yellow with a tracery of red lines as illustrated; the postmedial is broadened and grey-centred over its dorsal half.

Geographical range. Thailand, Sumatra (M.D. Sommerer, pers. comm.), Borneo.

Habitat preference. The moths were collected in an area of lowland dipterocarp forest at about 170m.

Bytharia uniformis Swinhoe (Part 10, p. 35; Plate 10). Sundaland, Wallacea. (Lowland to lower montane forest). Note 175. Note 175. H.S. Barlow and S.K.L. Hok have reared Bytharia uniformis from Cryptocarya laevigata (Lauraceae) in Peninsular Malaysia. The larva (Plate 10) has the head, thorax and segments from A6 to the anal segment a dull orange with a few blackish bars. The segments in between, A1-5, have blackish squares over their dorsal parts that are surrounded by white borders, and there is a diffusely white, narrow, dorsal line that bisects them. The pupa was supported by a fine abdominal girdle as in other Cosymbiini.

Cyclophora rotundataWarren (Part 10, p. 37). Sundaland. Lowland forest.

Cyclophora glomerataWarren (Part 10, p. 37). Borneo, Sulawesi, Seram, New Guinea. No precise habitat data.

Cyclophora frenariaGuenée (Part 10, p. 38). Indo-Australian tropics. (Lowland swamp forest).

Cyclophora scriptataWalker (Part 10, p. 38). Endemic. (Lowland).

Cyclophora heydenaSwinhoe (Part 10, p. 38). N. E. Himalaya, Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia (B), Sumatra (MS), Java. No precise habitat data.

Cyclophora posticamplumSwinhoe (Part 10, p. 38). N. E. Himalaya, Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia, Sumatra (MS). (Lower montane).

Cyclophora dimeritesProut (Part 10, p. 39). Borneo, New Guinea. Upper montane.

Cyclophora carsoniHolloway(Part 10, p. 39). Endemic. Upper montane.

Cyclophora lowiHolloway(Part 10, p. 40). Endemic. Upper montane.

Cyclophora flavissimaWarren (Part 10, p. 40). Borneo, S. Moluccas, New Guinea. Upper montane.

Cyclophora hirtipalpisProut (Part 10, p. 40). Endemic. Upper montane.

Cyclophora intermixtariaSwinhoe (Part 10, p. 41). Himalaya, Taiwan, Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia. (Upper montane).

Cyclophora pepira Prout (Part 10, p. 41). Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia.

Cyclophora indecisa Warren (Part 10, p. 41). Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia, Philippines, Seram, New Guinea. (Lower montane).

Cyclophora obstatariaWalker (Part 10, p. 42). Indian Subregion to Queensland. (Lower montane).

Cyclophora imbutaWarren (Part 10, p. 42). N.E. Himalaya, Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia (B), Sumatra.

Cyclophora circummaculataHolloway (Part 10, p. 42). Borneo, Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia. (Upper montane).

Dizuga recusatariaWalker (Part 10, p. 43, under Zeugma). Sundaland to Queensland and Solomons. (?Lowland). Note 176. Note 176. The correct generic name is Dizuga Warren, as Zeugma Walker is a junior homonym of Zeugma Westwood. This was indicated correctly by Fletcher (1979) and Scoble (1999) but overlooked in error in Part 10. Craft et al. (2010) recorded Syzygium (Myrtaceae) as a larval host-plant.

Mesotrophe alienariaWalker (Part 10, p. 44). Sundaland. (Lowland). Note 177. Note 177. Mesotrophe alienaria was listed under “Cyclophora”in Scoble (1999) in error.

Mesotrophe maximaria Guenée (Part 10, p. 44). Sundaland. (Lowland).

Mesotrophe intortaria Guenée (Part 10, p. 44). Oriental tropics. (Lowland, disturbed forest).

Mesotrophe impavidaProut (Part 10, p. 45). Borneo, Sumatra. (Lowland).

Mesotrophe curtisiProut (Part 10, p. 45). Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia. No precise habitat data.

Perixera argyromma Warren (Part 10, p. 46). N. E. Himalaya, Peninsular Malaysia (B), Borneo, Sumatra (MS), New Guinea, Bismarcks. (Upper montane).

Perixera gaeta Swinhoe (Part 10, p. 47). Sundaland, Sulawesi. (Lowland forest).

Perixera argyrommoides Holloway(Part 10, p. 47). Endemic. (Lowland).

Perixera roseofusa Warren (Part 10, p. 47). Endemic. (Lowland).

Perixera ochraria Swinhoe (Part 10, p. 48). Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia. Lowland forest.

Perixera ochreofusa Holloway(Part 10, p. 48). Endemic. (Lowland forest).

Perixera obliviaria Walker (Part 10, p. 48). Indo-Australian tropics. (Disturbed and secondary forest).

Perixera nesidica Prout (Part 10, p. 49). Sundaland. (Lowland).

Perixera thermosariaWalker (Part 10, p. 49). Oriental tropics. (Lowland).

Perixera perscriptaProut (Part 10, p. 50). N. E. Himalaya, Borneo, Sulawesi. (Upper montane).

Perixera decretarioides Holloway(Part 10, p. 50). N. E. Himalaya, Borneo. (Lowland).

Perixera javensisWarren (Part 10, p. 50). Sundaland, Sumbawa. (Lowland).

Perixera decretaria Walker (Part 10, p. 51). Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia. (Lowland forest).

Perixera illepidariaGuenée (Part 10, p. 51). Oriental tropics. (Lowland to upper montane).

Perixera pictimaculisProut (Part 10, p. 52). Sundaland, Philippines. (Lowland).

Perixera dotillaSwinhoe (Part 10, p. 52). N. E. Himalaya, Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia, Sulawesi. No precise habitat data.

Perixera pyrrhocricaProut (Part 10, p. 52). Sundaland, Vietnam, S. China. (Lowland to upper montane).

Perixera ?flavispila Warren (Part 10, p. 53). Indo-Australian tropics. (Lowland).

Perixera monetariaGuenée (Part 10, p. 53). Oriental tropics. (Upper montane).

Perixera argentosaProut (Part 10, p. 54). Oriental tropics. (Lowland).

Perixera flavirubraWarren (Part 10, p. 54). Sundaland, Sulawesi to Bismarcks and Queensland. (Montane).

Perixera confiniscriptaWarren (Part 10, p. 55). Sundaland to New Guinea. (Lowland).

Perixera sabulosaWarren (Part 10, p. 55). Java, Borneo, Philippines. (Lowland to upper montane).

Perixera interpulsataWalker (Part 10, p. 55). N.E. Himalaya, Sundaland. (Upper montane).

Perixera arenosariaMoore (Part 10, p. 56). Oriental tropics and east to New Guinea. (Lowland/ secondary forest).

Perixera absconditariaWalker (Part 10, p. 56). Oriental tropics. (Lower to) upper montane.

Perixera niveopunctaWarren (Part 10, p. 57). Indo-Australian tropics, east into Pacific. (Lowland).

Perixera clandestinaProut (Part 10, p. 57). Oriental tropics. (Lowland).

Perixera melantrochesProut (Part 10, p. 57). Endemic. (Upper montane).

Perixera contrariataWalker (Part 10, p. 57). Oriental tropics to Sundaland. (Lowland).

Perixera jocosaWarren (Part 10, p. 58). N.E. Himalaya to Sundaland (Lowland forest).

Perixera denticulataHampson (Part 10, p. 58). N.E. Himalaya to New Guinea. (Upper montane).

Perixera sarawackariaGuenée (Part 10, p. 59). Indo-Australian tropics.

Perixera punctataWarren (Part 10, p. 59). Indo-Australian tropics. (Lowland) and lower montane forest on limestone.

Perixera dithymaProut (Part 10, p. 60). Borneo, Sumatra. (Lowland).

Tribe RHODOSTROPHIINI (9 species)

Organopoda ?acmaeaProut (Part 10, p. 61). Sundaland. (Lowland) and upper montane.

Organopoda acerbataProut (Part 10, p. 61). Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia. No precise habitat data.

Organopoda cnecostictaProut (Part 10, p. 62). Endemic. Upper montane.

Organopoda perorbataProut (Part 10, p. 62). Borneo, Bali. (Lowland heath forest).

Apostegania rectilineataSwinhoe (Part 10, p. 62). Sundaland. Lowland (alluvial) forest.

Symmacra solidariaGuenée (Part 10, p. 63). Indo-Australian tropics. (Lowland to lower montane).

Metallaxis semiustus Swinhoe (Part 10, p. 64). N. E. Himalaya, Sumatra (HS/ZSM), Borneo. (Lowland forest on limestone).

Metallaxis amandae Holloway (Part 10, p. 64). Endemic. (Lower montane).

Erythrolophus fascicorpus Swinhoe (Part 10, p. 65). N. E. Himalaya, Sundaland. (Lowland).

Tribe SCOPULINI (46 species)

Zythos turbataWalker (Part 10, p. 67). Sundaland, Philippines. Lowland forest (to lower montane).

Zythos avellaneaProut (Part 10, p. 67). N. E. Himalaya to Sundaland. (Lowland).

Zythos strigataWarren (Part 10, p. 67). Sundaland. (Lowland forest).

Zythos obliterataWarren (Part 10, p. 67). Sundaland. (Lowland forest, possibly a disturbance indicator).

Problepsis plenorbisProut (Part 10, p. 70). Sundaland. Lowland forest (to upper montane).

Problepsis apollinariaGuenée (Part 10, p. 70). Indo-Australian tropics. Lowland, including forest and cultivated areas.

Problepsis borneamagnaHolloway(Part 10, p. 71). Endemic. (Lower) to upper montane.

Problepsis delphiariaGuenée (Part 10, p. 72). India to Sundaland. (Lowland, disturbed habitats).

Problepsis achlyobathraProut (Part 10, p. 72). Sundaland, Sulawesi. (Lowland forest).

Scopula (Ignobilia)urnariaGuenée (Part 10, p. 66). Borneo, Sumatra (MS), Peninsular Malaysia, Palawan. (Lowland forest).

Scopula (Antitrygodes)divisariaWalker (Part 10, p. 68). Oriental tropics. Lowland (to upper montane). Note 178. Note 178. The larva of Scopula (Antitrygodes) divisaria was reared from Neolamarckia (Rubiaceae) by Chung et al. (2009a). They illustrated the larva, which matches closely the description in Part 10.

Scopula (Antitrygodes)pseudagrata Holloway(Part 10, p. 69). Borneo, Philippines. (Lowland forest).

Scopula opicataFabricius (Part 10, p. 75). Old World tropics. (Lowland).

Scopula actuariaWalker (Part 10, p. 74). Oriental tropics. (Lowland).

Scopula inficitaWalker (Part 10, p. 73). Lesser Sundas, Borneo, Philippines. (Lowland).

Scopula usticinctariaWalker (Part 10, p. 74). Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia, Sumatra (MS). Lowland, lower (and upper) montane.

Scopula mecysmaSwinhoe (Part 10, p. 74). Oriental tropics to New Guinea. (Lowland to lower montane forest).

Scopula adeptariaWalker (Part 10, p. 75). Indo-Australian tropics. (Disturbed habitats in lowlands).

Scopula satsumaria Leach stat. rev. (Part 10, p. 75, as insolata Butler). N.E. Himalaya to Japan, Borneo, Sumatra. (Lowland and lower montane forest). Note 179. Note 179. Scopula insolata Butler was indicated to be a junior secondary homonym of Acidalia insolata Felder & Rogenhofer in Scoble (1999), following the inclusion of the former taxon in Acidalia by Prout (1913, Gross-Schmett. Erde 4: 78), who gave butleri Prout as a replacement name for the junior homonym. The Code indicates that such replacement names established before 1961 must prevail, even if the secondary homonymy is no longer extant, as in this case, with the senior homonym currently in the Neotropical genus Ptychomalia Prout and the junior homonym in Scopula. Scoble also listed satsumaria Leach (1897, Ann. Mag. nat. Hist. (6), 20: 91, Acidalia) as a synonym of butleri and apparently also of the Bornean subspecies aequibrachiata Holloway. However, as the oldest name, satsumaria has priority over both butleri and aequibrachiata, and must therefore be accorded specific rank, stat. rev., with subspecies butleri Prout stat. n. and aequibrachiata Holloway comb. n.

Scopula flavinsolataHolloway(Part 10, p. 76). Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia, Sumatra (MS). Lowland forest (to lower montane).

Scopula annulariaSwinhoe (Part 10, p. 76). Oriental tropics, Seram. (Lowland).

Scopula planidiscaBastelberger (Part 10, p. 77). Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia. (Lowland forest).

Scopula pulchellataFabricius (Part 10, p. 77). Indo-Australian tropics. Lowland.

Scopula paroditesProut (Part 10, p. 78). Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia. S. Burma. (Lowland forest).

Scopula pithogonaProut (Part 10, p. 78). Borneo, Java, Sulawesi. (Lowland forest on limestone).

Scopula brookesaeHolloway (Part 10, p. 78). Endemic, Kinabalu only. (Upper montane).

Scopula ?albiflavaWarren (Part 10, p. 78). N.E. Himalaya, ?Borneo. (Lowland forest).

Scopula coangulataProut (Part 10, p. 79). N.E. Himalaya, Borneo. (Lowland forest).

Scopula voluptariaProut (Part 10, p. 79). Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia. Upper montane.

Scopula ?pallidicepsWarren (Part 10, p. 79). Java, Bali, Lombok, ?Borneo. (Lowland forest).

Scopula pauperataWalker (Part 10, p. 79). Endemic. Lowland (to upper montane). Note 180. Note 180. In the heading for S. pauperata, the author should have been Walker, not Prout.

Scopula leucopisProut (Part 10, p. 80). Endemic. (Upper montane).

Scopula quadratisparsaHolloway (Part 10, p. 80). Endemic, Kinabalu only. (Upper montane).

Scopula vacuataGuenée (Part 10, p. 80). Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia. Lowland forest (to lower montane).

Scopula subdecorataWarren (Part 10, p. 81). Endemic. (Upper montane).

Scopula hyphenophoraWarren (Part 10, p. 81). N.E. Himalaya, Sundaland. (Lowland forest).

Scopula succrassulaProut (Part 10, p. 81). Philippines, Borneo. (Lowland ?secondary vegetation).

Scopula ?sybillariaSwinhoe (Part 10, p. 81). China, ?Borneo. (Lowland forest).

Scopula melinauHolloway (Part 10, p. 82). Endemic. (Lowland forest in limestone).

Scopula nesciaroidesHolloway (Part 10, p. 82). Sundaland. (Lowland).

Scopula asymmetricaHolloway (Part 10, p. 82). Endemic. (Lowland and lower montane forest).

Scopula phallarcuataHolloway (Part 10, p. 83). Endemic. Lowland (and lower montane) forest.

Scopula deflavarioidesHolloway (Part 10, p. 83). Endemic. Lowland forest especially heath forest.

Scopula spp. (Part 10, p. 84). Three additional species have been recorded, represented by females only.

Tribe STERRHINI (24 species)

Idaea mundariaWalker (Part 10, p. 86). Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia. (Lowland and lower montane).

Idaea sundapilosataHolloway (Part 10, p. 87). Endemic. (Lowland heath forest, lower montane).

Idaea ptyonopodaHampson (Part 10, p. 87). N. E. Himalaya to S. China, Borneo, Java. (Upper montane).

Idaea ?sakuraiiInoue (Part 10, p. 88). Japan, S. China, Peninsular Malaysia (B), Borneo, Java. (Upper montane).

Idaea squamipunctataWarren (Part 10, p. 88). Java, Borneo. (Lowland forest).

Idaea themeropisWest (Part 10, p. 89). Philippines, Borneo. Upper montane.

Idaea damnataWalker (Part 10, p. 89). Endemic. (Lowland forest).

Idaea renunciataWalker (Part 10, p. 90). Status unclear.

Idaea marcidariaWalker (Part 10, p. 90). Oriental tropics to Borneo, Philippines. (Lowland).

Idaea chotariaSwinhoe (Part 10, p. 90). Oriental tropics. (Lowland plantation).

Idaea semisericeaWarren (Part 10, p. 91). Indian Subregion, Borneo, Java, Philippines. (Lowland).

Idaea phaeocrossaProut (Part 10, p. 91). Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia. Lowland (heath) forest, including secondary forest, (lower montane forest).

Idaea vacillataWalker (Part 10, p. 91). Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia, Sumatra (MS), N. E. Himalaya, Vietnam. Lowland forest.

Idaea craspedotaProut (Part 10, p. 92). N. E. Himalaya, Sundaland. Lowland forest.

Idaea galsworthyiHolloway (Part 10, p. 92). Endemic. (Montane).

Idaea violaceaHampson (Part 10, p. 93). India to S. China, Peninsular Malaysia (B), Borneo, Java. (Lowland).

Idaea egenariaWalker (Part 10, p. 93). Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia, Sumatra (MS), Taiwan, Wallacea, Seram. (Disturbed lowland forest).

Idaea assyriaHolloway (Part 10, p. 93). Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia, Sumatra (MS), Sulawesi. (Lowland forest, incl. secondary and coastal).

Idaea carnearia Warren (Part 10, p. 94). Sundaland. (Lowland heath) and lower montane forest.

Idaea sp. A.(Part 10, p. 94). Borneo. (Lowland).

Idaea sp. B. (Part 10, p. 94). Borneo. (Lowland).

Lophophleps purpureaHampson (Part 10, p. 95). Indian Subregion, Taiwan, Andamans, Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia, Sulawesi. Lowland forest.

Lophophleps triangularisHampson (Part 10, p. 96). N. E. Himalaya to Sundaland. (Lowland to upper montane).

Lophophleps phoenicopteraHampson (Part 10, p. 96). Indian Subregion, Sundaland. Lowland (to lower montane).

Subfamily OENOCHROMINAE (6 species)

Sarcinodes vultuaria Guenée (Part 9, p. 157). Thailand, Sundaland, Sulawesi. Lowland forest.

Sarcinodes reductatus Inoue (Part 9, p. 157). Sumatra, Java, Borneo. Lower and upper montane. Note 181. Note 181. The Bornean subspecies of S. reductatus, manfrediHolloway, is strongly separated from the typical race in DNA barcoding results and so may merit specific status (M.D. Sommerer, pers. comm.).

Sarcinodes tornubilatus Sommerer (Part 9, p. 158). Sundaland. Lower and upper montane.

Sarcinodes malakarius Sommerer (Part 9, p. 158). Sundaland. (Lower and upper montane).

Sarcinodes sumatraria Walker (Part 9, p. 159). Sundaland. (Lowland forest).

Sarcinodes perakaria Swinhoe (Part 9, p. 159). Sundaland. (Lowland to upper montane forests).

Subfamily DESMOBATHRINAE (45 species)

Tribe DESMOBATHRINI (35 species)

Ozola edui Sommerer (Part 9, p. 161). Sundaland. (Lowland).

Ozola basisparsata Walker (Part 9, p. 162). Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia, Engano, Philippines, (?Lowland)

Ozola turlini Herbulot (Part 9, p. 162; Plate 10). Sundaland, Sulawesi. Lowland. Note 182. Note 182. Ozola turlini has been reared from a larva on Cyrtandromoeamegaphylla (Scrophulariaceae) in Peninsular Malaysia (H.S. Barlow, pers. comm.). It is illustrated in Plate 10.

Ozola hollowayi Scoble & Sommerer (Part 9, p. 163). Sundaland to Bismarcks, Queensland. No precise habitat data.

Ozola minor Moore (Part 9, p. 163). Oriental tropics. Lowland.

Ozola impedita Walker (Part 9, p. 163). Endemic. (Lowland to lower montane).

Ozola pannosa Holloway (Part 9, p. 164). Sundaland. Lowland forest (to upper montane).

Ozola falcipennis Moore (Part 9, p. 164). N.E. Himalaya to Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia. Lower and upper montane.

Ozola liwana Sommerer (Part 9, p. 164). Borneo, Sumatra. Upper montane.

Ozola apparata Prout (Part 9, p. 165). Sundaland. (Upper montane).

Ozola prouti Holloway (Part 9, p. 165). Endemic. Upper montane.

Ozola submontana Holloway (Part 9, p. 165). Endemic. Lower and upper montane.

Noreia ajaia Walker (Part 9, p. 166). Oriental tropics to Sundaland. Lowland forest, (lower montane).

Noreia unilineata Walker (Part 9, p. 167). Sundaland. Lowland forest.

Noreia achloraria Warren (Part 9, p. 167). Sundaland, Sulawesi. Lowland forest.

Noreia anacardium Holloway (Part 9, p. 167). Endemic. (Lowland forest), lower (and upper) montane.

Noreia sinuilineata Holloway (Part 9, p. 168). Endemic. (Lowland forest).

Foveabathra venusta Warren (Part 9, p. 169). Sundaland. (Lowland).

Conolophia nigripuncta Hampson (Part 9, p. 169). Indian Subregion, mainland S.E. Asia, Borneo. (Lowland), lower and upper montane.

Alex palparia Walker (Part 9, Part 9, p. 170). Himalaya to Sundaland, Philippines, Lesser Sundas. Lowland and lower montane forests, (upper montane).

Celerena signata Warren (Parts 15 & 16, p.171). Sundaland. Lowland, particularly disturbed forest.

Derambila saponaria Guenée (Part 9, p. 172). Indian Subregion, Sundaland. No precise habitat data.

Derambila fragilis Butler (Part 9, p. 173). Oriental tropics. (Lowland).

Derambila zanclopterata Walker (Part 9, p. 173). Sundaland. (Lowland).

Derambila costata Warren (Part 9, p. 174). N.E. Himalaya, Borneo, Sumatra. (Lowland).

Derambila zincaria Guenée (Part 9, p. 174). Sundaland to New Guinea. Lowland disturbed and open habitats.

Derambila dentifera Moore (Part 9, p. 174). Oriental tropics to Sundaland, Philippines. (Lowland plantations).

Derambila propages Prout (Part 9, p. 175). Endemic. (Lowland).

Derambila dentiscripta Bastelberger (Part 9, p. 175). Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia (B), Sumatra, Sulawesi, Moluccas. (Lowland, upper montane).

Derambila lumenaria Geyer (Part 9, p. 175). Indian Subregion to Sundaland. (Lowland).

Derambila herbuloti Holloway (Part 9, p. 176). Endemic. (Lowland).

Derambila gertraudae Sommerer (Part 9, p. 176). N.E. Himalaya, Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia (B), Sumatra. (?Lower montane).

Derambila manfredi Holloway (Part 9, p. 176). Endemic. (Lower montane forest).

Derambila manca Swinhoe (Part 9, p. 177). Endemic, N. Sarawak. Lowland alluvial forest.

Derambila livens Prout (Part 9, p. 177). Endemic. (Lowland forest).

Tribe EUMELEINI (10 species)

Eumelea rosalia Stoll (Part 9, p. 179). Indo-Australian tropics. (Lowland).

Eumelea feliciata Guenée (Part 9, p. 180). N.E. Himalaya, Borneo, Sumatra. (Montane).

Eumelea unilineata Warren (Part 9, p. 180). Borneo, Philippines. (Lowland).

Eumelea florinata Guenée (Part 9, p. 180). N.E. Himalaya to Sundaland. Lowland forest.

Eumelea biflavata Warren (Part 9, p. 181). N.E. Himalaya to Sundaland. Lowland forest.

Eumelea ludovicata Guenée (Part 9, p. 181). Indo-Australian tropics. No precise habitat data. Note 183. Note 183. Leong & Low (2010) illustrated the mature larva and metamorphosis of Eumelea ludovicata in Singapore. The larva is mottled and variegated in shades of grey and appears twig-like at rest supported only by its two pairs of prolegs. The pupa was found within a shelter of leaves fastened with silk, and was as described in Part 6. The host plant was not reliably established but may have been Macaranga (Euphorbiaceae).

Eumelea rubrifusa Warren (Part 9, p. 182). Borneo, Wallacea. Upper montane.

Eumelea parda Sommerer (Part 9, p. 183). Sundaland. (Lowland)

Eumelea ?djingga Sommerer (Part 9, p. 183). Borneo, Sumatra. (Lower montane).

Eumelea obesata Felder & Rogenhofer (Part 9, p. 184). Borneo, Philippines. Upper montane.

Subfamily GEOMETRINAE (220 species)

Tribe DYSPHANIINI (8 species)

Dysphania militaris Linnaeus (Part 9, p. 186). Oriental Region to Sundaland. (?Lowland).

Dysphania sagana Druce (Part 9, p. 187). S.E. Asia, Sundaland. (Lowland).

Dysphania subrepleta Walker (Part 9, p. 187). N.E. Himalaya to Hainan and Sundaland. Lowland to upper montane.

Dysphania bivexillata Prout (Part 9, p. 187). Sundaland. Mangrove.

Dysphania discalis Walker (Part 9, p. 188). Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia. (Montane).

Dysphania malayanus Guérin-Méneville (Part 9, p. 188). Sundaland. Lowland forest. Note 184. Note 184. Leong, Groenewoud & Foo (2009) reared Dysphania malayanus in Singapore from a final instar larva found on Carallia brachiata as in Borneo. They illustrated the larva, pupa and adult in colour. The appearance of the final instar is typical of the genus as discussed in Part 9, yellow with arrays of black spots and bluish regions, the last rather minimal as in the larva of D. transducta illustrated by Barlow (1982). The pupa is also typical, with pale-rimmed black discs or ellipses over the spiracles and a pair of very much larger discs of this type on the anterior of the thoracic part.

Dysphania transducta Walker (Part 9, p. 189). Burma, Sundaland. Lowland forest.

Dysphania glaucescens Walker (Part 9, p. 189). Sundaland. (Lowland). Note 185. Note 185. Leong (2010a) has illustrated the early stages of D. glaucescens in Singapore. The larva and pupa are typical of the genus as described in the previous note, but the larva is more generally and evenly spotted with blue, rather than black, and there is a narrow yellow lateral line that fades away over the thoracic segments. The host plant was Pellacalyx (Rhizophoraceae).

Tribe PSEUDOTERPNINI (37 species)

Orthorisma netunaria Guenée (Part 9, p. 197). Borneo, Sumatra. (Lowland, lower montane forest).

Actenochroma muscicoloraria Walker (Part 9, p. 198). N.E. Himalaya, Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia (B), Sumatra. (Lowland).

Herochroma urapteraria Walker (Part 9, p. 199). Sundaland. (Lowland), lower and upper montane.

Herochroma subtepens Walker (Part 9, p. 49). Sundaland. (Lowland, lower montane forests).

Herochroma baibarana Matsumura (Part 9, p. 199, as orientalis Holloway). Indian Subregion, Taiwan, Sundaland. (Lower and upper montane). Note 186. Note 186. Inoue (1999b) found that Herochroma orientalis Holloway was conspecific with baibarana Matsumura, described from Taiwan.

Herochroma cristata Warren (Inoue, 1999b: 94). N.E. Himalaya to Taiwan and Thailand; Borneo, Sumatra. (Montane). Note 187. Note 187. Inoue (1999b) recorded H. cristata Warren from Sumatra and Borneo as ssp. rubicunda Inoue.

Herochroma xuthopletes Prout (Part 9, p. 200). Sundaland. (Lowland forest). Note 188. Note 188. Inoue (1999b) placed H. xuthopletes Prout as a subspecies of subspoliata Prout (S. India), which he resurrected from synonymy with cristata. However, Pitkin, Han & James (2007) returned xuthopletes to the status of full species.

Herochroma hemiticheres Prout (Inoue, 1999b: 201). Thailand, Sundaland. (Lowland to montane). Note 189. Note 189. Inoue (1999b: 101) placed H.thaiensis Inoue as a synonym of hemiticheres Prout and recorded it from Borneo, including a female paratype of clariscripta Holloway.

Herochroma flavibasalis Warren (Part 9, p. 200). Sundaland. (Lowland) and lower montane forest.

Herochroma clariscripta Holloway (Part 9, p. 201). Borneo, Sumatra, ?N. Vietnam. (Lowland). Note 190. Note 190. Inoue (1999b: 102) recorded H. clariscripta from Sumatra and possibly N. Vietnam,  but, with more extensive material to hand, questioned whether it was definitely distinct from flavibasalis.

Sundadoxa multidentata Prout (Part 9, p. 202). Sundaland. Lowland and lower montane forest.

Pullichroma pullicosta Prout (Part 9, p. 203). Borneo, Sumatra. Wallacea. (Upper montane forest).

Metallolophia vitticosta Walker (Part 9, p. 203). Sundaland. Lowland (and lower montane) forest.

Metallolophia subradiata Warren (Part 9, p. 203). Sundaland. (Lowland) and lower montane forest.

Metallolophia variegata Holloway (Part 9, p. 204). Endemic. (Lowland) and lower montane forest Note 191. Note 191. Han, Galsworthy & Xue ([2004] 2005) raised the possibility that Metallolophia variegata and M. cineracea were conspecific, but more material is needed to test this, particularly in view of the ecological differences noted in the original description.

Metallolophia cineracea Holloway (Part 9, p. 204). Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia. (Lowland heath forest). Note 191. Note 191. Han, Galsworthy & Xue ([2004] 2005) raised the possibility that Metallolophia variegata and M. cineracea were conspecific, but more material is needed to test this, particularly in view of the ecological differences noted in the original description.

Epipristis truncataria Walker (Part 9, p. 205). Sundaland. Lowland.

Epipristis nelearia Guenée (Part 9, p. 205). Indo-Australian tropics to Queensland. Lowland.

Pingasa ruginaria Guenée (Part 9, p. 206). Indian Subregion to Sundaland. Lowland (to montane). Note 192. Note 192. Leong & Groenewoud (2008) have provided further, more detailed illustrations of the larva of Pingasa ruginaria Guenée, also illustrated in Part 9. They added the genus Girroniera (Ulmaceae) to the list of recorded host-plants.

Pingasa chlora Stoll (Part 9, p. 207). Sundaland, Wallacea, Moluccas, Queensland. Disturbed and cultivated areas, lowland to lower montane.

Pingasa lariaria Walker (Part 9, p. 207). Indo-Australian tropics from N. India to New Guinea. Lowland to upper montane.

Pingasa rubicunda Warren (Part 9, p. 208). N. India, Sundaland, Philippines. Lowland forests, including disturbed areas and plantations, (lower montane forest).

Pingasa rubimontana Holloway & Sommerer (Part 9, p. 208). Borneo, Sumatra, Sulawesi. Upper montane.

Pingasa tapungkanana Strand (Part 9, p. 208). Sundaland. Lowland to upper montane.

Pingasa subviridis Warren (Part 9, p. 209). India, Sundaland. Lowland to upper montane forests.

Pingasa subpurpurea Warren (Part 9, p. 209). Borneo, Wallacea. (Lowland).

Pingasa venusta Warren (Part 9, p. 209). N.E. Himalaya to New Guinea. Lowland to lower montane forest, often in areas with disturbed or secondary forest.

Pachyodes pratti Prout (Part 9, p. 210). Sundaland. (Lowland and lower montane).

Lophophelma vigens Butler (Part 9, p. 211). Himalaya, Sundaland. Lower and upper montane.

Lophophelma rubroviridata Warren (Part 9, p. 211). Sundaland. Lower and upper montane.

Lophophelma luteipes Felder & Rogenhofer (Part 9, p. 212). N.E. Himalaya, Sundaland. Lower and upper montane.

Lophophelma funebrosa Warren (Part 9, p. 212). N.E. Himalaya, Sundaland, Lesser Sundas. (Lowland).

Lophophelma loncheres Prout (Part 9, p. 212). Sundaland. Lowland forest.

Lophophelma erionoma Swinhoe (Part 9, p. 213). N.E. Himalaya, W. China, Sundaland. Lower and upper montane.

Dindica alaopis Prout (Part 9, p. 214). Endemic. Lower and upper montane.

Dindica polyphaenaria Guenée (Part 9, p. 214). Himalaya, S.E. Asia, Sundaland. (Lowland).

Dindica olivacea Inoue (Part 9, p. 214). N.E. Himalaya to Borneo, Sumatra, Philippines. Lowland.

Tribe GEOMETRINI (175 species)

Tanaorhinus malayanus Inoue (Part 9, p. 215). Sundaland. (Upper montane).

Tanaorhinus rafflesii Moore (Part 9, p. 216). Sundaland. Lowland to upper montane.

Tanaorhinus viridiluteata Walker (Part 9, p. 216). N.E. Himalaya to Taiwan and Sundaland. Lowland to upper montane.

Mixochlora vittata Moore (Part 9, p. 217). Himalaya to Japan and Sundaland. (Lower) to upper montane. Note 193. Note 193. The illustrations of moths and male genitalia of these Mixochlora Warren species are transposed. The transposition of the plates was recorded in Part 5 (p. 155), but that of the genitalia (M.D. Sommerer, pers. comm.) is noted here: fig 168 is argentifusa and fig 169 is vittata.

Mixochlora argentifusa Walker (Part 9, p. 217). Sundaland, Sulawesi. (Lowland forest). Note 193. Note 193. The illustrations of moths and male genitalia of these Mixochlora Warren species are transposed. The transposition of the plates was recorded in Part 5 (p. 155), but that of the genitalia (M.D. Sommerer, pers. comm.) is noted here: fig 168 is argentifusa and fig 169 is vittata.

Timandromorpha energes Prout (Part 9, p. 218). Thailand, Sundaland. Lower to upper montane. Note 194. Note 194. Han & Xue (2004) and Stüning & Yazaki (2008) have reviewed Timandromorpha Inoue, describing four new Oriental species: inouei Stüning & Yazaki (Thailand, Vietnam); olivaria Han & Xue (S.W. China: Yunnan); pinratanai Stüning & Yazaki (Burma, Thailand, Laos, Cambodia); wangi Stüning & Yazaki (S.E. China, N. Vietnam).

Chloroglyphica xeromeris Prout (Part 9, p. 219). Sundaland. (Lowland), upper montane.

Paramaxates polygrapharia Walker (Part 9, p. 220). Sundaland, Sulawesi. Lowland forest, (lower and upper montane).

Paramaxates posterecta Holloway (Part 9, p. 220). N.E. Himalaya to Taiwan and Sundaland. (Lowland). Upper montane forest.

Paramaxates macrocerata Yazaki (Part 9, p. 220). Sundaland. (Lowland).

Paramaxates yazakii Holloway (Part 9, p. 220). Sundaland. Lower and upper montane.

Paramaxatesspinivesica Holloway (Part 9, p. 221). Endemic. No habitat data.

Dooabia plana Prout (Part 9, p. 222). Endemic. Upper montane.

Dooabia lunifera Moore (Part 9, p. 222). N.E. Himalaya, Borneo, Sumatra. Upper montane.

Dooabia puncticostata Prout (Parts 15 & 16, p. 223). Sundaland. Lowland (to montane).

Dooabia bruneiconcha Holloway (Part 9, p. 223). Borneo, Sumatra (MS). (Lowland forest).

Euxena albiguttata Warren (Part 9, p. 224). Sundaland, Sulawesi. Lowland.

Chlorodontopera chalybeata Moore (Part 9, p. 225). N.E. Himalaya, mainland S.E. Asia, Borneo, Sumatra. (Lowland).

Agathia succedanea Warren (Part 9, p. 226). Borneo, Sumatra. Lower and upper montane.

Agathia laetata Fabricius (Part 9, p. 226). Indian Subregion to Taiwan and Sundaland. Lowland forest.

Agathia quinaria Moore (Part 9, p. 227). N.E. Himalaya, Sundaland. Lowland (and lower montane) forest.

Agathia largita Holloway (Part 9, p. 227). Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia (B), Sumatra. (Lowland).

Agathia arcuata Moore (Part 9, p. 227). Indian Subregion to Hainan and Sundaland. Lowland forest.

Agathia deliciosa Holloway & Sommerer (Part 9, p. 228). Borneo, Sumatra. (Lowland forest).

Agathia rubrilineata Warren (Part 9, p. 228). Sundaland. (Lowland and lower montane forest).

Agathia eromenoides Holloway (Part 9, p. 228). Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia. (Lowland forest).

Agathia diplochorda Prout (Part 9, p. 228). Sundaland. (Lowland and lower montane forest).,

Agathia codina Swinhoe (Part 9, p. 229). N.E. Himalaya, Sundaland. (Lowland forest).

Agathia obsoleta Warren (Part 9, p. 229). Sundaland, Philippines. (Lowland forest).

Agathia gigantea Butler(Part 9, p. 229). Sundaland. (Lowland forest).

Agathia vicina Bastelberger (Part 9, p. 230). Sundaland. (Lowland forest).

Agathia cristifera Walker (Part 9, p. 230). Sundaland. (Lowland forest).

Agathia muluensis Holloway (Part 9, p. 230). Endemic. Lower montane forest.

Agathia laqueifera Prout(Part 9, p. 231). N.E. Himalaya, Sundaland. Lowland forest.

Agathia spp.(Part 9, p. 231). Possibly two further lowland species of the cristifera group occur in Borneo.

Ornithospila avicularia Guenée(Part 9, p. 233). N.E. Himalaya, Borneo, Sumatra, Philippines. Lowland forest (and lower montane).

Ornithospila bipunctata Prout (Part 9, p. 233). Sundaland, Wallacea. Lowland to upper montane.

Ornithospila submonstrans Walker (Part 9, p. 233). Sundaland, Philippines, Moluccas. Lowland to upper montane.

Ornithospila sundaensis Holloway (Part 9, p. 233). Sundaland. Lowland and lower montane forest, (upper montane).

Ornithospila cincta Walker (Part 9, p. 234). Sundaland. Lowland forest, (montane).

Ornithospila succincta Prout (Part 9, p. 234). Sundaland, Philippines, New Guinea. Lowland to upper montane.

Ornithospila lineata Moore (Part 9, p. 234). Indian Subregion, mainland S.E. Asia, Borneo, Sumatra. (Lowland, upper montane).

Ornithospila esmeralda Hampson(Part 9, p. 234). N.E. Himalaya, Sundaland, Philippines. (Lowland, upper montane).

Eucyclodes gavissima Walker (Part 9, p. 236). Indian Subregion to Taiwan and Borneo, Sumatra. (Lowland forest).

Eucyclodes charma Prout (Part 9, p. 236). Sundaland. (Lowland).

Eucyclodes textiloides Holloway (Part 9, p. 236). Sundaland. (Lowland forest).

Eucyclodes albisparsa Walker (Part 9, p. 237). Indian Subregion, Sundaland, Sulawesi. (Lowland) and lower montane forest.

Eucyclodes rufimargo Warren (Part 9, p. 237). Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia, Sulawesi. (Lowland forest).

Eucyclodes discipennata Walker (Part 9, p. 238). Sundaland. (Lowland to upper montane).

Eucyclodes semialba Walker (Part 9, p. 238). Indian Subregion to Sundaland. Lowland forest, (upper montane).

Eucyclodes discata Warren (Part 9, p. 238). Endemic. (Lowland, lower and) upper montane.

Rhombocentra semipurpurea Warren(Part 9, p. 239). N.E. Himalaya, Peninsular Malaysia, Borneo, Sumatra. Lowland forest.

Spaniocentra megaspilaria Guenée (Part 9, p. 240). Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia. Lowland forest (and lower montane).

Spaniocentra apatelloides Holloway (Part 9, p. 240). Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia. Upper montane.

Spaniocentra lobata Holloway (Part 9, p. 241). Endemic. Lowland forest (and lower montane).

Comibaena albimarginata Warren(Part 9, p. 242). N.E. Himalaya, Borneo, Sumatra. Upper montane.

Comibaena biplaga Walker(Part 9, p. 242). N.E. Himalaya, Sundaland. Lowland forest (and lower montane). Note 195. Note 195. Comibaena biplaga, C. fuscidorsata and C. attenuata have been reared from Bauhinia (Leguminosae) in Peninsular Malaysia (H.S. Barlow, unpublished).

Comibaena cassidara Guenée (Part 9, p. 242). India to China and Borneo. (Cultivated areas in lowland and lower montane zones).

Comibaena fuscidorsata Prout(Part 9, p. 243). N.E. Himalaya, Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia (B), Sumatra. Lowland forest (and lower montane). Note 195. Note 195. Comibaena biplaga, C. fuscidorsata and C. attenuata have been reared from Bauhinia (Leguminosae) in Peninsular Malaysia (H.S. Barlow, unpublished).

Comibaena attenuata Warren (Part 9, p. 243). Sundaland, Wallacea. Lowland forests including plantations. Note 195. Note 195. Comibaena biplaga, C. fuscidorsata and C. attenuata have been reared from Bauhinia (Leguminosae) in Peninsular Malaysia (H.S. Barlow, unpublished).

Protuliocnemis partita Walker (Part 9, p. 244). Indo-Australian tropics. Lowland forest, (upper montane).

Protuliocnemis helpsi Holloway(Part 9, p. 245). Borneo, Singapore. Mangrove.

Protuliocnemis biplagiata Moore (Part 9, p. 245). Indo‑Australian tropics. Lowland (to upper montane).

Chlorochromodes albicatena Warren(Part 9, p. 246, under Comostolodes). N.E. Himalaya, Borneo, Sumatra. (Lower and upper montane). Note 196. Note 196. When establishing the generic synonymy of Comostolodes Warren and Chlorochromodes Warren in Part 9, the younger genus was erroneously given priority, an error noted by Han Hongxiang and colleagues who are preparing a paper on the Comibaenini of China. The senior generic name is Chlorochromodes.

Chlorochromodes dialitha West(Part 9, p. 246, under Comostolodes). Borneo, Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia (FRIM colln), Java, Philippines. Lowland forest (and lower montane). Note 196. Note 196. When establishing the generic synonymy of Comostolodes Warren and Chlorochromodes Warren in Part 9, the younger genus was erroneously given priority, an error noted by Han Hongxiang and colleagues who are preparing a paper on the Comibaenini of China. The senior generic name is Chlorochromodes.

Argyrocosma strepens Prout(Part 9, p. 247). Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia (B), Sumatra, Sulawesi. (Lowland).

Argyrocosma inductaria Guenée(Part 9, p. 247). Indian Subregion, Peninsular Malaysia (B), Borneo. Lowland forest.

Argyrocosma consobrina Warren(Part 9, p. 248). Borneo, Java to Bismarcks and Queensland. (Lowland forest).

Aporandria specularia Guenée(Part 9, p. 248). Oriental tropics. Lowland, including disturbed areas.

Oenospila flavifusata Walker(Part 9, p. 249). Oriental tropics to Sundaland. Lowland forests and plantations.

Oenospila microstrix Holloway(Part 9, p. 250). Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia (B), Sumatra. (Lowland forest). Note 197. Note 197. Hausmann & Sommerer (2001) made further observations on the complex of species in Oenospila Swinhoe when describing a new species, O. kopperi Hausmann & Sommerer, from Sumatra.

Oenospila altistrix Holloway(Part 9, p. 250). Endemic. (Lower and upper montane).

Olerospila oleraria Guenée (Part 9, p. 251). Sundaland to Solomons. (Lowland forest, montane). Note 198. Note 198. Olerospila oleraria has been reared from Bauhinia (Leguminosae) in Peninsular Malaysia (H.S. Barlow, unpublished).

Episothalma robustaria Guenée(Part 9, p. 252). Indian Subregion to Sundaland. (Lowland forest).

Eretmopus marinaria Guenée(Part 9, p. 253). Thailand to New Guinea. Mangrove.

Thalassodes opalinoides Holloway(Part 9, p. 255). Endemic. Lowland to upper montane.

Thalassodes depulsata Walker(Part 9, p. 255). Borneo, Sulawesi. (Lowland alluvial forest).

Thalassodes immissaria Walker(Part 9, p. 256). ?Oriental tropics. (Lowland). Note 199. Note 199. Inoue (2005b, 2006) has indicated that Thalassodes inaminata Inoue is distinct from immissaria Walker. Its distribution from Japan, Taiwan, Thailand, Sumatra and the Philippines suggests it may also occur in Borneo. It has a more acute flap of the valve of the male genitalia, a particularly robust cornutus in the aedeagus and a more deeply and broadly excavate eighth sternite. In the female, the ductus bursae is much shorter.

Thalassodes sundissepta Holloway(Part 9, p. 256). Sundaland. Lowland forest, (lower montane).

Thalassodes dissitoides Holloway(Part 9, p. 257). Andamans, Sundaland, Wallacea. Lowland forest. (lower montane). Note 200. Note 200. T. indistantus Inoue (2006) is very similar to dissitoides and may occur in Borneo, as it has been recorded from Peninsular Malaysia, Sumatra, the Philippines and Sulawesi. The setose lobe on the male sacculus is replaced by a triangular plate, and there is a triangular process from the transtilla.

Thalassodes linguissita Holloway(Part 9, p. 257). Borneo, Sumatra. (Lowland forest). Note 201. Note 201. T. sulawesus Inoue (2006) is a species related to linguissita from Sulawesi and the Philippines.

Thalassodes viridifascia Swinhoe(Part 9, p. 258). Borneo, Philippines. (Lower montane). Note 202. Note 202. Inoue (2006) recorded T. viridifascia from the Philippines but suggested that material from Seram and Sulawesi, associated with viridifascia in Part 9, represented a separate species.

Orothalassodes curiosa Swinhoe(Part 9, p. 258, under Thalassodes). N.E. Himalaya, Sundaland, Sulawesi, S. Moluccas. Upper montane. Note 203. Note 203. The placement of Orothalassodes curiosa was discussed in Part 9 and considered somewhat intermediate in character between Thalassodes and Orothalassodes. Inoue (2006) transferred it to the latter, an arrangement that is adopted here.

Orothalassodes hypocrites Prout(Part 9, p. 259). N.E. Himalaya, Thailand, Vietnam, Sundaland, Sulawesi. (Lower montane).

Orothalassodes retaka Holloway(Part 9, p. 260). Endemic. (Upper montane).

Orothalassodes leucoceraea Prout(Part 9, p. 260). Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia. (Lowland heath forest, upper montane).

Orothalassodes floccosa Prout(Part 9, p. 260). Sundaland, Philippines. (Lower and upper montane).

Orothalassodes glabrosa Holloway(Part 9, p. 260). Endemic. (Lowland, upper montane).

Orothalassodes falsaria Prout(Part 9, p. 265, under Pelagodes). India, Borneo, Sumatra (MS), Java, Bali. Upper montane. Note 204. Note 204. Inoue (2005) correctly transferred falsaria from Pelagodes to Orothalassodes. The male abdomen, particuarly the eighth segment, has characteristics more in common with the latter.

Pelagodes forceps Holloway(Part 9, p. 262). Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia, Nias (MS), Palawan, Sulawesi. (Lowland, lower montane).

Pelagodes cochlearis Holloway(Part 9, p. 262). Borneo, Sumatra. (Lowland).

Pelagodes rana Holloway(Part 9, p. 262). Borneo, Sumatra (MS). No precise habitat data. Note 205. Note 205. Species possibly related to Pelagodes rana occur in the Philippines: P. semirana Inoue (2006); P. denticulatus Inoue (2006).

Pelagodes waterstradti Holloway(Part 9, p. 262). Endemic. (Montane).

Pelagodes tridens Holloway(Part 9, p. 263). Endemic. (Lowland).

Pelagodes semengok Holloway(Part 9, p. 263). Taiwan, Sundaland, Philippines. (Lowland forest).

Pelagodes semihyalina Walker(Part 9, p. 263). Sundaland, ?Sulawesi. Lowland forest. Note 206. Note 206. Inoue (2006) referred to a record by Debauche of P. semihyalina from Sulawesi but indicated that this record required confirmation.

Pelagodes clarifimbria Prout (Part 9, p. 264). Sri Lanka, Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia, Sumatra (MS). (Lowland forest). Note 207. Note 207. Species related to P. clarifimbria are; ultimarius Inoue (2006) from Sulawesi and the Philippines; mirandus Inoue (2006)  from the Philippines. Inoue did not consider this trio as closer to Remiformvalva Inoue (see below) than to Pelagodes as suggested in Part 9 for clarifimbria, but this suggestion should be revisited.

Remiformvalva spiniseparati Holloway(Part 9, p. 264, under Pelagodes). Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia. (Lower montane forest). Note 208. Note 208. The genus Remiformvalva Inoue (2006) was described to accommodate the species complex discussed in Part 9 related to spiniseparati, with description of a new species, R. longicornuta Inoue, from the Philippines. R. viridicaput Warren is now (Inoue, 2006) recorded from Peninsular Malaysia as well as Sulawesi, so may also occur in Borneo.

Hemithea neptunariaHolloway(Part 9, p. 266). Endemic. Lower montane.

Hemithea krakenaria Holloway(Part 9, p. 266). Endemic. (Lowland forest).

Hemithea poseidonaria Holloway(Part 9, p. 267). Endemic. (Lowland) and lower montane forest.

Hemithea undifera Walker(Part 9, p. 267). Sundaland. Lowland forest.

Hemithea insularia Guenée(Part 9, p. 267). Indo-Australian tropics. (Lowland forest).

Hemithea antigrapha Prout(Part 9, p. 268). N.E. Himalaya, Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia. (Lowland and lower montane forest).

Hemithea marina Butler(Part 9, p. 268). Oriental tropics, Seram. Lowland forest.

Hemithea notospila Prout(Part 9, p. 268). Sundaland, Sulawesi. (Lowland, upper montane).

Hemithea melalopha Prout(Part 9, p. 269). N.E. Himalaya,Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia, Philippines, Seram. (Lowland forest).

Hemithea wuka Pagenstecher(Part 9, p. 269). Indo-Australian tropics. (Lowland Pinus plantation).

Pamphlebia rubrolimbraria Guenée(Part 9, p. 270). Indo-Australian tropics. (Lowland).

Idiochlora pudentifimbria Prout(Part 9, p. 271). N.E. Himalaya, Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia. (Lowland).

Idiochlora celataria Walker(Part 9, p. 271). Peninsular Malaysia, Borneo to New Guinea, Queensland. (Lowland).

Idiochlora subexpressa Walker(Part 9, p. 272). Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia? (Lowland).

Idiochlora innotata Walker(Part 9, p. 272). Borneo, Sumatra. (Lowland).

Idiochlora olivata Warren(Part 9, p. 272). Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia. (Lowland).

Idiochlora berwicki Holloway(Part 9, p. 272). Endemic. (Upper montane).

Idiochlora stictogramma Prout(Part 9, p. 273). Endemic. (Upper montane).

Idiochlora stictogrammoides Holloway(Part 9, p. 273). Endemic. (Upper montane).

Idiochlora xanthochlora Swinhoe (Part 10, p. 203). N.E. Himalaya, Borneo, Sumatra (MS), Timor. (Lowland forest).

Albinospila floresaria Walker(Part 9, p. 274). Oriental tropics. Lowland forest, (upper montane).

Maxates coelataria Walker(Part 9, p. 275). Indian Subregion to Sundaland. (Lowland forest).

Maxates dysides Prout(Part 9, p. 276). Borneo, Sumatra. Lowland forest.

Maxates thetydaria Guenée(Part 9, p. 276). Indian Subregion to Taiwan, Borneo. Lower and upper montane.

Maxates veninotata Warren(Part 9, p. 276). N.E. Himalaya, Peninsular Malaysia (B), Borneo. (Lowland forest).

Maxates waterstradti Prout(Part 9, p. 277). Endemic. (Lower and upper montane).

Maxates melinau Holloway(Part 9, p. 277). Endemic. (Lowland forest).

Maxates iridescoides Holloway(Part 9, p. 277). Endemic. (Lower montane).

Maxates magnipuncta Prout(Part 9, p. 278). Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia. Lowland forest.

Maxates submontana Holloway(Part 9, p. 278). Endemic. Lower montane.

Maxates korintjiensis Prout(Part 9, p. 278). Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia (B), Sumatra. (Lower and upper montane).

Maxates melancholica Prout(Part 9, p. 278). Sundaland. (Lower montane).

Maxates tristis Holloway(Part 9, p. 279). Endemic. (Lowland forest).

Maxates marculenta Prout(Part 9, p. 279). Endemic. Lower and upper montane.

Maxates lugubriosa Holloway (Part 9, p. 279). Borneo, Java. Lowland forest.

Maxates variegata Holloway (Part 9, p. 280). Endemic. (Upper montane).

Maxates obliterata Holloway (Part 9, p. 280). Endemic. Lowland forest.

Maxates muluensis Holloway (Part 9, p. 280). Borneo, Sumatra (MS). Lowland forest.

Maxates seria Holloway(Part 9, p. 281). Borneo, Sumatra? (coastal/secondary forest).

Maxates sp. (Part 9, p. 281). Endemic. (Lowland forest).

Chlorissa aquamarina Hampson (Part 9, p. 282). N.E. Himalaya, Borneo. (Lowland), lower (and upper) montane forest.

Anoplosceles nigripunctata Warren (Part 9, p. 282). Sundaland. Lowland forest.

Chloristola setosa Holloway (Part 9, p. 283). Endemic. Lowland forest.

Jodis nanda Walker (Part 9, p. 284). Oriental tropics. (Lowland).

Jodis subtractata Walker (Part 9, p. 284). Oriental tropics to Sundaland. Lowland forest.

Jodis spumifera Warren (Part 9, p. 285). Sundaland. (Lower and upper montane).

Jodis rectisecta Herbulot (Part 9, p. 285). Borneo, Palawan. (Lower montane).

Jodis api Holloway (Part 9, p. 285). Endemic. (Lower montane).

Berta vaga Walker (Part 9, p. 286). Borneo, Sumatra. (Lowland forest).

Berta annulifera Warren (Part 9, p. 286). N.E. Himalaya to Bismarcks. Lowland (and lower montane) forest.

Berta chrysolineata Walker (Part 9, p. 287). Indo-Australian tropics. Lowland forest.

Berta digitijuxta Holloway (Part 9, p. 288). Borneo, Java. (Upper montane).

Berta cercifera Holloway (Part 9, p. 288). Borneo. (Lowland).

Berta tridentijuxta Holloway (Part 9, p. 289). Borneo, Sumatra (MS), Sulawesi, Seram. (Lowland and lower montane forest).

Berta albiplaga Warren (Part 9, p. 289). N.E. Himalaya to New Guinea. (Lowland forest).

Berta anteplaga Prout (Part 9, p. 289). N.E. Himalaya, Borneo. (Lower montane).

Berta copiosa Prout (Part 9, p. 290). N.E. Himalaya, Sundaland. (Lowland forest, upper montane).

Berta zygophyxia Prout (Part 9, p. 290). Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia. (Lower montane forest).

Berta sp. (Part 9, p. 291). Borneo, Sumatra. (Lowland Pinus plantation).

Comostola laesaria Walker (Part 9, p. 292). Indo-Australian tropics. Lowland forest.

Comostola orestias Prout (Part 9, p. 292). Sundaland, New Guinea. Lowland to upper montane.

Comostola meritaria Walker (Part 9, p. 293). Sri Lanka, Taiwan, Borneo, Sumatra, Sulawesi. (Lowland and lower montane forest).

Comostola nereidaria Snellen (Part 9, p. 293). Borneo, Sulawesi to Solomons. (Lowland forest).

Comostola subtiliaria Bremer (Part 9, p. 293). N.E. Himalaya to Japan, Korea, Borneo, Sumatra. Upper montane.

Comostola cedilla Prout (Part 9, p. 294). Sundaland to New Guinea and Queensland. (Lowland forest).

Comostola chlorargyra Walker (Part 9, p. 294). Oriental tropics. Lowland forest.

Comostola inouei Holloway (Part 9, p. 294, as enodata Holloway; see Part 10, p. 205). Sundaland, Sulawesi, New Guinea. Lowland forest, including disturbed forest.

Comostola pyrrhogona Walker (Part 9, p. 295). Indo-Australian tropics. Lowland (and lower montane) forest.

Comostola turgescens Prout (Part 9, p. 295). N.E. Himalaya, Sundaland, Sulawesi. (Lowland and lower montane forest.

Comostola dyakaria Walker (Part 9, p. 296). N.E. Himalaya, Sundaland, Philippines. Lower montane.

Pseudocomostola cosmetocraspeda Prout (Part 9, p. 297). N.E. Himalaya, Peninsular Malaysia, Borneo. (Lowland and lower montane forest).

Mystichlora mystica Prout (Part 9, p. 297). Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia (FRIM colln), Sumatra, Sulawesi. (Lowland forest).

Pseudidiochlora temburong Holloway (Part 9, p. 298). Endemic. (Lowland forest).

Rhanidopsis alleni Holloway (Part 9, p. 299). Borneo, Sumatra. (Lowland forest).

Geometrine species A (Part 9, p. 300). Borneo, Sumatra (MS). (Lowland heath forest).

Geometrine species B (Part 9, p. 300). Endemic. (Lowland).

Subfamily ENNOMINAE (445 species)

Tribe HYPOCHROSINI (62 species)

Hypochrosis sternaria Guenée (Part 11, p. 19). Oriental tropics to Sundaland. Lowland forest.

Hypochrosis pyrrhophaeata Walker (Part 11, p. 19). N. E. Himalaya, Sundaland. Lowland forest, lower montane (and upper montane).

Hypochrosis binexata Walker (Part 11, p. 19). Sundaland. Lowland forest, particularly secondary and disturbed forest.

Hypochrosis waterstradti Holloway (Part 11, p. 20). Endemic. Lowland (to montane) forest.

Hypochrosis albodecorata Swinhoe (Part 11, p. 20). Endemic. Lower to upper montane.

Hypochrosis subrufa Bastelberger (Part 11, p. 20). Borneo, ?Palawan. Lowland forest.

Hypochrosis cryptopyrrhata Walker (Part 11, p. 21). Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia (B), Sumatra. Lowland and lower montane forest.

Hypochrosis hyadaria Guenée (Part 11, p. 21). Oriental tropics. Lower and upper montane forest.

Omiza lycoraria Guenée (Part 11, p. 22). Sundaland. Lowland forest (to upper montane).

Omiza miliaria Swinhoe (Part 11, p. 23). Indo-Australian tropics. (Lower montane).

Omiza herois Prout (Part 11, p. 23). Endemic. Upper montane.

Celenna festivaria Fabricius (Part 11, p. 24). Oriental tropics to Sundaland and Philippines. Lower and upper montane. Note 209. Note 209. Celenna dintelmanni Stüning occurs in the Philippines (Mindanao) and has features in common with C. festivaria Fabricius (Stüning, 2005b). Stüning (loc. cit.) is preparing a more detailed study of the genus.

Celenna centraria Snellen (Part 11, p. 25). Borneo, Sumatra. Lowland forest, (lower montane).

Celenna callopistes Prout (Part 11, p. 25). Sundaland. (Alluvial forest).

Celenna muscicolor Warren (Part 11, p. 25). N. E. Himalaya, Borneo, Sumatra. Lower to upper montane.

Genusa simplex Warren (Part 11, p. 26). Sundaland. (Lowland forest). Note 210. Note 210. S.‑H. Yen (pers. comm.) has studied the life history of the Genusa species in Taiwan. It was unusual in that pupation is on the surface of a leaf and involves an abdominal girdle, the first record of this feature in Geometridae outside the Cosymbiini of the Sterrhinae (see Note 175). The cremaster is also attached to a silken pad. The pupa also has unusual slender black horns on each side of the prothoracic segment and a conspicuous pair of black spots with irregular paler surrounds on the mesothorax. The host plant recorded was Gonocaryum (Cardiopteridaceae (S.‑H. Yen, pers. comm.); previously in Icacinaceae (Mabberley, 1987)). This host plant has also facilitated searches for the genus elsewhere, e.g. Hainan (S.‑H. Yen, pers. comm.).

Genusa dohertyi Holloway (Part 11, p. 27). Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia. (Lowland).

Achrosis pyrrhularia Guenée (Part 11, p. 28). N. E. Himalaya, Sundaland. (Lowland).

Achrosis fulvifusa Warren (Part 11, p. 28). Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia. Lowland forest.

Achrosis longifurca Holloway (Part 11, p. 29). Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia. Lowland forest.

Achrosis spurca Swinhoe (Part 11, p. 29). Sundaland. Lowland forest.

Achrosis kerangatis Holloway (Part 11, p. 30). Endemic. Lowland heath forest.

Achrosis calcicola Holloway (Part 11, p. 30). Sundaland. Lowland forest, especially on limestone, extending to lower montane. Note 211. Note 211. Beck & Karisch (2004) described a related species, Achrosis sandroi Beck & Karisch, from Philippines islands extending north from Borneo: Balabac, Palawan and Mindoro.

Achrosis lilacina Warren (Part 11, p. 31). Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia. (Lowland forest).

Achrosis classeyi Holloway (Part 11, p. 31). Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia. (Lowland disturbed forest).

Achrosis lithosiaria Walker (Part 11, p. 32). Sundaland, Palawan (Stüning, 2000). Lowland to lower montane forest. Note 212. Note 212. The larva of Achrosis lithosiaria has been reared from an unidentified shrub in Peninsular Malaysia (S.K.L. Hok & H.S. Barlow, pers. comm.) and is illustrated in Plate 9. The ground colour is a dull, pale emerald green throughout, except for T1 which is more yellowish. All parts are marked in black as illustrated, the head with four dorsal patches with a pair of lateral bars ventral to these. The thoracic and abdominal segments have transverse bars of black, the latter each having three, the most anterior one broken, the second almost entire, and the most posterior one entire, and much broader on A1-4. The black markings are in broader patches over the ventral part of the body. Though the host plant is unidentified, the genus appears to be closely associated with Ixora (Rubiaceae) as discussed in Part 11.

Achrosis rigorata Prout (Part 11, p. 32). Endemic. Upper montane.

Achrosis alienata Walker (Part 11, p. 32). Sundaland. Lowland forest (limestone).

Achrosis multidentata Warren (Part 11, p. 33). Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia (B), Sumatra. Lowland forest.

Achrosis viridapex Holloway (Part 11, p. 33). Endemic. (Lowland, montane).

Achrosis transviridis Holloway (Part 11, p. 33). Endemic. (Lowland).

Achrosis recitata Holloway (Part 11, p. 34). Borneo, Sumatra. (Lowland heath forest, lower montane) and upper montane.

Achrosis sp.(Part 11, p. 35). Endemic. (Upper montane).

Pseudeuchromia maculifera Felder & Rogenhofer(Part 11, p. 36). Borneo, Wallacea, Taiwan. Lower to upper montane; ? more in disturbed habitats. Note 213. Note 213. Yen (1997) recorded Pseudeuchromia maculifera from Taiwan and placed the population with the Philippines subspecies catachroma Schultze.

Heterolocha pyreniata Walker (Part 11, p. 37). Sundaland. (Lowland).

Heterolocha polymorphoides Holloway (Part 11, p. 37). Sundaland. Upper montane.

Polyscia viridispurca Prout (Part 11, p. 38). N. E. Himalaya, Borneo, Sumatra. (Montane?).

Loxomiza herberti Holloway (Part 11, p. 39). Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia, Sumatra (MS). (Lower montane).

Loxotephria bornea Holloway (Part 11, p. 40). Endemic. (Upper montane)

Garaeus u-lucens Holloway (Part 11, p. 41). Endemic. Upper montane.

Garaeus apicata Moore (Part 11, p. 42). N. E. Himalaya, Taiwan, Sundaland. (Lower to) upper montane.

Garaeus altapicata Holloway (Part 11, p. 42). Borneo; Kinabalu only. Radio Sabah zone.

Garaeus conspicienda Holloway (Part 11, p. 42). Sundaland. (Lowland forest).

Fascellina punctata Warren (Part 11, p. 44). N. E. Himalaya, Sundaland. (Lowland forest).

Fascellina inconspicua Warren (Part 11, p. 44). Sundaland. (Lowland forest).

Fascellina viridicosta Holloway (Part 11, p. 45). Sundaland. (Lowland forest).

Fascellina clausaria Walker (Part 11, p. 45). Sundaland. Lowland and lower montane forest.

Fascellina pulchracoda Holloway (Part 11, p. 46). Borneo, Sumatra. (Lower and upper montane).

Fascellina plagiata Walker (Part 11, p. 46). Himalaya, Sundaland. Upper montane.

Fascellina altiplagiata Holloway (Part 11, p. 47). Endemic. Upper montane to Radio Sabah zone.

Fascellina meligerys Prout (Part 11, p. 47). Sundaland. Lowland forest.

Fascellina aurifera Warren (Part 11, p. 47). Sundaland. Lowland forest.

Fascellina albicordis Prout (Part 11, p. 48). Endemic. Upper montane.

Fascellina castanea Moore (Part 11, p. 48). N. E. Himalaya to Sundaland and S. Philippines. Lowland (mainly alluvial) forest.

Fascellina quadrata Holloway (Part 11, p. 48). Borneo, Sumatra. Lowland forest.

Corymica arnearia Walker (Part 11, p. 50). Oriental tropics. (Lowland).

Corymica vesicularia Walker (Part 11, p. 50). N. E. Himalaya, S. E. Asia to Sundaland. (Lowland).

Corymica pryeri Butler (Part 11, p. 51). Indo-Australian tropics. (Upper montane).

Corymica deducta Walker (Part 11, p. 51). Oriental tropics to Sulawesi: also Japan and Korea. (Lowland and upper montane).

Corymica latimarginata Swinhoe (Part 11, p. 52). Sundaland. Lowland forest, (upper montane).

Corymica pardalota Prout (Part 11, p. 52). Endemic. Lowland forest.

Mesaster albidiscata Warren (Part 11, p. 53). Borneo, Sumatra. Lowland forest.

Tribe SCARDAMIINI (2 species)

Scardamia iographa Prout (Part 11, p. 54). Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia. (Lowland to upper montane).

Aplochlora vivilaca Walker (Part 11, p. 55). Oriental tropics. (Lowland to lower montane).

Tribe OURAPTERYGINI(4 species)

Ourapteryx podaliriata Guenée (Part 11, p. 57). Himalaya, Sundaland. (Lowland to lower montane).

Ourapteryx picticaudata Walker (Part 11, p. 57). Sundaland. (Lowland forest), lower (and upper) montane.

Ourapteryx claretta Holloway (Part 11, p. 57). Sundaland. Lower and upper montane.

Ourapteryx incaudata Warren (Part 11, p. 58). Endemic. (Lower and) upper montane.

Tribes BAPTINI and DEVENILIINI (52 species)

Lomographa araeophragma Prout (Part 11, p. 60). Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia. Lower montane, particularly on limestone.

Lomographa juta Prout (Part 11, p. 60). Endemic. Upper montane.

Lomographa luciferata Walker (Part 11, p. 61). Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia, Sulawesi to New Guinea Lowland to upper montane forests.

Lomographa sectinota Hampson (Part 11, p. 61). Sundaland. Lowland (and lower montane forests). N.E. Himalaya to Sundaland.

Tasta micaceata Walker (Part 11, p. 63). Sundaland. Lowland forest (to lower montane).

Tasta montana Holloway (Part 11, p. 63). Endemic. upper montane.

Tasta elliptica Holloway (Part 11, p. 64). Endemic. upper montane.

Tasta chalybeatoides Holloway (Part 11, p. 64). Endemic. Lower montane.

Tasta reflexoides Holloway (Part 11, p. 65). Endemic. Lowland forest (and lower montane)

Tasta disciscura Holloway (Part 11, p. 65). Endemic. (Lowland to lower montane).

Tasta acornutata Holloway (Part 11, p. 65). Endemic. (Lower montane).

Hypulia continua Walker (Part 11, p. 66). Sundaland, Andamans. (Lowland).

Hypulia strictiva Prout (Part 11, p. 67). Endemic. (Lowland, lower montane).

Hypulia eleuthera Holloway (Part 11, p. 67). Sundaland. (Lowland heath and swamp forest).

Hypulia convoluta Holloway (Part 11, p. 68). Endemic. (Lowland heath forest).

Rhynchobapta eburnivena Hampson (Part 11, p. 69). Japan, Oriental tropics. (Lower montane).

Nothomiza xanthocolona Meyrick (Part 11, p. 70). Borneo, Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia (B), ?Singapore. Lowland heath forest, lower montane. Note 214. Note 214. Sommerer & Stüning (2002) recorded Nothomiza xanthocolona from Sumatra and described a new Sumatran species, N. ledih Sommerer & Stüning. They presented a more restricted definition of the genus, recognising ten species.

Yashmakia veneris Warren (Part 11, p. 71). Borneo, Sumatra. (Lowland).

Yashmakia loxozyga Holloway (Part 11, p. 71). Borneo, Sumatra (MS), Sulawesi. Lowland alluvial forest.

Yashmakiaorsinephes Prout (Part 11, p. 71). Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia (B), Sumatra. (Lowland to upper montane).

Yashmakia bigrisea Holloway (Part 11, p. 72). Sundaland. (Lowland).

Parasynegiasundastriaria Holloway (Part 11, p. 73). Borneo, Sumatra. Lowland forest.

Parasynegialineata Warren (Part 11, p. 73). Sundaland. Lowland.

Parasynegiafortilineata Holloway (Part 11, p. 74). Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia. (Lowland alluvial forest).

Synegia botydaria Guenée (Part 11, p. 75). Sundaland. Lowland heath forest.

Synegia obscura Warren (Part 11, p. 75). S. India, Borneo. Upper montane.

Synegia camptogrammaria Guenée (Part 11, p. 76). Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia (B), N. E. Himalaya. (Lowland), lower (to upper) montane.

Synegia imitaria Walker (Part 11, p. 76). Oriental tropics to Sundaland. Lowland forest (excl. heath forest) to lower montane.

Synegia thamiosticta Prout (Part 11, p. 77). Mentawi, Sumatra, Borneo. (Lower montane).

Synegia eumeleata Walker (Part 11, p. 77). Indo-Australian tropics east to New Guinea. Lowland heath forest, (lower montane forest).

Synegia asymbates Prout (Part 11, p. 77). Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia. (Upper montane).

Synegia decolorata Warren (Part 11, p. 78). Sundaland to New Guinea. Lower and upper montane.

Synegia potenza Holloway (Part 11, p. 78). Endemic. Upper montane.

Synegia ocellata Warren (Part 11, p. 78). Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia. Upper montane.

Synegia transgrisea Holloway (Part 11, p. 79). Endemic. Upper montane.

Synegia dentifascia Holloway (Part 11, p. 79). Endemic. Upper montane.

Synegia punctinervis Holloway (Part 11, p. 80). Endemic, Kinabalu only. Radio Sabah zone.

Platycerota percrinita Prout (Part 11, p. 81, as percrinata). Borneo, Sumatra. Upper montane.

Platycerota balia Prout (Part 11, p. 81). Borneo, Sumatra. Upper montane.

Platycerota vitticostoides Holloway (Part 11, p. 81). Borneo, Sumatra (MS), Peninsular Malaysia. (Lowland to lower montane).

Eurychoria trajecta Prout (Part 11, p. 82). Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia. Upper montane.

Bulonga schistacearia Walker (Part 11, p. 83). Sundaland, Wallacea, Lowland mangrove, coastal and dry heath forests.

Bulonga trilineata Bastelberger (Part 11, p. 84). Borneo, Sumatra. (Lower montane forest on limestone).

Curbia martiata Guenée (Part 11, p. 85). Sundaland. Lowland forest.

Eurytaphria chlorochroa Meyrick (Part 11, p. 86). Sundaland. (Lowland).

Eurytaphria melinauHolloway (Part 11, p. 86). Endemic. (Lowland).

Eurytaphria sp. (Part 11, p. 87). Endemic. (Lowland).

Borbacha pardaria Guenée (Part 11, p. 88). Oriental tropics. (Lowland).

Borbacha altipardaria Holloway (Part 11, p. 88). Sundaland. Lower montane.

Borbacha punctipardaria Holloway (Part 11, p. 88). Sundaland. (Lowland forest).

Borbacha bipardaria Holloway (Part 11, p. 88). Sundaland. (Lowland forest).

Borbacha monopardaria Holloway (Part 11, p. 89). Borneo, Sumatra?. (Lowland forest).

Tribe PLUTODINI (9 species)

Plutodes cyclaria Guenée (Part 11, p. 90). Sundaland. Lowland forest, lower montane.

Plutodes evaginata Holloway (Part 11, p. 90)Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia. (Lowland and lower montane forests).

Plutodes argentilauta Prout (Part 11, p. 90). Borneo, Sumatra, Sulawesi, S. Moluccas. (Lowland forest, lower montane).

Plutodes malaysiana Holloway (Part 11, p. 91). Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia. Lowland forest.

Plutodes flavescens Butler (Part 11, p. 91). N.E. Himalaya, Sundaland. Upper montane.

Plutodes unidentata Holloway (Part 11, p. 91). Sundaland, Sulawesi. (Lowland, upper montane).

Plutodes sp. 13824 (Part 11, p. 92). Borneo, Sumatra. (Lowland).

Plutodes moultoni Prout (Stüning, 2005). S. China (Yunnan), Vietnam, Thailand, Sundaland. (Montane). Note 215. Note 215. Stüning (2005a; M.D. Sommerer, pers. comm.) recorded the only material of Plutodes moultoni from Borneo so far located. It was collected by J. Haxaire at 1300m in the Crocker Range on the Keningau to Kimanis road, and is now in the Herbulot Collection in ZSM, Munich. The species occurs otherwise in Peninsular Malaysia and Sumatra and extends north to Thailand, Vietnam and Yunnan (Stüning, 2010). Stüning (2005a, 2010) has also described new taxa from the Philippines (hermanowskii Stüning in Luzon and magdelinae Stüning in Mindanao) and Sulawesi (thorbeni Stüning), all from the costatus Butler group. The validity of these species is supported by DNA barcoding evidence.

Microplutodes hilaropa Meyrick (Part 11, p. 92). Borneo, Sumatra. Alluvial forest.

Tribe LITHININI (11 species)

Nadagara inordinata Walker (Part 11, p. 94). N. E. Himalaya, Sundaland. Wallacea. Lower montane.

Nadagara synocha Prout (Part 11, p. 94). Sundaland. Upper montane.

Nadagara juventinaria Guenée (Part 11, p. 94). Sundaland. (Lowland forest).

Nadagara intractata Walker (Part 11, p. 94). Thailand, Sundaland, Sulawesi. (Lowland forest?).

Nadagara reprensata Prout (Part 11, p. 95). Sundaland. (Lower to upper montane).

Nadagara comprensata Walker (Part 11, p. 95). Sundaland, Wallacea, Lesser Sundas. (?Lowland).

Nadagara sp. ?irretracta Warren (new record; Plate 6). New Guinea, Queensland, Bismarcks, Solomons, Vanuatu, Fiji, Sulawesi, ?Borneo. (Secondary hill forest). Note 216. Note 216. A female specimen (Plate 6; in FRC, Sepilok) of what is probably Nadagara irretracta Warren (1899, Novit. zool. 6: 356) was taken by Dr Chey and Richard in 2006 in an area of secondary lowland (hill) forest at 720m in the vicinity of Kaingaran near Tambunan in Sabah. The facies matches closely that of some female specimens from the islands at the south-east tip of New Guinea. The species is generally variable and has distinct subspecies on Umboi I. (Bismarcks; tractata Prout), Fiji (levuensis Robinson) and Vanuatu (undescribed). The nominate race was described from the Solomons but also occurs on the main Bismarck Is., and in New Guinea and Queensland (Nielsen et al., 1996). There is also a rather worn female from Sulawesi. The species is closest in markings to reprensata Prout amongst the other Bornean species but is a medium grey rather than reddish and has the forewing antemedial angled centrally rather than subcostally.

Nadagara scitilineata Walker (Part 11, p. 95). S. E. Asia, Sundaland. (Lowland heath forest).

Sundascelia epelys Prout (Part 11, p. 96). Endemic. Upper montane.

Entomopteryx amputata Guenée (Part 11, p. 97). Sundaland. (Lowland, ?montane).

Entomopteryx statheuta Prout (Part 11, p. 97). Endemic. (Upper montane).

Tribe CABERINI (11 species)

Hyperythra lutea Stoll (Part 11, p. 100). Indian Subregion to Sundaland. (Lowland forest).

Petelia medardaria Herrich-Schäffer (Part 11, p. 102). Indo-Australian tropics. Lowland to lower montane, possibly more frequent in disturbed areas.

Petelia distracta Walker (Part 11, p. 102). India, Sundaland, Sulawesi, New Guinea. (Lowland to lower montane).

Petelia tuhana Holloway (Part 11, p. 103). Sundaland, Lesser Sundas, Sulawesi. (Disturbed forest up to lower montane zone).

Petelia delostigma Prout (Part 11, p. 103). Sundaland, Lowland forest to lower (and upper) montane.

Petelia paroobathra Prout (Part 11, p. 103). Sundaland, Sulawesi. Lowland to lower montane forest.

Astygisa vexillaria Guenée (Part 11, p. 105). Indian Subregion to Sundaland, Palawan. Lowland forest.Note 217. Note 217. Stüning & Walia (2009) have reviewed the Indian taxa of Astygisa, extending the range of vexillaria to Palawan and indicating that there is material from the Philippines that may represent further undescribed species.

Astygisa metaspila Walker (Part 11, p. 105). Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia (B), Sumatra. Lowland forest.

Astygisa stueningi Holloway (Part 11, p. 105). Sundaland. Lowland heath forest.

Astygisa waterstradti Holloway (Part 11, p. 106). Endemic. (Upper montane).

Astygisa circularia Swinhoe (Part 11, p. 107). Sundaland, Sulawesi. (Lowland to upper montane forest).

Tribe THINOPTERYGINI (6 species)

Thinopteryx crocopterata Kollar (Part 11, p. 108). Oriental tropics and subtropics to Sundaland. (Lower to upper montane).

Thinopteryx nebulosa Butler (Part 11, p. 108). Indian Subregion, Sundaland. (Upper montane).

Xeropteryx columbicola Walker (Part 11, p. 109). India, S. E.Asia, Sundaland, S. Philippines. (Lowland forest).

Pareumelea eugeniata Guenée (Part 11, p. 109). Sundaland, Wallacea. Lowland forest, (and montane).

Pareumelea hortensiata Guenée (Part 11, p. 110). Sundaland, Palawan, Sulawesi. (?Montane).

Stalagmia guttaria Gray (Part 11, p. 110). Sundaland. Lowland forest.

Tribe GONODONTINI (3 species)

Gonodontis clelia Cramer (Part 11, p. 112). Oriental tropics to Sundaland. Mangrove.

Gonodontis pallida Butler (Part 11, p. 113). Oriental tropics to Moluccas. Lowland forest.

Xylinophylla hypocausta Warren (Part 11, p. 114). Sundaland. (Lowland to upper montane)

Tribe ABRAXINI (3 species)

Abraxas invasata Warren (Part 11, p. 116). Endemic. Upper montane.

Abraxas intervacuata Warren (Part 11, p. 116). Sundaland, Sulawesi. Upper montane.

Abraxas subhyalinata Röber (Part 11, p. 117). Lesser Sundas, Pulo Laut. Lowland?

Tribe CASSYMINI (43 species)

Cassyma quadrinata Guenée (Part 11, p. 119). Sundaland. Lowland forest.

Cassyma electrodes Sommerer & Stüning (Part 11, p. 119). Sundaland. (Lowland and lower montane).

Cassyma sciticincta Walker (Part 11, p. 120). Sundaland. Lowland forest to lower montane.

Cassyma chrotadelpha Sommerer & Stüning (Part 11, p. 120). Borneo, Sumatra. (Montane)

Cassyma undifasciata Butler (Part 11, p. 120). Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia. Lowland

Cassyma erythrodon Sommerer & Stüning (Part 11, p. 120). Borneo, Sumatra. (Lowland)

Syngonorthussubpunctatus Butler (Part 11, p. 121). Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia (B), Sumatra. Lowland to lower montane.

Danalalaxtaria Walker (Part 11, p. 122). Sundaland. (Lowland forest to lower montane).

Auzeodeschalybeata Walker (Part 11, p. 123). Sundaland. Lowland forest, (upper montane).

Auzeodes angulata Holloway (Part 10, p. 204). Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia. (Lowland forest).

Peratostega coctata Warren (Part 11, p. 124). Sundaland. (Lowland to upper montane).

Peratostega punctapex Holloway (Part 11, p. 124). Endemic. Lower to upper montane.

Cassephyra lamprosticta Hampson (Part 11, p. 125). N.E. Himalaya to Sundaland. (Lower montane).

Heterostegane subtessellata Walker (Part 11, p. 126). Indian Subregion, Sundaland. (Lowland forest).

Heterostegane contessellata Prout (Part 11, p. 127). Sundaland, Sulawesi. (Lowland forest)

Heterostegane subfasciata Warren (Part 11, p. 127). N.E. Himalaya, Sundaland. (Lowland).

Heterostegane tritocampsis Prout (Part 11, p. 128). Oriental tropics. Lowland forest.

Heterostegane warreni Prout (Part 11, p. 128). Sundaland. Lowland forest.

Heterostegane urbica Swinhoe (Part 11, p. 129). Indian Subregion, Sundaland. (Lowland).

Heterostegane insulata Warren (Part 11, p. 129). Sundaland, Wallacea to New Guinea. (Lowland).

Serratophyga sterrhoticha Prout (Part 11, p. 130) Borneo, Sumatra (MS), Bali, Sulawesi. (Lowland, lower montane).

Peratophyga venetia Swinhoe (Part 11, p. 132). Sundaland, Wallacea. Lowland forest (to lower montane).

Peratophyga trigonata Walker (Part 11, p. 132). Sundaland. (Lowland and montane forest).

Peratophyga beta Holloway (Part 11, p. 133). Endemic. (Lowland forest).

Peratophyga alluvialis Holloway (Part 11, p. 133). Endemic. (Lowland alluvial forest).

Peratophyga flavomaculata Swinhoe (Part 11, p. 133). Sundaland. Lowland (and lower montane) forest.

Peratophyga hypsicyma Prout (Part 11, p. 134). Borneo, Sumatra. (Lowland heath forest, upper montane).

Peratophyga spilodesma Prout (Part 11, p. 134). Sundaland. Lowland (to upper montane).

Peratophyga hypsidesma Holloway (Part 11, p. 134) Endemic. lowland heath and swamp forest.

Peratophyga sobrina Prout (Part 11, p. 135). Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia. Lowland heath and swamp forest, upper montane forest.

Peratophyga xanthyala Hampson (Part 11, p. 135). N.E. Himalaya to Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia. Lowland forest to upper montane.

Zamarada baliata Felder & Rogenhofer (Part 11, p. 136). Sundaland. Lowland to lower montane.

Zamarada scriptifasciata Walker (Part 11, p. 136). Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia. (Lowland heath forest and lower montane).

Zamarada denticulata Fletcher (Part 11, p. 137). Borneo, Sumatra, Cambodia. Lowland alluvial forest.

Zamarada sp. 15815 (Part 11, p. 137). Endemic. (Lower montane).

Zamarada sp. 10521 (Part 11, p. 137). Endemic. (Lowland).

Zamarada eogenaria Snellen (Part 11, p. 137). Oriental tropics. (Lowland forest, lower montane).

Zamarada nesiotica Fletcher (Part 11, p. 138). Borneo, Philippines. Lowland forest.

Zamarada ucatoides Holloway (Part 11, p. 138). Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia. (Lowland).

Sundagrapha tenebrosa Swinhoe (Part 11, p. 139). Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia, Sumatra (MS). Lowland forest excluding heath forest.

Sundagrapha lepidata Prout (Part 11, p. 139). Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia. Lowland heath forest.

Orthocaberasimilaria Swinhoe (Part 11, p. 141). Sundaland. Upper montane.

Orthocabera ocernaria Swinhoe (Part 11, p. 141). N.E. Himalaya, Sundaland, Sulawesi. (Lowland).

Tribe EUTOEINI (23 species)

Calletaera subexpressa Walker (Part 11, p. 143). Oriental tropics. Lowland forest to lower montane.

Calletaera schistacea Swinhoe (Part 11, p. 143). Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia. (Lowland and lower montane forest on limestone, plantation).

Calletaera foveata Holloway (Part 11, p. 144). Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia, Sumatra (MS). (Lowland heath and swamp forest).

Calletaera postvittata Walker (Parts 15 & 16, p.144). Oriental tropics to Sundaland. (Lowland).

Calletaera subgravata Prout (Part 11, p. 145). Endemic. Lower and upper montane.

Calletaera jotaria Felder & Rogenhofer (Part 11, p. 145). Sundaland, Sulawesi. (Lowland forest to lower montane).

Probithia exclusa Walker (Part 11, p. 146). Oriental tropics. (Lowland forest).

Probithia imprimata Walker (Part 11, p. 146). Sundaland. (Lowland).

Eutoea heteroneurata Guenée (Part 11, p. 147). Indo-Australian tropics. Lowland forest to lower montane.

Zeheba lucidata Walker (Part 11, p. 148). Borneo, Sumatra. Lowland forest, (lower montane).

Zeheba aureatoides Holloway (Part 11, p. 149). Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia, Sulawesi. (Lowland).

Luxiaria phyllosaria Walker (Part 11, p. 149). Indian Subregion to Wallacea. Lowland (to upper montane).

Luxiaria submonstrata Walker (Part 11, p. 150). N.E. Himalaya, Sundaland. Lowland to upper montane.

Luxiaria acutaria Snellen (Part 11, p. 150). N.E. Himalaya, Sundaland. (Lowland to upper montane).

Luxiaria subrasata Walker (Part 11, p. 151). Indo-Australian tropics. Lowland to upper montane.

Luxiaria amasa Butler (Part 11, p. 151). Japan, N. India, Sundaland, Sulawesi. Lower and upper montane.

Luxiaria mitorrhaphes Prout (Part 11, p. 152). Himalaya, Japan, Burma, Sundaland. Upper montane.

Luxiaria emphatica Prout (Part 11, p. 152). N.E. Himalaya, Sundaland. Upper montane.

Luxiaria tephrosaria Moore (Part 11, p. 152). Himalaya, Borneo, Sumatra (MS). Upper montane.

Luxiaria hyalodela Prout (Part 11, p. 153). Sundaland, Sulawesi. Upper montane.

Luxiaria prouti Debauche (Part 11, p. 153). Wallacea, Borneo, Sumatra (MS), Java. (Lowland).

Luxiaria fictaria Prout (Part 11, p. 153). Sundaland. Lowland forest.

Luxiaria muluensis Holloway (Part 11, p. 154). Endemic. (Lowland forest).

Tribe MACARIINI (15 species)

Lampadopteryx scintillans Warren (Part 11, p. 157). Endemic. Lowland. Note 218. Note 218. D.C. Lees (pers. comm.) noted Lampadopteryx scintillans individuals assembling to feed on bird droppings by day, comparing their behaviour in this to that of S. American metalmark Riodinidae. Their flight was very lycaenid‑like and continued almost to dusk.

Hypephyra brunneiplaga Swinhoe (Part 11, p. 159). Borneo, Sumatra. (Lowland forest, upper montane).

Oxymacaria temeraria Swinhoe (Part 11, p. 160). Oriental tropics to Japan and Sundaland. (Upper montane).

Oxymacaria oliva Swinhoe (Part 11, p. 160). N.E. Himalaya to Sundaland. (Upper montane).

Macaria abydata Guenée (Part 11, p. 161). Neotropics. Introduced widely around western margin of Pacific. (Lowland).

Chiasmia albipuncta Warren (Part 11, p. 163, under Godonela). Sundaland. (Lowland).

Chiasmia mutabilis Warren (Part 11, p. 163, under Godonela). Sundaland. (Lowland).

Chiasmia bornusaria Holloway (Part 11, p. 163, under Godonela). Sundaland. (Lowland).

Chiasmia nora Walker (Part 11, p. 164, under Godonela). Oriental tropics to Sundaland. Lowland limestone and heath forest, (upper montane).

Chiasmia fluidata Walker (Part 11, p. 164, under Godonela). Endemic. (Lowland).

Chiasmia hygies Prout (Part 11, p. 164, under Godonela). Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia. (Lower and) upper montane.

Chiasmia ozararia Walker (Part 11, p. 165, under Godonela). Indian Subregion to Sundaland. Lowland forest, (upper montane). Note 219. Note 219. Chey (1999) and Leong (2010b) have illustrated the larva of Chiasmia ozararia, the latter showing the ventral and lateral patterning as well as the dorsal, and adding Archidendron (Leguminosae) as a host plant. The underside has a series of black rectangles and spots on each side between the thoracic legs and the prolegs, separated by a central white band.

Chiasmia avitusaria Walker (Part 11, p. 165, under Godonela). Himalaya to Moluccas. Lowland forest to lower montane.

Chiasmia translineata Walker (Part 11, p. 166, under Godonela). S.E. Asia, Sundaland, Sulawesi. Lowland forest, (lower montane). Note 220. Note 220. Chey (1999) illustrated the larva of C. translineata. It is bluish green with darker spots and fine whitish longitudinal lineation, and there is a broader but more irregular yellowish lateral band. The host plant was Paraserianthes falcataria (Leguminosae).

Iridoplecta ferrifera Moore (Part 11, p. 158). N.E. Himalaya, Sundaland. (Lower montane). Note 221. Note 221. Scoble & Krüger (2002) excluded Iridoplecta Warren from Macariini, considering that it could just as well be placed in the Eutoeini, as the only feature it shares with Macariini is the divided valve of the male genitalia, which is also seen in Eutoeini, However, the uncus and gnathus are atypical of Eutoeini, resembling those of Oxymacaria Warren, as does the structure of the dorsal arm of the valve, with a central pleat. The lobe in the cleft of the valves is more as in Chiasmia than as in the eutoeines. Therefore it will be retained for the time being at the end of the macariine list, but the reader should be mindful of the caveat of Scoble & Krüger.

Tribe BOARMIINI (195 species)

Milionia zonea Moore (Part 11, p. 169, as basalis). N.E. Himalaya, Taiwan, Japan to Sundaland, Philippines. (Lowland forest) to lower montane (limestone) and (upper montane). Note 222. Note 222. Inoue (2005) distinguished Milionia zonea Moore from basalis Walker on the basis of differences in wing markings, particularly in the orange fasciation. In basalis the fasciae are usually thin and rather irregular, that of the hindwing separated from the margin by an entire blue‑black band formed from enlargement of the ellipses on the veins that are much smaller and separate in zonea. The inner border of the hindwing band tends to be evenly curved in zonea but angled at one third from the costa in basalis. The curvature of the forewing fascia tends to be more marked near the tornus in basalis than in zonea, often meeting the dorsum distinctly subtornally.

Milionia basalis Walker (Inoue, 2005: Plate 24: 2). Sundaland. No precise habitat data. Note 223. Note 223. Inoue (2005: Plate 24: 2) illustrated a specimen from Kalimantan that he identified as M. basalis. It has extremely thin fasciae on both wings that show the characteristics of basalis noted above.

Milionia borneensis Inoue (Part 11, p. 170, as fulgida Vollenhoven). Endemic. Upper montane. Note 224. Note 224. Inoue (1999a) discussed homonymy in the use of the epithet reducta in Milionia, and considered that reducta Gaede, 1914, as applied to Bornean populations referred to fulgida Snellen van Vollenhoven, was infrasubspecific and only validated by Prout, 1932, and therefore preoccupied by reducta Rothschild, 1926. He therefore named the Bornean population ssp. borneensis Inoue. This was raised to specific rank by Inoue & Stüning (2003) when investigating the precise identity of fulgida. M. fulgida is now known from Java, with sspp. baliensis Inoue in Bali and sumbawana Inoue in Sumbawa. A related species, amethystea Inoue, occurs in Palawan, hence this complex may prove also to be present in Borneo. The male genitalia of fulgida have valves ornamented as in the basalis complex. M. borneensis is part of another species group defined on valve ornamentation that contains M. hollowayi Inoue & Stüning (Java), M. stueningi Inoue (Java), M. sommereri Inoue (Sumatra), and M. costidepressa Inoue (Philippines). Similar valve ornamentation is seen in a trio of species with turquoise fasciation from Sulawesi: M. cuneiformis Inoue, M. delicatula Inoue and M. everetti Rothschild.

Milionia androconiata Inoue (2004). Endemic. Montane. Note 225. Note 225. M. androconiata Inoue (2004) was discovered flying in the Crocker Range with M. borneensis and at Sipitang near Merapok. The male has the forewing orange fascia considerably reduced, tapering away from the costa to disappear in the middle of the wing. There is an androconial patch in the centre of the basal blue area on the underside of the hindwing. The female has the forewing orange fasciae more as in borneensis but sinuous, with a distinct flexure at the tornus. The male genitalia are distinctive, with a striking arc of spines posterior to the costal zone, meeting the ventral margin at a slight central angle.

Milionia pendleburyi Prout (Part 11, p. 170). Endemic; Kinabalu only. (Upper montane).

Milionia dulitana Rothschild (Part 11, p. 171). Endemic; Mt. Dulit only. (Montane).

Bracca georgiata Guenée (Part 11, p. 172). Sundaland, Wallacea, S. Moluccas. Lowland forest to upper montane.

Bracca maculosa Walker (Part 11, p. 172). Sundaland. Lowland forest to lower montane. Note 226. Note 226. H.S. Barlow (pers. comm.; preserved larva in BMNH) reared Bracca maculosa in 2004; the host plant was Ardisia (Myrsinaceae). The general features of the larva described in Part 11 seem to be widespread in the genus, but there are variations on the theme; e.g. a Philippines species, yet to be identified (R. Brown, pers. comm.) has the yellow patches mentioned in Part 11 replaced by white rings. Brown (2006) has suggested that this aposematic larval patterning may represent coral snake mimicry.

Bracca subfumosa Warren (Part 11, p. 172). Borneo, Sumatra. (Lowland).

Craspedosis arycandata Walker (Part 11, p. 174). Endemic. Lowland forest (to lower montane).

Pogonopygia nigralbata Warren (Part 11, p. 175). N.E. Himalaya, Japan, Sundaland. Upper montane.

Pogonopygia pavida Bastelberger (Part 11, p. 175, as xanthura, but see Part 8, p. 133). Himalaya, Taiwan, Japan, Sundaland. Upper montane.

Dilophodes elegans Butler (Part 11, p. 176). N.E. Himalaya to Japan and Borneo. (Montane).

Dalima delineata Warren (Part 11, p. 177). Sundaland. (Upper montane).

Dalima mjobergi Prout (Part 11, p. 177). Endemic. Upper montane.

Dalima patularia Walker (Part 11, p. 177). N.E. Himalaya, Sundaland, Sulawesi. Upper montane.

Dalima subflavata Felder & Rogenhofer (Part 11, p. 177). Sundaland. Lowland forest, particularly heath forest (to upper montane).

Hyposidra talaca Walker (Part 11, p. 179). Indo-Australian tropics. Lowland forest. Note 227. Note 227. Chung et al. (2008) reared the larva of Hyposidra talaca from Octomeles (Datiscaceae) and illustrated it. It is as described in Part 11 (p. 179).

Hyposidra picaria Walker (Part 11, p. 179). Sundaland. Lowland forest.

Hyposidra apioleuca Prout (Part 11, p. 180). Sundaland. Lower montane.

Hyposidra violescens Hampson (Part 11, p. 180). N.E. Himalaya, Sundaland, Sulawesi. Lowland forest (to lower montane).

Hyposidra altiviolescens Holloway (Part 11, p. 181). Endemic. Upper montane.

Hyposidra aquilaria Walker (Part 11, p. 181). N.E. Himalaya, Sundaland. (Lowland forest).

Hyposidra incomptaria Walker (Part 11, p. 182). Sundaland to Solomons. Lowland forest.

Hyposidra infixaria Walker (Part 11, p. 182). Oriental Region to Sundaland. Lowland forest.

Hyposidra rufosarcuata Holloway (Part 11, p. 183). Sundaland. Lowland. Note 228. Note 228. H.S. Barlow (pers. comm.) recorded Hyposidra rufosarcuata in lowland forest at Belum, Perak, in Peninsular Malaysia.

Exeliopsis macrouncus Holloway (Part 11, p. 184). Sundaland. (Lowland, lower montane).

Exeliopsis discipuncta Holloway (Part 11, p. 185). Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia. (Lowland).

Exeliopsis postfasciata Holloway (Part 11, p. 185). Borneo, Sumatra. (Lowland).

Apophyga apona Prout (Part 11, p. 186). Sundaland. (Upper montane).

Apophyga altapona Holloway (Part 11, p. 186). Endemic; Kinabalu only. Radio Sabah zone.

Ephemerophila subterminalis Prout (Part 11, p. 187). N.E. Himalaya, Borneo. (Lower montane).

Dasyboarmia isorrhopa Prout (Part 11, p. 188). Endemic; Kinabalu and Crocker Range only. Upper montane. Note 229. Note 229. This species was misspelt isorrhopha in Part 11; it is isorrhopa.

Dasyboarmia pilosissima Holloway (Part 11, p. 189). Endemic; Brunei, N. Sarawak. (Upper montane).

Dasyboarmia subpilosa Warren (Part 11, p. 189). N.E. Himalaya to Sundaland and Sulawesi. (Upper montane).

Dasyboarmia delineata Walker (Part 11, p. 190). Endemic. Lower to upper montane.

Krananda semihyalina Moore (Part 11, p. 191). Indo-Australian tropics east to S. Moluccas. (Lowland), lower montane, (upper montane).

Krananda lucidaria Leech (Part 11, p. 191). W. China, Sundaland. (Lower montane).

Krananda oliveomarginata Swinhoe (Part 11, p. 191). N.E. Himalaya to Taiwan, Sundaland. Montane.

Zanclopera falcata Warren (Part 11, p. 192). N.E. Himalaya to Taiwan and Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia, Sumatra (MS). (Lowland).

Zanclomenophra subusta Warren (Part 11, p. 193). Sundaland, Sulawesi. (Lowland).

Racotis boarmiaria Guenée (Part 11, p. 194, as quadripunctata Holloway). N.E. Himalaya to Japan and Sundaland, Philippines, Flores. Lower and to upper montane. Note 230. Note 230. Sato (2004b), on the basis of more extensive material of the Racotis boarmiaria complex in S.E. Asia, considered that material described as quadripunctata Holloway in Part 11 was closer to the lectotype male of boarmiaria Guenée (Part 11, fig. 408) chosen by Sato (he dissected the paralectotype and found it to be R. inconclusa Walker) than was that attributed to boarmiaria in Part 11 (Plate 10: 23). Sato also placed the Javanese R. anaglyptica Prout, referred to in the description of R. quadripunctata in Part 11, as a further synonym of boarmiaria. The Bornean boarmiariasensu Holloway of Part 11 Sato kindly described as R. hollowayi Sato; it occurs also in Peninsular Malaysia and Sumatra. The male genitalia illustrated by Holloway (1976: fig 616) are those of hollowayi: the angle on the dorsal margin of the central part of the valve is more pronounced than in boarmiaria and opposite the apex of the curve on the ventral margin rather than ventral to it; the spur subbasally on the sacculus is much shorter than in boarmiaria. Differences in the female genitalia are more marked, with the bursa strongly angled at one third and corrugated to two thirds in boarmiaria, and sclerotised with only weak corrugation to the centre, where there is very slight flexure, in hollowayi. Apart from the widespread boarmiaria, the other species in the complex are allopatric: keralaria Sato (S. India); discistigmaria Sato (N.E. Himalaya, Vietnam, Thailand); hollowayi (Peninsular Malaysia, Sumatra, Borneo); neonephria Prout (Java); floresaria Sato (Flores); luzonensis Sato (Philipppines); sulawesaria Sato (Sulawesi).

Racotis hollowayi Sato (Part 11, p. 194, as boarmiaria Guenée). Sundaland. (Lowland to upper montane). Note 230. Note 230. Sato (2004b), on the basis of more extensive material of the Racotis boarmiaria complex in S.E. Asia, considered that material described as quadripunctata Holloway in Part 11 was closer to the lectotype male of boarmiaria Guenée (Part 11, fig. 408) chosen by Sato (he dissected the paralectotype and found it to be R. inconclusa Walker) than was that attributed to boarmiaria in Part 11 (Plate 10: 23). Sato also placed the Javanese R. anaglyptica Prout, referred to in the description of R. quadripunctata in Part 11, as a further synonym of boarmiaria. The Bornean boarmiariasensu Holloway of Part 11 Sato kindly described as R. hollowayi Sato; it occurs also in Peninsular Malaysia and Sumatra. The male genitalia illustrated by Holloway (1976: fig 616) are those of hollowayi: the angle on the dorsal margin of the central part of the valve is more pronounced than in boarmiaria and opposite the apex of the curve on the ventral margin rather than ventral to it; the spur subbasally on the sacculus is much shorter than in boarmiaria. Differences in the female genitalia are more marked, with the bursa strongly angled at one third and corrugated to two thirds in boarmiaria, and sclerotised with only weak corrugation to the centre, where there is very slight flexure, in hollowayi. Apart from the widespread boarmiaria, the other species in the complex are allopatric: keralaria Sato (S. India); discistigmaria Sato (N.E. Himalaya, Vietnam, Thailand); hollowayi (Peninsular Malaysia, Sumatra, Borneo); neonephria Prout (Java); floresaria Sato (Flores); luzonensis Sato (Philipppines); sulawesaria Sato (Sulawesi).

Racotis inconclusa Walker (Part 11, p. 195). Indian Subregion, Sundaland, Sulawesi. Lowland forest, upper montane.

Xerodes ypsaria Guenée (Part 11, p. 196). N.E. Himalaya, Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia, Sumatra (MS), Philippines. Lower montane. Note 231. Note 231. Sato (2003a) extended the distribution of Xerodes ypsaria as indicated, but described the Sulawesi population as X. sulawesensis Sato. He described further species from Sulawesi and the Philippines.

Xerodes lignicolor Warren (Part 11, p. 197). Sundaland, Sulawesi. Lower montane. Note 232. Note 232. Sato (2003a) extended the distribution of X. lignicolor to Sumatra and Sulawesi.

Xerodes pilosa Holloway (Part 11, p. 197). Endemic. (Upper montane).

Acrodontis insularis Holloway (Part 11, p. 198). Sundaland, Sulawesi. Lowland heath and limestone forest.

Xandrames latiferaria Walker (Part 11, p. 199). Oriental tropics to Japan and Sundaland. (Lower to) upper montane.

Chorodna pallidularia Moore (Part 11, p. 201). N.E. Himalaya, Sundaland. (Lowland forest).

Chorodna complicataria Walker (Part 11, p. 201). Sundaland. Lowland forest.

Chorodna pseudobolima Holloway (Part 11, p. 201). Endemic. (Lowland to) upper montane).

Chorodna scurobolima Holloway (Part 11, p. 202). Endemic. (Lowland to upper montane).

Lassaba acribomena Prout (Part 11, p. 203). Sundaland. Lower montane.

Lassaba vinacea Prout (Part 11, p. 203). Endemic. Upper montane.

Coremecis incursaria Walker (Part 11, p. 204). Sundaland. Lowland forest.

Coremecis maculata Warren (Part 11, p. 204). Sundaland. Lowland forest (to lower montane).

Amblychiaangeronaria Guenée (Part 11, p. 205). N.E. Himalaya to Taiwan, Sundaland. Lowland forest.

Amblychiainfoveata Prout (Part 11, p. 205). Sundaland. (Lowland to upper montane).

Amblychia hymenaria Guenée (Part 11, p. 206). Indian Subregion, Sundaland, Sulawesi. (Lowland forest to upper montane). Note 233. Note 233. Leong & Aminurashid (2009) described and illustrated the final instar and metamorphosis of Amblychia hymenaria in Singapore. The larva is of a robust boarmiine type, irregularly mottled in medium and paleish grey and green with a sparse scattering of whitish dots. The primary setae are very short and arise from chalazae. The host plant was Cinnamomum (Lauraceae), adding to the records of genera from this family for Amblychia as listed in Part 11. Robinson et al. (2001) also included Styrax (Styracaceae).

Amblychia cavimargo Prout (Part 11, p. 206). Endemic. (Lower montane) to upper montane.

Amblychia praeumbrata Warren (Part 11, p. 206). Sundaland. (Lowland forest).

Amblychia sommereri Holloway (Part 11, p. 207). Sundaland. Lowland (particularly heath) forest.

Thoyowpongia nigrodiscus Holloway (Part 11, p. 208)Sundaland. Lowland (to montane).

Biston insularis Warren (Part 11, p. 209). Sundaland. Lowland forest.

Biston pustulata Warren (Part 11, p. 210). Sundaland. (Lowland to upper montane).

Biston inouei Holloway (Part 11, p. 210). Endemic. (Lower and upper montane).

Amraicasolivagaria Walker (Part 11, p. 211). Vietnam, Thailand, Sundaland, Palawan, Sulawesi. Lowland forest. Note 234. Note 234. Sato (2003b) extended the known range of Amraica solivagaria into mainland Asia, but described the Sulawesi population as A. sulawesensis Sato. He placed ponderata Felder & Rogenhofer as a synonym of solivagaria. He also described new species in the complex from each of Vietnam, Sumatra, Java, Japan, the Philippines and Sulawesi.

Iulotrichia decursaria Walker (Part 11, p. 212). Sundaland. Lowland forest.

Cusiala acutijuxta Holloway stat. n. (Part 11, p. 213, as subspecies of boarmoides Moore). Sundaland. (Lowland forest). Note 235. Note 235. The taxon acutijuxta Holloway flies together with typical Cusiala boarmoides in Sumatra and is therefore a distinct species, stat. n. (R. Sato, in litt.).

Cleora repetita Butler (Part 11, p. 214). Sundaland to New Guinea and Australia. Lowland.

Cleora mjobergi Prout (Part 11, p. 215). Endemic. Upper montane.

Cleora alienaria Walker (Part 11, p. 215). Oriental tropics to Sundaland and Lesser Sundas. Lowland

Cleora pendleburyi Prout (Part 11, p. 216). Sundaland, Philippines. (Lower to upper montane).

Cleora concentraria Snellen (Part 11, p. 216). Sundaland, Sulawesi. Upper montane.

Cleora determinata Walker (Part 11, p. 216). Sundaland. Lowland to upper montane.

Cleora injectaria Walker (Part 11, p. 217). Indo-Australian tropics. Lowland forest, particularly mangrove, and lower montane forest on limestone.

Cleora decisaria Walker (Part 11, p. 217). Sundaland to Solomons. Lowland. Note 236. Note 236. The larva of Cleora decisaria has been illustrated by Chey (1999) who noted it had a yellowish tinge.

Cleora onycha Fletcher (Part 11, p. 217). Indo-Australian tropics. (Lowland, lower montane).

Cleora tenebrata Fletcher (Part 11, p. 218). Indo-Australian tropics. Lowland to upper montane forest.

Cleora biclavata Fletcher (Part 11, p. 218). S.E. Asia, Sundaland. (Lowland, lower montane, ?open habitats).

Cleora propulsaria Walker (Part 11, p. 218). Sundaland, Philippines. (Lowland forest to lower montane).

Cleora contiguata Moore (Part 11, p. 219). Oriental tropics. Lowland forest (to lower montane).

Cleora cucullata Fletcher (Part 11, p. 219). N.E. Himalaya, Sundaland. (Lowland forest).

Cleora inoffensa Swinhoe (Part 11, p. 219). Indo-Australian tropics. Lowland forest, lower (and upper) montane.

Cleora pupillata Walker (Part 11, p. 230). S.E. Asia, Sundaland, Wallacea. (Lowland and lower montane, ?open habitats).

Cleora batillata Fletcher (Part 10, p. 205). Philippines, Kangean, Borneo. (Lowland, cultivated area).

Cleora isabella Herbulot (C. Herbulot, in litt.). Palawan, ?Borneo. (Montane). Note 237. Note 237. The late C. Herbulot notified the author (1996, in litt.) that he had in his collection female specimens of two further Cleora species: C. costiplaga Fletcher (taken by J. Haxaire at Batu 18 (850m) on the Ranau‑Tambunan road) and C. isabella Herbulot (two tentatively identified, taken by J. Devecis at 1400m, 26km north of Keningau, probably in the Crocker Range). This material should be with his collection in ZSM, Munich. C. costiplaga is a species of New Guinea, the Bismarck Is. and Queensland, so it would be unwise to record it from Borneo on the basis of a single female. C. isabella was described from Palawan, so could well occur also in Borneo. A photograph of one specimen appears to match one of the holotype of isabella closely. The original type (Herbulot, 1985) series of three is entirely female also.

Ectropis bhurmitra Walker (Part 11, p. 221). Indo-Australian tropics. Lowland forest. Note 238. Note 238. Sato (2007a) revised the genus Ectropis Hübner in Indonesia. He indicated that the account of the larva of bhurmitra from Bell (MS) in Part 11 was atypical of Ectropis and therefore probably based on a misidentification. He described the true larva from Taiwan (Sato, 1986; as brevifasciata Wileman). The larva was also described and illustrated by Leong (2010f). It is cryptic, twig-like, mottled in shades of brown and grey-brown, typical of the genus, resembling the photograph of the larva of the generic type species in South (1961: plate 125). The host plant was a species of Terminalia (Combretaceae). The larva has been reared in Borneo and illustrated by Chung et al. (2008) from Octomeles (Datiscaceae).

Ectropis longiscapia Prout (Part 11, p. 221). Endemic. Upper montane.

Ectropis ischnadelpha Prout (Part 11, p. 222, as pais). Endemic. Upper montane. Note 239. Note 239. Sato (2007a) stated that his 1992 placement of E. ischnadelpha as a synonym of pais was erroneous, and therefore the Bornean species is ischnadelpha. Sato noted that pais has a sharply two‑coloured frons, black above, creamy white below. The male genitalia have strong ribbon‑like processes laterally from the juxta dorsally, and the vesica of the aedeagus has a small, thumb-like cornutus. The female genitalia of ischnadelpha are characterised by a very broad antrum to the ductus bursae. As pais occurs in Peninsular Malaysia, Sumatra, and Mindanao in the Philippines, it may also occur in Borneo. Sato excluded Sulawesi from the distributions of both species; material in BMNH with similar facies probably represents an undescribed species.

Ectropis brooksi Holloway (Part 11, p. 222). Sundaland. (Lowland forest to lower montane).

Gasterocome pannosaria Moore (Part 11, p. 223). N.E. Himalaya to Taiwan and Sundaland, Philippines (Sato, 2000a). (Lower to) upper montane.

Harutaea sp. nearflavizona Sato (new record; Plate 6, Fig. 89). Borneo. (Lowland forest). Note 240. Note 240. Species of Harutaea Sato are similar in general facies to those of Gasterocome, except the dark markings are more longitudinal in orientation in the forewing discal area. The genus differs (Sato, 2000b) from Gasterocome in the reduction of the forewing veins (fusion of R1 and R2) and the much stronger sclerotisation of the sterigma in the female genitalia. The male genitalia are characterised by a valve that appears broad and bilobed distally through the development of a lobe subapically on the costal margin. The sacculus has a distally directed digitate process interiorly but close to the margin at one third, and the ventral margin can also have a small process at two thirds. In addition to the type species, flavizona Sato (N. India and Nepal, Vietnam, Thailand, Peninsular Malaysia, Sumatra), the genus contains H. sumatrana Sato (Sumatra) and H. conspicuaria Leech (S.W. China). Dr Chey Vun Khen took a male of Harutaea (Plate 6, Fig 89; in FRC, Sepilok) in forest near the Sungei Jela, a tributary of Sg. Enkari at 300m, in the Lanjak‑Entimau Wildlife Sanctuary of Sarawak. This specimen cannot be assigned to any of the above species. It lacks the processes on the male fourth sternite that typify flavizona, and has genitalia closer to those of sumatrana in the distal half of the valve, but with a curved digitate saccular process more as in flavizona. The uncus is not bifid apically. Sato (2000b) mentioned a further Sumatran specimen that also combines some of these features.

Ruttellerona pseudocessaria Holloway (Part 11, p. 224). Indo-Australian tropics to S. Moluccas. Lowland forest.

Ruttellerona pallicostaria Moore (Part 11, p. 224). N.E. Himalaya, Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia, Sumatra (MS). (Lowland to lower montane forest).

Ruttellerona pulverulenta Warren (Part 11, p. 225). Taganak I., and possibly further east.

Ruttellerona lithina Warren (Part 11, p. 225). Borneo, Sulawesi, S. Moluccas, New Guinea. Upper montane.

Ophthalmitis clararia Walker (Part 11, p. 227). Sundaland, Philippines. Lowland forest.

Ophthalmitis variegata Holloway (Part 11, p. 227). Sundaland. Lowland forest (and upper montane).

Ophthalmitis punctifascia Holloway (Part 11, p. 228). Endemic. (Upper montane).

Ophthalmitis viridior Holloway (Part 11, p. 228). Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia, Sumatra (R.Sato, pers. comm.). (Lowland forest).

Ophthalmitis rufilauta Prout (Part 11, p. 228). Endemic. Lowland forest (to lower montane). Note 241. Note 241. Sato (2005b) described material similar to Ophthalmitis rufilauta from Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia and Thailand as O. ogatai Sato. This species, then undescribed, was mentioned in connection with rufilauta in Part 11.

Ophthalmitiscordularioides Holloway (Part 11, p. 229). Borneo, Sumatra. (Lowland forest, upper montane).

Ophthalmitis satoi Holloway (Part 11, p. 229). Endemic. (Lowland forest).

Ophthalmitis basiscripta Holloway (Part 11, p. 230). Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia. (Lower montane).

Ophthalmitis exemptaria Walker (Part 11, p. 230; Plate 7). S. Thailand, Sundaland. (Lowland). Note 242. Note 242. Sato (2005b) recorded O. exemptaria from Thailand. The species was not illustrated in Part 11, despite indications to the contrary! This is now remedied in Plate 7.

Pseudalcis catoriata Warren (Part 11, p. 231). Endemic. Lowland.

Pseudalcis cinerascens Warren (Part 11, p. 231). Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia (B). Lowland.

Catoria sublavaria Guenée (Part 11, p. 232). Indo-Australian tropics. (Kerangas and montane forests).

Catoria olivescens Moore (Part 11, p. 233). Oriental tropics, S. Moluccas. (Lowland to upper montane).

Catoria tamsi Prout (Part 11, p. 233). Sundaland. (Lowland forest).

Catoria proicyrta Prout (Part 11, p. 233). Endemic; G. Kinabalu only. Upper montane.

Psilalcis conceptaria Holloway (Part 11, p. 235). Endemic. Lower montane.

Psilalcis bisinuata Hampson (Part 11, p. 235). Himalaya to W. China, Burma, Peninsular Malaysia (B), Sumatra (MS), Borneo. (Lower to upper montane forest).

Psilalcis subfasciata Warren (Part 11, p. 236). Sundaland. Lowland to lower montane forest.

Psilalcis calcicola Holloway (Part 11, p. 236). Endemic. Lower montane forest, particularly on limestone.

Alcis periphracta Prout (Part 11, p. 237). Thailand, Burma, Sundaland. Lower (to upper) montane. Note 243. Note 243. Sato (2008a) has reviewed the distribution of Alcis periphracta relative to that of colorifera Prout, and extended both considerably. The latter is found in Thailand, Burma, Vietnam, in Peninsular Malaysia, Sumatra and Java.

Alcis praevariegata Prout (Part 11, p. 238). Endemic. Upper montane. Note 244. Note 244. Sato (2008a) has reviewed the Alcis variegata Moore group in detail, extending the range of variegata to Sumatra by bringing hypopoecila Prout into synonymy. Several species occur in each of Sumatra and Java and A. paukstadti Sato was described from Flores. No further species were recorded for Borneo.

Alcis maculata Moore (Part 11, p. 238). Himalaya, Tibet, Taiwan, Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia (B), Sumatra. Upper montane. Note 245.

Alcis bornemaculata Sato (Sato, 2005a: 27) Endemic. Montane. Note 245. Note 245. Sato (2005a) has provided full illustration of A. bornemaculata and other species in an extensive review of two complexes in the genus Alcis Curtis. This species resembles maculata closely, but the black bands of the forewing are less spotted with white patches, particularly medially, and the hindwing is almost immaculate basal to the border. The ampullate structure in the centre of the valve of the male genitalia is upcurved and unusually crinkled. The type series was taken from localities between 500m and 1560m.

Alcis nigrifasciata Warren (Part 11, p. 238). Sundaland, Sulawesi. (Upper montane). Note 246. Note 246. Sato (2005a) extended the range of A. nigrifasciata to Sulawesi.

Alcispammicra Prout (Part 11, p. 239). Sundaland. (Lower montane). Note 247. Note 247. Sato (2005a) reviewed the distinction of A. pammicra and A. eupithecioides. The latter is slightly larger, yellower, and with more prominent dark discal spots and forewing marginal patches. The male genitalia have the uncus apex more blunt. The ampullate processes at the centre of the valve are strongly upcurved, rather than triangular and directed at the ventral margin. Bornean material listed is a male from Kundasang on the slopes of G. Kinabalu.

Alcis eupithecioides West (Sato, 2005a: 21). Thailand, Peninsular Malaysia, Sumatra, Borneo, Philippines, Sulawesi. (Montane). Note 247. Note 247. Sato (2005a) reviewed the distinction of A. pammicra and A. eupithecioides. The latter is slightly larger, yellower, and with more prominent dark discal spots and forewing marginal patches. The male genitalia have the uncus apex more blunt. The ampullate processes at the centre of the valve are strongly upcurved, rather than triangular and directed at the ventral margin. Bornean material listed is a male from Kundasang on the slopes of G. Kinabalu.

Bornealcis expleta Prout (Part 11, p. 240). Endemic. Upper montane.

Bornealcis versicolor Prout (Part 11, p. 240). Endemic; G. Kinabalu only. Radio Sabah zone.

Bornealcis derivata Prout (Part 11, p. 240). Endemic; G. Murud only. (Upper montane).

Hypomecis transcissa Walker (Part 11, p. 241). Indian Subregion, Sundaland. (Lowland forest, disturbed by man).

Hypomecis sommereri Sato (Part 11, p. 242). Sundaland. Lowland forest.

Hypomecis lioptilaria Swinhoe (Part 11, p. 242). N.E. Himalaya, Thailand, Sundaland. Lowland forest, lower montane.

Hypomecisseparata Walker (Part 11, p. 242). Oriental tropics to Sundaland. Lowland forest.

Hypomecis subdetractaria Prout (Part 11, p. 243). Thailand, Sundaland, Sulawesi. Lowland forest.

Hypomecis glochinophora Prout (Part 11, p. 243). N.E. Himalaya, Peninsular Malaysia (B), Borneo. Lower and upper montane.

Hypomecis costaria Guenée (Part 11, p. 243). Thailand, Sundaland. Lowland forest, (lower montane).

Hypomecis cineracea Moore (Part 11, p. 244). N.E. Himalaya to Taiwan, Borneo, Sumatra. Lower (to upper) montane.

Hypomecistetragonata Walker (Part 11, p. 244). Indo-Australian tropics. Lowland forest, (lower montane).

Hypomecis norikoae Sato (2004a: 114). Laos, Thailand, Peninsular Malaysia, Sumatra, Borneo. (?Montane). Note 248. Note 248. Hypomecis norikoae is very similar in characteristics to H. tetragonata. The wings in the male are more fuscous, evenly coloured and less distinctly marked; the patch of yellowish scales on the underside of the hindwing dorsum of tetragonata is absent. The hind-femur has pale yellowish hairs where tetragonata has them blackish. In the male genitalia the processes on the valves are diagnostic, the subcostal one longer, with spines fewer and placed more densely in a more basal position, and the saccular one is more robust, more densely spined and straighter. Bornean material listed consists of one male from Mt. Bawang.

Marobia dentigerata Warren (Part 11, p. 244, under Hypomecis). Sundaland. Lowland forest, lower montane. Note 249. Note 249. Sato (1998), considering the distinct differences in dentigerata Warren from those of more typical Hypomecis Hübner that were noted in Part 11, placed it in a new genus, Marobia Sato, and described new species in it from Sumatra (dairiensis Sato) and the Philippines (philippinica Sato).

Abaciscus tristis Butler (Part 11, p. 246). N.E. Himalaya to Taiwan, Borneo. (Lower to) upper montane.

Abaciscus intractabilis Walker (Part 11, p. 246). Sundaland. (Lowland).

Abaciscus adjuncta Prout (Part 11, p. 246, as costimacula Wileman). Thailand, Sundaland. (Lower montane). Note 250. Note 250. Sato (1997), reviewing a complex of species associated with Abaciscus costimacula Wileman, raised adjuncta Prout to specific rank and recorded it additionally from Thailand.

Abaciscus paucisignata Warren (Part 11, p. 247). Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia. (Lowland to lower montane).

Abaciscus lutosus Holloway (Part 11, p. 247). Endemic. (Lowland, lower montane).

Abaciscus shaneae Holloway (Part 11, p. 247). Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia, Sumatra (MS). (Lower montane).

Abaciscus atmala Swinhoe (Part 11, p. 248). N.E. Himalaya to Sundaland. (Lower montane).

Abaciscus nasirisp. n. (p. 340, Plate 6, Fig 90). Endemic. Lowland forest. Note 251. Note 251. Abaciscus nasiri sp. n. (Plate 6, Fig 90)

GG 15-16mm. The facies is generally typical of the genus, perhaps most similar to that of the much smaller atmala Swinhoe, but the paler costal zone of the forewing is distinctly deeper just distal from the postmedial, narrowing to the apex and, more gently, towards the base of the wing. There is a sharp contrast in colour within this zone on each side of the postmedial, with a creamy block between it and the medial, and a richer, darker, more rufous colour on its distal side. The male genitalia have a valve shape and ornamentation much as in costimacula Wileman, but there is an irregular process in the centre. The uncus is apically broader, slightly bilobed rather than entire. The aedeagus is more as in paucisignata Warren, though with a group of short spines at the apex rather than a single one.

Holotype  G. SABAH: Danum Valley, Borneo Rain Forest Lodge, 170m, lowland forest, DAE Rothamsted Trap (Nasir), BM geometrid slide 19913.

Paratypes: 3GG as holotype but different dates.

Geographical range. Borneo.

Habitat preference. The specimens are vouchers (species G120) from a Rothamsted light‑trap survey coordinated by H.S. Barlow at the Borneo Rain Forest Lodge in the Danum Valley Conservation Area of Sabah. The trap was set in primary lowland dipterocarp forest at about 170m.

Microcalicha minima Warren (Part 11, p. 249). N.E. Himalaya, Borneo, Sumatra. Upper montane.

Microcalichadelika Swinhoe (Part 11, p. 249). Borneo, Sumatra, S. Thailand. (Lowland forest).

Microcalicha punctimarginaria Leech (Part 11, p. 250). China, Sundaland. (Lowland forest).

Lophobates mesotoechia Prout (Part 11, p. 250). Endemic. Upper montane.

Calichodessubrugata Walker (Part 11, p. 251). Sundaland, New Guinea. Lowland forest.

Myrioblephara simplaria Swinhoe (Part 11, p. 252). Indo-Australian tropics. Upper montane.

Myrioblephara bifida Holloway (Part 11, p. 253). Endemic. Upper montane.

Myrioblephara pallibasis Holloway (Part 11, p. 254). Sundaland. Lower montane.

Myrioblephara pingasoides Warren (Sato, 2006b). N.E. Himalaya, Sundaland. (Montane). Note 252. Note 252. Sato (2006b) detailed the Sumatran fauna of Myrioblephara Warren and other genera that follow in the checklist, having treated Diplurodes Warren earlier. Adjustments to geographical range of Bornean species follows from these papers. Sato noted a single specimen of pingasoides Warren from the Park H.Q. (about 1600m) of G. Kinabalu. The species was referred to in Part 11, p. 252.

Myrioblephara geniculata Prout (Part 11, p. 254). Endemic. Upper montane.

Chrysoblephara chrysoteucta Prout (Part 11, p. 255). Burma, Borneo. (Upper montane).

Necyopa flatipennata Walker (Part 11, p. 256). Thailand, Sundaland. Lowland forest (to lower montane). Note 253. Note 253. Stüning (2000) removed Necyopa recticomata Swinhoe (S. Thailand) from synonymy with flatipennata, as it lacks the patch of modified scales on the underside of the hindwing near the tornus seen in the latter species. Sato (2006b) recorded flatipennata from Thailand and Sumatra as well as Borneo.

Necyopa ioge Prout (Part 11, p. 256). Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia (B), Sumatra (Sato, 2006b). Lower and upper montane.

Necyopa subtriangula Prout (Part 11, p. 257). Endemic. Upper montane.

Necyopa chloana Prout (Part 11, p. 257). Endemic. (Upper montane forest to Radio Sabah zone).

Ectropidia exprimata Walker (Part 11, p. 258). Sundaland, Philippines (Sato, 2002). Lowland forest (to lower montane). Note 254. Note 254. Sato (2002), in his survey of Philippines species of Ectropidia Warren, Nigriblephara Holloway and Myrioblephara Warren, extended the range of several Bornean species to the Philippines. He recorded E. exprimata from New Guinea, but it is possible that this is the species recorded from there in the radiation of species in Sulawesi and extending eastwards discussed for the genus by Holloway (1991), referred to in Part 11.

Ectropidia altiprimata Holloway (Part 11, p. 258). Borneo, Philippines (Sato, 2002). (Upper montane forest).

Ectropidia harmani Holloway (Part 11, p. 259). Borneo, Sumatra. (Lowland forest).

Ectropidia faircloughi Holloway (Part 11, p. 267, under Satoblephara). Borneo, Sumatra. (Lowland forest). Note 255. Note 255. Sato (2006b), on the basis of features of the male abdomen, particularly of the abdominal coremata, considered on balance that faircloughi was better placed in Ectropidia rather than in Satoblephara. He recorded it from Sumatra for the first time.

Ectropidia fimbripedata Warren (Part 11, p. 259). Sundaland, Philippines. Lowland forest (to lower montane).

Ectropidia semijubata Prout (Part 11, p. 259). Sundaland. Lowland forest.

Ectropidia illepidaria Walker (Part 11, p. 260). Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia (B), Sumatra. Lowland forest, lower montane.

Ectropidia quasilepidaria Holloway (Part 11, p. 260). Sundaland. Lowland forest, lower (and upper) montane.

Diplurodes inundata Prout (Part 11, p. 261). Thailand (Sato, 2005b), Sundaland, Philippines (Sato, 2006a). Lowland forest (to lower montane).

Diplurodes sugillata Prout (Part 11, p. 262). Sundaland. (Lowland forest to) upper montane.

Diplurodes kerangatis Holloway (Part 11, p. 262). Sundaland. Lowland forest, especially kerangas (to lower montane).

Diplurodes submontana Holloway (Part 11, p. 262). Borneo, Sumatra (Sato, 2006a). (Lower and) upper montane.

Diplurodes petras Meyrick (Part 11, p. 263). Borneo, Sumatra. ?Lowland.

Diplurodes diehli Sato (2006a). Vietnam, Thailand, Sundaland. (Montane). Note 256. Note 256. Diplurodes diehli Sato (2006a) is the species noted by Sato (2005b: 71) as occurring in Vietnam, Thailand, Borneo and Sumatra, to be described in his future paper on the Boarmiini of Sumatra. It is similar to decursaria Walker but more darkly marked and with the hindwing postmedial with its strongest angle posterior to the line of the discal mark rather than on it. The valves are shaped more as in kerangatis, but with a slender, gently and outwardly curved saccular spine.

Diplurodes sommereri Sato (Part 11, p. 263; as 14218). Borneo, Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia (FRIM colln). (Lower montane). Note 257. Note 257. D. sommereri Sato (2006a) is the species represented by slide 14218 that was undescribed in Part 11 (fig 561).

Diplurodes 16406 (Part 11, p. 263). Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia. (Lowland).

Diplurodes indentata Warren (Part 11, p. 264). Sundaland. (Lowland forest to lower montane).

Diplurodes semicircularis Holloway (Part 11, p. 264). Sundaland, Palawan, Tawi Tawi (Philippines; Sato, 2006a). (Lowland forest to upper montane).

Diplurodes triangulata Holloway (Part 11, p. 264). Sundaland. Lowland (to lower montane).

Diplurodes decursaria Walker (Part 11, p. 265). Sundaland. (Lowland forest), lower montane, (upper montane).

Diplurodes sinecoremata Holloway (Part 11, p. 265). Borneo, Sumatra, Philippines (Sato, 2006a). Lowland to lower montane forest.

Satoblephara hollowayi Sato (Part 11, p. 267). Sundaland. (Lower and upper montane).

Nigriblephara semiparata Walker (Part 11, p. 268). Endemic. Lowland forest.

Nigriblephara radula Holloway (Part 11, p. 268). Sundaland, Palawan (Sato, 2002). (Lower montane forest).

Nigriblephara cheyi Holloway (Part 11, p. 269). Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia (Part 10, p. 205), Mindanao (Sato, 2002). (Lowland plantation).

Prochasma dentilinea Warren (Part 11, p. 269). Oriental tropics to Sundaland. Upper montane.

Prochasma scissivestis Prout (Part 11, p. 270). Endemic. (Montane).

Monocerotesa commissa Prout (Part 11, p. 270, as strigata Warren). Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia (B), Sumatra, Sulawesi. Lowland forest. Note 258. Note 258. Sato (2007b) reviewed the species of Monocerotesa Wehrli found in Sumatra. He considered that commissa Prout is a species distinct from strigata Warren and should be applied to the Bornean species, which he also recorded from Sumatra and Sulawesi. The female genitalia illustrated in Part 11 are of strigata, but those of the male are referable to commissa.

Monocerotesa minuta Warren (Part 11, p. 271). Borneo, Sumatra. (Lowland forest).

Monocerotesa proximesta Holloway (Part 11, p. 271). Borneo, Sumatra (Sato, 2007b). Lowland forest.

Monocerotesa locoscripta Holloway (Part 11, p. 272). Thailand, Sundaland, Philippines. (Lowland forest). Note 259. Note 259. H.S. Barlow (pers. comm.) has recorded M. locoscripta from lowland forest at Belum, Perak, Peninsular Malaysia. Sato (2007b) has extended the range to include Thailand, Sumatra and Mindanao in the Philippines.

Sysstema pauxilloides Holloway (Part 11, p. 273). Borneo, Sumatra. (Lowland forest).

Boarmacaria tenuilinea Warren (Part 11, p. 274). Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia, Sumatra (MS), Sulawesi. (Lowland).

Boarmacaria herbuloti Holloway (Part 11, p. 274). Endemic. Lowland forest.

ENNOMINAE incertae sedis (6 species)

Clepsimelea phryganioides Warren (Part 11, p. 275). Borneo to New Caledonia and Fiji. Lowland to lower montane particularly on limestone.

Fritillerinnysclathraria Warren (Part 11, p. 276). Sundaland, Sulawesi. (Lower montane).

Pseudocassyma sundagraphoides Holloway (Part 11, p. 277). Borneo, Sumatra (MS). Lowland forest.

Pseudocassyma retaka Holloway (Part 11, p. 277). Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia. (Upper montane).

Pseudocassyma uniformis Holloway (Part 10, p. 204). Endemic. (Lowland forest).

Heteralex rectilineata Guenée(Part 9, p. 301). Sundaland. Lowland and lower montane.

Subfamily ORTHOSTIXINAE (2 species)

Naxa guttulata Warren (Part 9, p. 303; Part 10, p. 205, early stages). Borneo, Sumatra. (Lowland, lower montane).

Naxa kerangatis Holloway (Part 9, p. 303). Endemic. Lowland heath forest.

 


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