Superfamily NOCTUOIDEA (2848 species)

Family EREBIDAE (1856 species)

Subfamily LYMANTRIINAE (297 species)

Tribe LYMANTRIINI (32 species)

Lymantria (Porthetria) brotea Stoll (Part 5, p. 13, as lepcha Moore). N.E. Himalaya, S. China, Indochina, Andamans, Sundaland. (Lowland to upper montane). Note 352. Note 352. Schintlmeister (2004b: 35-36) determined that the original illustration of Lymantria brotea Stoll was conspecific with L. galinara Swinhoe, despite the type localities of Ambon and Coromandel Coast (E. India) given by Stoll. The actual specimen used by Stoll for his description could not be located, so Schintlmeister designated the holotype of galinara as the neotype of Brotea, which thus becomes the nominotypical race from Sundaland, with lepcha Moore applicable to the race from N.E. Himalaya to S. China and Indochina. A new subspecies, L. brotea rudloffi Schintlmeister, was described from the Andaman Is.

Lymantria (Porthetria) ganara Moore (Part 5, p. 15). S. China, Indochina, Sundaland, Philippines. Lowland forest. Note 353. Note 353. Schintlmeister (2004b: 37) placed L. xiaolingensis Chao as a subspecies of L. ganara, extending its range to S. China and Indochina. He also recorded ganara from the Philippines.

Lymantria (Porthetria) brunneiplaga Swinhoe (Part 5, p. 14). S. Burma, Sundaland, Philippines. (Lowland to lower montane).

Lymantria (Porthetria) marginalis Walker stat. rev. (Part 5, p. 14). Himalaya to S. China and Sundaland, Philippines. Lowland to montane. Note 354. Note 354. Schintlmeister (2004b: 40) determined that L. marginalis Walker, 1862, was conspecific with L. bivittata Moore, 1879, but contrived to subordinate the older name to subspecies status of the younger name. This is here rectified by the restoration of marginalis to species rank, stat. rev., and assignation of bivittata to it as the subspecies, stat. n., from N.E. Himalaya to S. China, Thailand and Vietnam. The new Philippines race described by Schintlmeister (2004b: 41) therefore becomes L. marginalis roseoides Schintlmeister comb. n. A related species, L. rikiosatoi Schintlmeister, has been described from the Lesser Sundas.

Lymantria (Porthetria) narindra Moore (Part 5, p. 13). S. Burma, Sundaland, Palawan. (Lowland to upper montane).

Lymantria (Lymantria) hollowayi Schintlmeister (Part 5, p. 15). Sundaland. Lower and upper montane.

Lymantria (Lymantria) jakli Schintlmeister (Schintlmeister, 2004b: 88). Endemic. (Lowland) to lower montane. Note 355. Note 355. L. jakli Schintlmeister (2004b: 88) is a new species from Kalimantan, closely related to hollowayi Schintlmeister and alexandrae Schintlmeister with which it flies in Borneo. Males of jakli are intermediate in size between hollowayi and alexandrae, but with somewhat intermediate strength of forewing markings. The forewings are more rounded, particularly at the apex, and there is a general reddish tinge to the wings that is particularly strong on the hindwing dorsum. The females also have more rounded forewings and a distinctly redder tinge; the black markings of the forewing are more even in development, less intense than in the other species in the discal and central dorsal areas; the subbasal is more strongly punctate. In the male genitalia the distal part of the valve is more slender, straighter, and the sacculus is expanded, triangular. L. alexandrae has a distribution that is disjunct between N. Thailand and Sundaland. The material (in the Witt Museum) from the former is not from Sansai (see p. 294) and appears to be of good provenance, but has yet to be dissected (A. Schintlmeister, pers. comm.).

Lymantria (Lymantria) alexandrae Schintlmeister (Part 5, p. 16). N. Thailand, Sundaland. Lowland forest (and lower montane). Note 355. Note 355. L. jakli Schintlmeister (2004b: 88) is a new species from Kalimantan, closely related to hollowayi Schintlmeister and alexandrae Schintlmeister with which it flies in Borneo. Males of jakli are intermediate in size between hollowayi and alexandrae, but with somewhat intermediate strength of forewing markings. The forewings are more rounded, particularly at the apex, and there is a general reddish tinge to the wings that is particularly strong on the hindwing dorsum. The females also have more rounded forewings and a distinctly redder tinge; the black markings of the forewing are more even in development, less intense than in the other species in the discal and central dorsal areas; the subbasal is more strongly punctate. In the male genitalia the distal part of the valve is more slender, straighter, and the sacculus is expanded, triangular. L. alexandrae has a distribution that is disjunct between N. Thailand and Sundaland. The material (in the Witt Museum) from the former is not from Sansai (see p. 294) and appears to be of good provenance, but has yet to be dissected (A. Schintlmeister, pers. comm.).

Lymantria (Lymantria) subrosea Swinhoe (Part 5, p. 15, as singapura Swinhoe). Sri Lanka, S. India, N.E. Himalaya to China and Sundaland, Philippines, Sulawesi, Seram, Lesser Sundas to Timor. Lowland forest (and lower montane). Note 356. Note 356. L. singapura Swinhoe is treated by Schintlmeister (2004b: 91) as a subspecies of L. subrosea Swinhoe, with niasica Strand as a new synonym of singapura. Schintlmeister extended the range of singapura north to S. China and the N.E. Himalaya and further east to the Philippines and along the Lesser Sunda chain to Timor. He also indicated (fig 287) that it occurred on Seram, and the author has taken it in Sulawesi. The nominotypical subrosea occurs in Sri Lanka and the extreme south of India.

Lymantria (Beatria) beatrix Stoll (Part 5, p. 17). Sundaland, Palawan. Lowland (and upper montane).

Lymantria (Nyctria) minora van Eecke (Part 5, p. 16). Sundaland. Lowland forest.

Lymantria (Nyctria) capnodes Collenette (Part 5, p. 18). Thailand, Sundaland. (Upper montane). Note 357. Note 357. The distribution given for L. capnodes in Part 5 included the Philippines. Schintlmeister (2004b: 134) described material for the Philippines similar to capnodes as a new species, naessigi Schintlmeister. He also placed the Javanese subspecies bisextilis Toxopeus as a synonym of capnodes, as he could detect no differences that would merit it subspecific status.

Lymantria (Pantria) panthera van Eecke (Part 5, p. 17). Cambodia, Sundaland. Lowland forest.

Lymantria (Collentria) barlowi Schintlmeister (Part 5, p. 20). Sundaland. (Lowland, lower montane).

Lymantria (Spinotria) pagon Holloway (Part 5, p. 19). Endemic. (Upper montane forest).

Lymantria (Spinotria) inordinata Walker (Part 5, p. 18). Sundaland, Sulawesi, S. Moluccas. (Lowland). Note 358. Note 358. Schintlmeister (2004b: 162‑163) described further subspecies of L. inordinata: ssp. philippina Schintlmeister (Philippines); ssp. javana Schintlmeister (Java).

Lymantria (Spinotria) sexspinae Holloway (Part 5, p. 18). Borneo, Sumatra. Lowland and upper montane.

Lymantria (Spinotria) rhabdota Collenette (Part 5, p. 18). Sundaland, Philippines. (Lowland forest). Note 359. Note 359. L. rhabdota stephani Schintlmeister (2004b: 166) extended the range of this species to the Philippines.

Lymantria (Spinotria) kobesi Schintlmeister (Part 5, p. 20). Sundaland. (Lowland forest).

Lymantria (Spinotria) strigata Aurivillius (Part 5, p. 19). Sundaland, ?Thailand. (Lowland, upper montane).

Lymantria (Spinotria) microstrigata Holloway (Part 5, p. 19). Endemic. Lowland forest.

Lymantria (Spinotria) temburong Holloway (Part 5, p. 20). Endemic. Lowland forest. Note 360. Note 360. Chung et al. (2008) illustrated a larva and an adult female of a lymantriine that they identified as L. temburong Holloway. The larva was found feeding on Octomeles (Datiscaceae). However, the larva is distinctly orgyiine with three yellow brushes dorsally atop a body that is dull orange with orange setae on verrucae. Tufts flanking the head on each side, directed forwards, are long and black-topped. The moth lacks the black discal V-mark seen in most Lymantria, including temburong, but is variegated greenish, with a white and green V at the disc. Its identity has not been determined.        

Lymantria (Sarantria) faircloughi Holloway (Part 5, p. 21). Sundaland. (Lowland forest).

Lymantria (Sarantria) kinta Collenette (Part 5, p. 21). Sundaland. Lowland forest.

Lymantria (Sarantria) sublunata Rothschild (Part 5, p. 21). N.E. Himalaya, Indochina, Sundaland, Palawan. Lowland forest. Note 361. Note 361. L. sublunata thomasi Schintlmeister (2004b: 204) extended the range of sublunata to the Andamans, Thailand and the N.E. Himalaya.

Dura amianta Collenette (Part 5, p. 22). Sundaland. Lowland forest (to upper montane).

Dura pseudalba Holloway (Part 5, p. 22). Sundaland. Lowland forest.

Imaus munda Walker (Part 5, p. 23). N. India to Sundaland. (Lowland and upper montane).

Psilochira lineata Walker (Part 5, p. 24). N.E. India to Sundaland. (Lowland).

Psilochira venusta Collenette (Part 5, p. 24). Sundaland. Lowland forest.

Psilochira amydra Collenette (Part 5, p. 24). Sundaland. (Lowland forest).

Psilochira durioides Strand (Part 5, p. 24). Sundaland. (Lowland forest).

Tribe LEUCOMINI (7 species)

Leucoma sericea Moore (Part 5, p. 108). Indo-Australian tropics to New Guinea. (Montane).

Leucoma ochripes Moore (Part 5, p. 109). N.E. Himalaya, borneo. (Upper montane).

Leucoma impressa Snellen (Part 5, p. 110). Sundaland. Lowland forest.

Leucoma bicolorata Holloway (Part 5, p. 110). Endemic. (Lowland and lower montane forest).

Dendrophleps semihyalina Hampson (Part 5, p. 111). N.E. Himalaya, Borneo. (Upper montane).

Dendrophleps cretacea Holloway (Part 5, p. 111). Endemic. Upper montane.

Perina sunda Holloway (Part 5, p. 113). Sundaland, Philippines. Lowland (to montane).

Tribe ORGYIINI (35 species)

Orgyia postica Walker (Part 5, p. 26). Oriental tropics and east to New Guinea. Lowland forests and cultivation.

Orgyia osseata Walker (Part 5, p. 27). Oriental tropics to Philippines. Lowland forests and cultivation, (also montane).

Orgyia araea Collenette (Part 5, p. 28). Sundaland. (Lowland heath forest).

Orgyia ariadne Schintlmeister (Part 5, p. 28). Sundaland. (Lowland heath forest).

Orgyia basinigra Heylaerts (Part 5, p. 29). Sundaland. (Lowland forest) and plantation.

Clethrogyna turbata Butler (Part 5, p. 29). S.E. Asia, Sundaland. (Lowland cultivation). Note 362. Note 362. Further data and illustrations of the life history of Clethrogyna turbata in Borneo have been published by Chung (2003) and Chung et al. (2006, 2009b). Host plants added to those listed in Part 6 and by Robinson et al. (2001) are Terminalia (Combretaceae), Bauhinia (Leguminosae; feeding on flowers only) and Ixora (Rubiaceae).

Olene mendosa Hübner (Part 5, p. 30). Indo-Australian tropics to Australia, New Guinea. Lowland forests and cultivation (to upper montane). Note 363. Note 363. Chung et al. (2008) reared Orgyia mendosa from Octomeles (Datiscaceae), illustrating the larva and adult. The illustration of the former shows clearly the four broad brownish yellow dorsal brushes on A1-4 and the black lateral tufts on A2, the latter with white ones on A1 and A3 on each side of them.

Olene inclusa Walker (Part 5, p.32). Sundaland, Wallacea, Sumbawa. Lowland forest (to upper montane). Note 364. Note 364. Chung et al. (2008) also reared O. inclusa from Octomeles, but misidentified the male as Rhypotoses brooksi Collenette. The larva is more heavily invested with brown setae from verrucae, and the dorsal brushes are also browner. There are distinctive pale patches just anterior to the brush on A1.

Olene dudgeoni Swinhoe (Part 5, p. 33). N.E. Himalaya to Taiwan and Sundaland. (Lowland to montane).

Telochurus diplosticta Collenette (Part 5, p. 34). Borneo, Sumatra, Sulawesi, S. Moluccas. Upper montane.

Calliteara horsfieldii Saunders (Part 5, p. 35). Sundaland to New Guinea. Lowland to upper montane, including cultivation. Note 365. Note 365. Leong & D’Rozario (2009d) described and illustrated the mature larva of Calliteara horsfieldii in Singapore. It is a much paler yellow than that illustrated by Barlow (1982). An early instar has been illustrated by Chung et al. (2008). It lacks the dorsal brushes seen in the mature larva. Chung et al. added Octomeles (Datiscaceae) to the recorded host plants.

Calliteara cerigoides Walker (Part 5, p. 36). S. India, Burma, Sundaland, Sulawesi. Lowland forest.

Calliteara zelotica Collenette (Part 5, p. 36). Sundaland. (Lowland).

Calliteara strigata Moore (Part 5, p. 37). Himalaya to Sundaland, Buru. (Lower to) upper montane.

Calliteara diplozona Collenette (Part 5, p. 37). Sundaland. (Lowland to) montane.

Calliteara lairdae Holloway (Part 5, p. 37). Endemic (Kinabalu only). Upper montane.

Calliteara pseudolairdae Holloway (Part 5, p. 38). Endemic. Upper montane.

Calliteara angulata Hampson (Part 5, p. 38). N.E. Himalaya to New Guinea. Lowland forest (to upper montane).

Calliteara aphrasta Collenette (Part 5, p. 38). Indian Subregion to Sundaland. Upper montane.

Calliteara cox Schintlmeister (Part 5, p. 39). Borneo, Sumatra. Lowland heath forest and montane forest.

Calliteara box Holloway (Part 5, p. 39). Endemic. Lowland heath forest and montane forest.

Ilema preangerensis Heylaerts (Part 5, p. 40). N.E. Himalaya. Sundaland. Montane forest.

Ilema baruna Moore (Part 5, p. 40). Sundaland. Lowland forest.

Ilema petrilinnaea Bryk (Part 5, p. 41). Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia. Lowland forest (on acid soils).

Ilema chalana Moore (Part 5, p. 41). Sundaland. Lowland.

Ilema costiplaga Walker (Part 5, p. 41). Sundaland. (Lowland).

Ilema altichalana Holloway (Part 5, p. 42). Endemic (Kinabalu only). (Upper montane).

Ilema vaneeckei Collenette (Part 5, p. 42). Sundaland. Lowland forest.

Ilema montanata Holloway (Part 5, p. 42). Borneo, Sumatra. Lower montane.

Numenes insignis Moore (Part 5, p. 43). Sundaland. (Lowland).

Numenes contrahens Walker (Part 5, p. 44). Sundaland. (Lowland to lower montane).

Laelia suffusa Walker (Part 5, p. 45). Sundaland, Wallacea. (Lowland, ?open habitat).

Pantana lithosioides Walker (Part 5, p. 46). Borneo, Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia (B). (Lowland, ?open habitat).

Pantana melantera Collenette (Part 5, p. 46). Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia. (Lowland, ?open habitat).

Pantana macrotera Collenette (Part 5, p. 46). Endemic. (?Lowland).

Tribe NYGMIINI (137 species)

Arna bipunctapex Hampson (Part 5, p. 46). Oriental tropics to Sundaland. Lowland to upper montane.

Arna mesilauensis Holloway (Part 5, p. 49). Endemic (Kinabalu only). Montane forest.

Arna minutissima Swinhoe (Part 5, p. 49). Singapore, Borneo. (Lowland forest).

Arna micronides van Eecke (Part 5, p. 49). Borneo, Sumatra. (Lowland forest).

Arna sp. 2565 (Part 5, p. 50). Borneo, Sumatra?. (Lowland forest).

Arna sp. 2778 (Part 5, p. 50). Endemic. (Lowland).

Somena similis Moore (Part 5, p. 51). Indian Subregion to Sundaland. Lowland, including disturbed areas (to upper montane).

Somena aurantiacoides Holloway (Part 5, p. 52). Borneo, Sumatra. No precise habitat data.

Somena sp. 1730 (Part 5, p. 53). Endemic. (Lowland forest).

Orvasca subnotata Walker (Part 5, p. 54). Oriental tropics to Sundaland. (Lowland, including cultivated areas).

Orvasca bicolor Heylaerts (Part 5, p. 54). Sundaland. (Lowland, lower montane).

Orvasca sciasticta Collenette (Part 5, p. 55). Sundaland. (Lowland to upper montane).

Orvasca sp. 2692 (Part 5, p. 55). Borneo, Sumatra? (?Lowland).

Orvasca rufalba Holloway (Part 5, p. 55). Endemic. (Upper montane).

Orvasca primula Holloway (Part 5, p. 56). Endemic. (Upper montane).

Orvasca vespertilionis Holloway (Part 5, p. 56). Borneo, Sumatra? (Montane).

Orvasca eva Schintlmeister (Part 5, p. 57). Borneo, Sumatra. (Lowland forest).

Orvasca brunneva Holloway (Part 5, p. 57). Endemic. Lowland forest.

Orvasca sp. 1721 (Part 5, p. 57). Endemic. (Lowland forest).

Orvasca waterstradti Holloway (Part 5, p. 57). Endemic. (Montane).

Orvasca ashleyi Holloway (Part 5, p. 58). Endemic. (Lowland).

Orvasca kilanas Holloway (Part 5, p. 58). Endemic. (Lowland).

Sphrageidus virguncula Walker (Part 5, p. 59). Oriental tropics to Sundaland. (Lowland, cultivation).

Artaxa digramma Boisduval (Part 5, p. 60). Sundaland. (Lowland, cultivation).

Artaxa cina Strand (Part 5, p. 61). Endemic (Kinabalu only). Montane, including cultivated areas.

Artaxa hemixantha Collenette (Part 5, p. 61). Endemic. (Upper montane).

Artaxa sabahensis Holloway (Part 5, p. 62). Endemic (Kinabalu only). (Upper montane).

Artaxa gentia Swinhoe (Part 5, p. 62). Endemic (Kinabalu only). (Montane).

Artaxa tuhana Holloway (Part 5, p. 62). Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia (B). (Lower to upper montane).

Artaxa ormea Swinhoe (Part 5, p. 62). Sundaland. Lowland forest (to upper montane).

Artaxa distracta Walker (Part 5, p. 63). N.E. Himalaya, Sundaland. Lowland forest.

Artaxa perplexa Swinhoe comb. n. (Part 5, pp. 50, 63; under Arna, also as nubilosa van Eecke). Sundaland. Lowland forest. Note 366. Note 366. E. van Nieukerken (pers. comm.), as part of a project conducting DNA (COI) barcoding of freshly collected Lymantriidae from Kalimantan, has noted that Artaxa nubilosa van Eecke, known only from males (the females associated with the name by van Eecke were those of Micromorphe linta Moore, as indicated on p. 66 of Part 5), is identical to Arna perplexa Swinhoe, known only from females. This ‘marriage’ was not obvious, considering the very different forewing patterns of the sexes, but clearly the two taxa must be brought into synonymy, syn. n., with perplexa having priority.

Artaxa tanaoptera Collenette (Part 5, p. 64). Borneo, Sulawesi. (Lowland montane forest).

Artaxa phaula Collenette (Part 5, p. 64). Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia. Lowland forest.

Artaxa montiphaula Holloway (Part 5, p. 64). Endemic. (Lower montane).

Artaxa hannemanni Schintlmeister (Part 5, p. 64). Sundaland. (Lowland, disturbed forest).

Micromorphe chalcostoma Collenette (Part 5, p. 65). Sundaland. Lowland to upper montane.

Micromorphe hemibathoides Strand (Part 5, p. 66). Sundaland. (Lowland forest).

Micromorphe linta Moore (Part 5, p. 66). Sundaland. Lowland forest, particularly on acid soils.

Micromorphe oculata Toxopeus (Part 5, p. 66). Endemic. (Lowland).

Toxoproctis munda Walker (Part 5, p. 68). Sundaland. Lowland forest (particulary on acid soils).

Toxoproctis cincta Swinhoe (Part 5, p. 69). Endemic. Lowland forest.

Toxoproctis cheela Swinhoe (Part 5, p. 69). Sundaland. Lowland forest (particularly heath forest and on coast), (upper montane).

Toxoproctis bifurcata van Eecke (Part 5, p. 69). Sundaland. (Lowland forest).

Toxoproctis layi Schintlmeister (Part 5, p. 69). Sundaland. (Lowland heath forest).

Toxoproctis altilodra Holloway (Part 5, p. 70). Endemic (Kinabalu only). Upper montane.

Toxoproctis flavolimbata Aurivillius (Part 5, p. 70). Sundaland. Lowland, (lower montane).

Toxoproctis hemibathes Swinhoe (Part 5, p. 70). Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia, Sumatra. (Lowland forest). Note 367. Note 367. Toxoproctis hemibathes has been recorded in Peninsular Malaysia and its larva illustrated (Norela et al., 2009). The larval setae and those of the female abdominal tuft were observed to cause dermatitis in humans. The host plant recorded was Ficus benjamina (Moraceae).

Toxoproctis hemixanthoides Holloway (Part 5, p. 71). Endemic. (Upper montane).

Toxoproctis signiplaga Walker (Part 5, p. 71). Sundaland, Philippines. (Lowland).

Toxoproctis cosmia Collenette (Part 5, p. 71). Sundaland. Lowland forest.

Toxoproctis alticosmia Holloway (Part 5, p. 72). Endemic. (Upper montane).

Toxoproctis dyssema Collenette (Part 5, p. 72). Sundaland. Lowland to upper montane.

Toxoproctis adrian Schintlmeister (Part 5, p. 72). Sundaland. (Lowland heath forest).

Toxoproctis anna Swinhoe (Part 5, p. 72). Sundaland. (Lowland hill forest).

Toxoproctis deliana van Eecke (Part 5, p. 73). Borneo, Sumatra. Lowland forest (to lower montane).

Toxoproctis helpsi Holloway (Part 5, p. 73). Endemic. (Mangrove).

Toxoproctis willotti Holloway (Part 5, p. 73). Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia. (Lowland forest).

Nygmia xanthomela Walker (Part 5, p. 75). Sundaland. Lowland forest (to upper montane).

Nygmia peperites Collenette (Part 5, p. 76). Sundaland. (Lowland forest, upper montane).

Nygmia chirunda Swinhoe (Part 5, p. 76). Sundaland. (Lowland forest).

Nygmia javana Aurivillius (Part 5, p. 76). Sundaland. (Lowland).

Nygmia javanoides Holloway (Part 5, p. 77). Borneo, Sumatra. (Lowland forest).

Nygmia epirotica Collenette (Part 5, p. 77). Sundaland. (Lowland forest).

Nygmia solitaria van Eecke (Part 5, p. 78). Sundaland. (Lowland forest, cultivated areas, lower montane).

Nygmia sp. 2613 (Part 5, p. 78). Endemic. (Lowland, upper montane).

Nygmia atereta Collenette (Part 5, p. 78). Sundaland. Lowland to lower montane forests.

Nygmia baueri Schintlmeister (Part 5, p. 79). Sundaland. (Montane forest).

Nygmia puli Schintlmeister (Part 5, p. 79). Sundaland. Lowland forest, (upper montane).

Nygmia semifumosa Holloway (Part 5, p. 80). Endemic. Upper montane forest.

Nygmia amplior Collenette (Part 5, p. 80). Sundaland. Lowland to upper montane forests.

Nygmia funeralis Swinhoe (Part 5, p. 80). Sundaland. (Lowland and lower montane forest).

Nygmia exitela Collenette (Part 5, p. 81). Sundaland. (Lowland forest).

Nygmia barbara Swinhoe (Part 5, p. 81). Endemic. Lowland (to upper montane) forest.

Nygmia tigris Holloway (Part 5, p. 82). Endemic. (Lowland).

Nygmia poppaea Collenette (Part 5, p. 82). Sundaland. (Lowland to upper montane).

Nygmia venata Collenette (Part 5, p. 82). Borneo, Sumatra. Lowland forest.

Nygmia sinuinigra Holloway (Part 5, p. 83). Endemic. Lowland forest.

Nygmia guttulata Snellen (Part 5, p. 83). Sundaland. Lowland forest.

Nygmia postgrisea Rothschild (Part 5, p. 83). Sundaland. Lowland (to upper montane) forest.

Nygmia castor Collenette (Part 5, p. 84). Borneo, Java. (Lowland forest on acid soils).

Nygmia guttistriga Walker (Part 5, p. 84). Sundaland. Lowland forest.

Nygmia moalata Swinhoe (Part 5, p. 84). Sundaland. Lowland forest.

Nygmia fumosa Snellen (Part 5, p. 85). Sundaland. Lowland forest.

Nygmia dirtea Swinhoe (Part 5, p. 85). Endemic. (Lowland).

Nygmia oonophora Collenette (Part 5, p. 86). Sundaland. (Lowland to upper montane).

Nygmia civitta Swinhoe (Part 5, p. 86). Sundaland. Lowland forest.

Nygmia punctatofasciata van Eecke (new record; as Artaxa distracta in Chung et al. (2009a)). Sumatra. Borneo. (Lowland, secondary forest). Note 368. Note 368. Nygmia punctatofasciata van Eecke was reared from Neolamarckia (Rubiaceae) by Chung et al. (2009a), but misidentified as Artaxa distracta Walker. This is the first record for Borneo, but the species was mentioned in Part 5 (p. 86 in discussion of the related N. civitta Swinhoe and N. nova Schintlmeister). The medial zone of the forewing is distinctly darker than the rest of the wing, and the white marginal markings are reduced relative to those in civitta and nova. A female and an aggregation of larvae were illustrated by Chung et al. The larva was dark reddish brown with an irregular, pulsating whitish dorsal band with a narrowly dark central line. Black spots flank this on most abdominal segments but there is a large, dark, dorsal tuft enclosed in a white ring on A1 and a smaller white tuft on A8.

Nygmia nova Schintlmeister (Part 5, p. 87). Sundaland. Lowland forest.

Nygmia corbetti Tams (Part 5, p. 87). Sundaland. (?Mangrove).

Nygmia atrisignata Swinhoe (Part 5, p. 87). Sundaland. Lowland forest.

Nygmia lali Schintlmeister (Part 5, p. 87). Borneo, Sumatra. Lowland forest.

Nygmia longitegumen Holloway (Part 5, p. 88). Borneo, Sumatra?. Lowland forest.

Bembina isabellina Heylaerts (Part 5, p. 89). Sundaland. Lowland forest (especially on acid soils).

Bembina albinotata Heylaerts (Part 5, p. 89). Sundaland. Lowland forest.

Bembina pseudaurantiaca Holloway (Part 5, p. 89). Borneo, Sumatra?. (Lowland alluvial forest).

Choerotricha indistincta Rothschild (Part 5, p. 90). Borneo, Sumatra?. (Montane).

Choerotricha biflava Holloway (Part 5, p. 91). Endemic. (Montane).

Cozola subrana Moore (Part 5, p. 92). Sundaland. (Lowland forest).

Cozola hapala Collenette (new record). Sundaland. (Lowland). Note 369. Note 369. There is a single female of Cozola hapala Collenette in FRC, Sepilok, taken in the vicinity of the Danum Valley Field Centre, Sabah, in an area of mixed undisturbed and logged lowland forest. The species was transferred to Cozola Walker in Part 5 (p. 91).

Lacida biplagata Heylaerts (Part 5, p. 92). N.E. Himalaya. Sundaland. (Lowland to lower montane).

Lacida morawae van Eecke (new record, Plate 6, Fig 100). Sumatra, Borneo. (Lowland). Note 370. Note 370. A single male (in FRC, Sepilok) of the Sumatran Lacida morawae van Eecke (Schintlmeister, 2004a; under Euproctis) has been taken in lowland forest on Bukit Gemok near Tawau in Sabah (Plate 6, Fig 100). The forewing is dark blackish grey with a paler basal area. This blackish grey almost obscures the marginal black marks that typify the genus, but these are enclosed by the fine pale lunules of the submarginal. There is a transverse black discal mark. This male is voucher for the data logged under ?Cozola sp. by Chey (2006: 397).

Euproctisfusipennis Walker (Part 5, p. 93). Endemic. (Lowland, possibly mangrove).

Euproctislyclene Swinhoe (Part 5, p. 93). Borneo, Sumatra?, Peninsular Malaysia? (B). (Lowland forest).

Euproctisalbolyclene Holloway (Part 5, p. 94). Endemic. Lowland heath forest, (lower montane).

Euproctiswilemani Collenette (Part 5, p. 94). Borneo, Sumatra. Philippines. Lower montane with cultivation.

Euproctiscitrinula van Eecke (Part 5, p. 95). Borneo, Sumatra. (Lowland and lower montane forest on limestone).

Euproctis” sp. 1135 (Part 5, p. 95). Endemic (Kinabalu only). (Upper montane).

Euproctiskamburonga Holloway (Part 5, p. 95). Endemic (Kinabalu only). Upper montane to Radio Sabah zone.

Euproctis” sp. 2543 (Part 5, p. 96). Endemic (Kinabalu only). 2970m.

Euproctissarawacensis Talbot (Part 5, p. 96). Endemic. (Upper montane).

Euproctisnigribasalis Swinhoe (Part 5, p. 96). Endemic (Kinabalu only).

Euproctis” sp. 1151 (Part 5, p. 97). Endemic (Kinabalu only). (Upper montane).

Euproctisu-grisea Holloway (Part 5, p. 97). Endemic. (Upper montane).

Euproctisviridoculata Holloway (Part 5, p. 97). Endemic. Lowland to upper montane forest.

Euproctislongipalpa Collenette (Part 5, p. 98). Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia. (Upper montane).

Euproctispseudoarna Holloway (Part 5, p. 98). Endemic. Lowland forest.

Euproctisschintlmagistri Holloway (Part 5, p. 98). Borneo, Sumatra.

Rhypotoses brooksi Collenette (Part 5, p. 100). Borneo, Sumatra. Lowland forest (to upper montane).

Rhypotoses triceratops Holloway (Part 5, p. 100). Endemic. Lowland heath forest.

Rhypotoses glebula Swinhoe (Part 5, p. 101). Borneo, Sumatra. Lowland forest.

Rhypotoses strigifimbria Walker (Part 5, p. 101). Borneo, Sumatra. Lowland forest, (lower montane).

Rhypotoses nigrocrocea Walker (Part 5, p. 101). Endemic. Lowland.

Rhypotoses nigriplaga Swinhoe (Part 5, p. 102). Endemic. ?Lowland.

Rhypotoses barlowi Holloway (Part 5, p. 102). Endemic. (Montane).

Rhypotoses biformis Holloway (Part 5, p. 102). Endemic (Kinabalu only). Montane.

Rhypotoses maculutea Holloway (Part 5, p. 103). Endemic. (Upper montane).

Rhypotoses ruptata Walker (Part 5, p. 103). N.E. Himalaya, Sundaland. Lowland forest.

Rhypotoses adela Collenette (Part 5, p. 104). Sundaland. (Lowland forest).

Sundaroa flaveofusca Swinhoe (Part 5, p. 104). Endemic. (Lowland forest).

Sundaroa cheyi Holloway (Part 5, p. 105). Sundaland?. (Lowland forest).

Sundaroa calesia Swinhoe (Part 5, p. 105). Borneo, Sumatra. (Lowland forest).

Sundaroa sexmacula Swinhoe (Part 5, p. 105). Endemic.

Sundaroa celaenostola Collenette (Part 5, p. 106). Endemic. (Upper montane).

Sundaroa transflava Holloway (Part 5, p. 106). Endemic. (Upper montane).

Medama spatulidorsum Holloway (Part 5, p. 107). Endemic (Kinabalu only). (Montane).

Medama megerata Collenette (Part 5, p. 107). Sundaland. (Lower montane forest).

Tribe ARCTORNITHINI (78 species)

Arctornis rutila Fabricius (Part 5, p. 117). S.E. Asia, Sundaland, Philippines. Lowland (to lower montane).

Arctornis marginata Moore (Part 5, p. 117). Indian Subregion, Sundaland, Lowland forest.

Arctornis trasiana Swinhoe (Part 5, p. 118). Sundaland. (Lowland).

Arctornis discirufa Swinhoe (Part 5, p. 118). Sundaland. Lowland forest.

Arctornis tortricoides Walker (Part 5, p. 119). Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia. (Lowland).

Arctornis plumbacea Swinhoe (Part 5, p. 119). Sundaland. Lowland forest.

Arctornis ouria Collenette (Part 5, p. 119). Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia. Lowland (to lower montane) forest.

Arctornis labi Holloway (Part 5, p. 119). Endemic. (Lowland).

Arctornis obtusa Walker (Part 5, p. 120). Borneo, Sulawesi. Lowland (to upper montane).

Arctornis meridionalis Holloway (Part 5, p. 120). Endemic (Pulo Laut). (Lowland).

Arctornis heteroides Collenette (Part 5, p. 120). Sundaland. Lowland (and upper montane) forest.

Arctornis flora Swinhoe (Part 5, p. 120). Borneo, Sumatra. Lowland forest.

Arctornis florella Collenette (Part 5, p. 121). Sundaland. Lowland forest.

Arctornis marginalis Walker (Part 5, p. 121). Sundaland. Lowland forest.

Arctornis phasmatodes Collenette (Part 5, p. 121). Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia. Lowland (to upper montane).

Arctornis micacea Walker (Part 5, p. 122). Sundaland. Lowland forest.

Arctornis lumulosa Mackey (Part 5, p. 122). Endemic. (Lowland forest).

Arctornis isabella Toxopeus (Part 5, p. 122). Borneo, Sumatra. Lowland forest (to upper montane). Note 371. Note 371. The holotype of Arctornis isabella Toxopeus has been examined. The genitalia (Fig 108) confirm the identity in Part 5.

Arctornis pellucidoides Holloway (Part 5, p. 123). Endemic. Lowland (hill) dipterocarp forest.

Arctornis egerina Swinhoe (Part 5, p. 123). Sundaland. Lowland forest.

Arctornis poecilonipha Collenette (Part 5, p. 123). Sundaland. (Lowland forest). Note 372. Note 372. The holotype of A. arbor‑christi Toxopeus (Plate 7, Fig 101) proved to have a distribution of reflective scales on the wings that did not match that in male poecilonipha Collenette, being more evenly distributed than seen in the large but more irregular patches of the latter species. It resembles closely the larger female of rhopica referred to in Part 5, so may in fact belong to that species rather than to poecilonipha. As the classification is essentially male‑based, it is suggested here that, if synonymy with rhopica is proven, page priority should be overruled to render arbor‑christi the junior synonym.

Arctornis riguata Snellen (Part 5, p. 124). Sundaland. Lowland (and lower montane) forest. Note 373. Note 373. The holotype of A. velutina Toxopeus (Java) has been examined. The male genitalia (Fig 107) indicate that it is probably conspecific with riguata Snellen, and it is placed in synonymy, syn. n.

Arctornis niphobola Collenette (Part 5, p. 124). Sundaland. (Lowland, lower montane forest).

Arctornis semihyalina Swinhoe (Part 5, p. 125). Sundaland to New Guinea. (Lowland, lower montane).

Arctornis nigrobustus Holloway (Part 5, p. 125). Endemic (Kinabalu only). Upper montane.

Arctornis phrika Collenette (Part 5, p. 125). Sundaland. Lowland (and lower montane) forests.

Arctornis mallephrika Holloway (Part 5, p. 126). Borneo, Sumatra. Lowland (and lower montane forests).

Arctornis brunnescens Holloway (Part 5, p. 126). Endemic. Lowland forest.

Arctornis albescens Holloway (Part 5, p. 127). Endemic. (Lowland forest).

Arctornis rugosacculus Holloway (Part 5, p. 127). Endemic. (Lowland forest).

Arctornis contrarcuatus Holloway (Part 5, p. 127). Endemic. Lowland forest.

Arctornis calcariphallus Holloway (Part 5, p. 128). Endemic. Lowland (and lower montane) forest.

Arctornis bicalcaratus Holloway (Part 5, p. 128). Endemic. (Lowland).

Arctornis rhopica Toxopeus (Part 5, p. 129). Borneo, Sumatra. Lowland (and lower montane forest). Note 372, 374. Note 372, 374. The holotype of A. arbor‑christi Toxopeus (Plate 7, Fig 101) proved to have a distribution of reflective scales on the wings that did not match that in male poecilonipha Collenette, being more evenly distributed than seen in the large but more irregular patches of the latter species. It resembles closely the larger female of rhopica referred to in Part 5, so may in fact belong to that species rather than to poecilonipha. As the classification is essentially male‑based, it is suggested here that, if synonymy with rhopica is proven, page priority should be overruled to render arbor‑christi the junior synonym.
Note 374 The holotype of A. rhopica Toxopeus has been examined. The genitalia (Fig 102) confirm the identity in Part 5. The taxon arbor‑christi Toxopeus could represent the female as discussed under Note 372.

Arctornis asymmetricus Holloway (Part 5, p. 129). Endemic. (Lowland heath and lower montane forest).

Arctornis perfecta Walker (Part 5, p. 129). Sundaland, Sulawesi. Lowland (to upper montane forest). Note 375. Note 375. The holotype of A. flaminea Toxopeus has been examined and the genitalia (Fig 109) indicate it to be a synonym of perfecta Walker, syn. n.

Arctornis aureopalpatus Holloway (Part 5, p. 130). Endemic. (Lower montane forest).

Arctornis secula Holloway (Part 5, p. 131). Endemic. (Lower montane forest).

Arctornis prasioneura Toxopeus (Part 5, p. 131). Endemic. Lowland (to upper montane forest).

Arctornis ungula Holloway (Part 5, p. 131). Endemic. (Lowland, upper montane).

Arctornis pseudungula Holloway (Part 5, p. 132). Endemic. (Lowland and lower montane forest).

Arctornis galene Toxopeus (Part 5, p. 132). Sundaland. (Lowland to lower montane forest). Note 376. Note 376. The identities of the taxa A. galene Toxopeus (t. loc. Java) and A. galanthina Toxopeus (Java) were found to raise questions when both holotypes and the allotype male of the former were dissected. Mackey (1984) had already dissected a male parallotype of galene, where the holotype is female (Fig 106). The genitalia of the species attributed to galene in Part 5 and those of the paratype examined by Mackey match those of the holotype of galanthina (Fig 104). The valves in galanthina are somewhat more elongate and narrower than in Bornean material, but the allotype male of galene (Fig 105) has the harpe almost straight. Possibly these differences are within the range of variation of the species in Java, but this needs further investigation, as does the relationship of the holotype female of galene to males; perhaps only molecular data will provide clarification. The typical race occurs through most of the Philippines but ssp. fuscata Schintlmeister & Lourens (2010) occurs in Palawan. .

Arctornis sp. 2150 (Part 5, p. 133). Endemic. (Lowland).

Arctornis bilobuncus Holloway (Part 5, p. 133). Endemic. (Lowland to upper montane).

Arctornis sp. 1659 (Part 5, p. 133). Endemic. (Lowland).

Arctornis submarginata Walker (Part 5, p. 133). N.E. Himalaya, Borneo, Sumatra. (Lowland and lower montane forest).

Arctornis satinata Toxopeus (Part 5, p. 134, as liguluncus Holloway). Endemic. (Lower montane forest). Note 377. Note 377. The holotype of A. satinata Toxopeus has been examined. The genitalia (Fig 114) indicate it to be conspecific with liguluncus Holloway. Therefore liguluncus is a junior synonym of satinata, syn. n.

Arctornis erasmia Toxopeus (Part 5, p. 146). Endemic. (?Lowland). Note 378. Note 378. The holotype of A. erasmia Toxopeus has genitalia (Fig 116) similar in uncus and valve features to those of satinata, as indicated in the original description and in Part 5 (p. 146). Further material is needed to assess whether it is a variant of satinata or a close sister‑species. The distal margin of the valve has the costal and ventral corners more angular, the latter more produced. The apex of the harpe is not longer than the ventral corner of the valve apex, and its apex is distinctly swollen, though still asymmetrically acute.

Arctornis clavimicruncus Holloway (Part 5, p. 134). Endemic. (Lowland heath and lower montane forests).

Arctornis virgamicruncus Holloway (Part 5, p. 135). Endemic. (Lowland to lower montane forests).

Arctornis camurisquama Collenette (Part 5, p. 135). Sundaland. Lowland to lower montane forests.

Arctornis corrugata Toxopeus (Part 5, p. 136). Borneo, Sumatra. Lower to upper montane forests. Note 379. Note 379. The holotype of A. corrugata Toxopeus has been examined. The genitalia (Fig 112) confirm the identity in Part 5. The genitalia of the holotype of adusta Toxopeus (Fig 110) indicate it to be conspecific with corrugata rather than ferruginicosta Holloway; both possibilities were discussed in Part 5 (pp. 136, 145). Therefore adusta is placed as a synonym of corrugata, syn. n.

Arctornis linteola Toxopeus (Part 5, p. 136, as sinuoharpe Holloway). Borneo, Sumatra. (Lowland forest). Note 380. Note 380. The holotypes of A. linteola Toxopeus and salebrosa Toxopeus have genitalia (Figs 111, 113) that indicate that they are conspecific with each other and also with sinuoharpe Holloway. Therefore salebrosa and sinuoharpe are placed as synonyms of linteola, syns. n.

Arctornis sclerotuncus Holloway (Part 5, p. 137). Endemic. (Lowland forest).

Arctornis magnaclava Holloway (Part 5, p. 137). Endemic. (Lowland forest).

Arctornis clavigera Toxopeus (Part 5, p. 137, as parvaclava Holloway). Endemic. Lowland forest. Note 381. Note 381. The holotype of A. clavigera Toxopeus has been examined. Its genitalia (Fig 115) are probably within the range of variation seen in the type series of parvaclava Holloway, so the latter is here placed as a synonym of the former, syn. n.

Arctornis graciliclava Holloway (Part 5, p. 138). Endemic. (Montane forest).

Arctornis rufimarginata Swinhoe (Part 5, p. 138). Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia. (Lowland forest).

Arctornis bisetosus Holloway (Part 5, p. 138). Endemic. (Upper montane).

Arctornis excavatus Holloway (Part 5, p. 139). Endemic. (Lowland and lower montane forests).

Arctornis naphtha Holloway (Part 5, p. 139). Endemic. Lowland dipterocarp forest.

Arctornis oranaphtha Holloway (Part 5, p. 140). Endemic. (Coastal habitats).

Arctornis keranganaphtha Holloway (Part 5, p. 140). Endemic. (Lowland heath forest).

Arctornis mulunaphtha Holloway (Part 5, p. 140). Endemic. (Lowland dipterocarp forest).

Arctornis cretosanaphtha Holloway (Part 5, p. 140). Endemic. (Lowland forest on limestone).

Arctornis montanaphtha Holloway (Part 5, p. 141). Endemic. (Lower montane forest).

Arctornis malleuncus Holloway (Part 5, p. 141). Endemic. (Lowland dipterocarp forest).

Arctornis ferruginicosta Holloway (Part 5, p. 141). Endemic. Lowland (to lower montane) forest.

Arctornis dorsalineatus Holloway (Part 5, p. 142). Endemic. Lowland, lower (and upper) montane forests.

Arctornis singaporensis Strand (Part 5, p. 142). Sundaland. Lowland forest.

Arctornis tricorniger Holloway (Part 5, p. 143). Endemic. (Montane forest).

Arctornis hedleyi Holloway (Part 5, p. 143). Endemic. (?Coastal).

Arctornis cretoserratus Holloway (Part 5, p. 143). Endemic. (Lowland forest on limestone).

Arctornis hipparia Swinhoe (Part 5, p. 144). Sundaland. Lower and (upper) montane forests.

Arctornis ardea Holloway (Part 5, p. 144). Borneo, Sumatra. (Hill dipterocarp and lower montane forests).

Arctornis minutissima Swinhoe (Part 5, p. 145). Endemic. (Lowland, lower montane).

Arctornis faucium Holloway (Part 5, p. 145). Endemic. Lowland forest.

Carriola ecnomoda Swinhoe (Part 5, p. 147). S.E. Asia, Sundaland, Philippines. Lowland forest.

LYMANTRIINAE incertae sedis (8 species)

Cispia punctifascia Walker (Part 5, p. 148). Indian Subregion, Sundaland. (Lowland).

Parapellucens aphrasta Collenette (Part 5, p. 149). Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia. (Upper montane).

Parapellucens tegulatorii Holloway (Part 5, p. 149). Sundaland. (Lowland).

Locharna limbata Collenette (Part 5, p. 150). Sundaland. (Lowland to upper montane).

Birnara bicolor Walker (Part 5, p. 151). Sundaland. (Montane).

Parvaroa cinerea Holloway (Part 5, p. 152). Endemic (Kinabalu only). Upper montane.

Parvaroa obscura Holloway (Part 5, p. 152). Endemic. (Upper montane).

Sitvia denudata Walker (Part 5, p. 153). Borneo, Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia (B). Lowland forest.

 

Subfamily ARCTIINAE (390 species)

Tribe LITHOSIINI (298 species)

Unassigned to subtribe, ?basal genera (10 species)

Macrobrochis volzi Weymer (Part 7, p. 287, as borneensis Roepke). Thailand (C & P), Sundaland, ?Philippines. Lower montane. Note 382. Note 382. Cerný & Pinratana (2009) listed Macrobrochis borneensis Roepke as a synonymy of volzi Weymer (1909, Dt. ent. Z. Iris 22: 25; Tripura volzi), described from Sumatra.

Hesudra divisa Moore (Part 7, p. 288). Himalaya, Taiwan, Thailand (C & P), Borneo. (Lower to) upper montane forest.

Hesudra bisecta Rothschild (Part 7, p. 288). Endemic. Upper montane forest (and Radio Sabah zone).

Hesudra mjobergi Talbot (Part 7, p. 288). Borneo, Sulawesi, Seram. (Lower to) upper montane forest.

Vamuna remelana Moore (Part 7, p. 289). Himalaya, Thailand (C & P), Sundaland. (Lower to) upper montane forest.

Vamuna maculata Moore (Part 7, p. 290). N.E. Himalaya, Thailand (C & P), Sundaland. (Lower montane).

Monosyntaxis trimaculata Hampson (Part 7, p. 291). Endemic. Upper montane forest. Note 383. Note 383. Monosyntaxis Swinhoe has been reviewed by de Vos (2009). The genus now contains three Sundanian species, two from the Philippines, three from New Guinea and one from Samoa.

Monosyntaxis holmanhunti Hampson (Part 7, p. 291). Thailand (C & P), Sundaland. Lower to upper montane forest.

Chrysaeglia magnifica Walker (Part 7, p. 292). N.E. Himalaya, Taiwan, Thailand (C & P), Borneo, Sulawesi. Lowland to lower montane forest.

Oeonistis altica Linnaeus (Part 7, p. 293). China, S.E. Asia, Sundaland, Philippines. Lowland (to lower montane); disturbed areas.

Subtribe LITHOSIINA (68 species)

Poliosia muricolor Walker (Part 7, p. 296). Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia, Thailand (C & P). Lowland forest.

Poliosia quadrifida Holloway (Part 7, p. 296). Endemic. Lowland forest.

Poliosia bifida Holloway (Part 7, p. 296). Endemic. (Coastal forest).

Poliosia sp. 5463 (Part 7, p. 297). Endemic. (Lowland forest).

Poliosia marginata Hampson (Part 7, p. 297). Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia (B), Java, Thailand (C & P). Lowland forest.

Poliosia pulverea Hampson (Part 7, p. 297). Endemic. Lowland forest.

Poliosia concolora Holloway (Part 7, p. 297). Borneo, Thailand (C & P), N.E. Himalaya. Lowland forest.

Lambula fuliginosa Walker (Part 7, p. 298). Endemic. (Lowland to) lower montane forest.

Lambula errata van Eecke (Part 7, p. 298). Borneo, Sumatra, Thailand (C & P). Lowland forest.

Lambula pallida Hampson (Part 7, p. 298). Borneo, Thailand. (Lowland and secondary forest, ?coastal).

Nishada chilomorpha Snellen (Part 7, p. 299). Sundaland, Thailand (C & P), N.E. Himalaya, Taiwan. Lowland (and lower montane) forest.

Nishada rotundipennis Walker (Part 7, p. 300). Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia to N.E. Himalaya. (Lowland forest).

Nishada syntomioides Walker (Part 7, p. 300). Endemic. Lowland forest.

Nishada melanistis Swinhoe (Part 7, p. 300). Borneo, Sulawesi.

Nishada sambara Moore (Part 7, p. 301). Thailand (C & P), Sundaland, Wallacea. Lowland forest.

Tigrioides” sabulosalis Walker (Part 7, p. 302). Oriental tropics to Sundaland. (? Lowland).

“Tigrioides” leucanioides Walker (Part 7, p. 302). Thailand (C & P), Sundaland. Lowland (to lower montane) forest.

“Tigrioides” puncticollis Butler (Part 7, p. 303). Thailand (C & P), Sundaland. (Lowland to) lower montane forest.

“Tigrioides” antipulvereola Holloway (Part 7, p. 303). Endemic. (Lowland to) lower montane forest.

Mithuna quadriplagoides Holloway (Part 7, p. 304). Endemic. Upper montane forest.

Mithuna fuscivena Hampson (Part 7, p. 304). Sri Lanka, Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia (B), Java, Sulawesi. (Lowland).

Stenaulis discalis Walker (Part 7, p. 305). Endemic. Lowland.

Macotasa suffusus Talbot (Part 7, p. 305). Endemic. Lowland to lower montane forest.

Macotasa biplagella Butler (Part 7, p. 306). Endemic. Lowland to lower montane forest.

Macotasa tortricoides Walker (Part 7, p. 306). Borneo, Thailand (C & P). (Lowland).

Macotasa orientalis Hampson (Part 7, p. 306). Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia. Lowland.

Teulisna curviplaga Rothschild (Part 7, p. 308). Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia. Lower montane forest.

Teulisna ruptifascia Talbot (Part 7, p. 308). Endemic. Upper montane forest.

Teulisna tumida Walker (Part 7, p. 309). Indian Subregion, Taiwan, Thailand (C & P), Borneo. (Lowland to) lower montane forest.

Teulisna chiloides Walker (Part 7, p. 309). Thailand (C & P), Sundaland, Lesser Sundas, Sulawesi. Lowland (to lower montane) forest.

Teulisna pseudochiloides Holloway (Part 7, p. 310). Endemic. Upper montane forest.

Teulisna plagiata Walker (Part 7, p. 310). Endemic. Lower montane forest.

Teulisna quadratella Holloway (Part 7, p. 310). Borneo, Thailand (C & P). Lowland forest.

Teulisna reflexa Holloway (Part 7, p. 311). Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia (B). (Lower to upper montane forest).

Teulisna tricornuta Holloway (Part 7, p. 311). Endemic. (Lower montane forest).

Teulisna nigricauda Holloway (Part 7, p. 312). Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia. (Lowland to) lower montane forest.

Teulisna pallidicauda Holloway (Part 7, p. 312). Endemic. Lower montane forest.

Teulisna macropallida Holloway (Part 7, p. 312). Endemic. (Upper montane forest).

Teulisna harmani Holloway (Part 7, p. 312). Sundaland. Upper montane forest.

Teulisna nebulosa Walker (Part 7, p. 313). Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia, Thailand (C & P). Lower (to upper) montane forest.

Teulisna divisa Walker (Part 7, p. 313). Endemic. (Lowland to upper montane).

Teulisna montanebula Holloway (Part 7, p. 314). Endemic. Upper montane forest.

Teulisna uniplaga Hampson (Part 7, p. 314). Burma, Thailand (C & P), Borneo. Lowland forest.

“Teulisna” steineri Holloway (Part 7, p. 315). Borneo, Thailand (C & P). (Lowland to lower montane).

Thysanoptyx oblonga Butler (Part 7, p. 316). Thailand (C & P), Sundaland. Lowland forest.

Eilema” prabana Moore (Part 7, p. 317). Thailand (C & P), Sundaland to Moluccas. (Lowland).

“Eilema” costalboides Holloway (Part 7, p. 318). Endemic. (Montane).

“Eilema” plumbeomicans Hampson (Part 7, p. 318). N.E. Himalaya, Burma, Borneo. (Lowland).

“Eilema” flavicosta Moore (Part 7, p. 319). N.E. Himalaya, Borneo. (Lowland).

“Eilema” fasciculosa Walker (Part 7, p. 319). Sundaland. Lowland forest.

“Eilema” decreta Butler (Part 7, p. 319). Endemic. (Lowland to lower montane).

“Eilema” monochroa Turner (Part 7, p. 320). Queensland, Borneo. (Lowland).

“Eilema” pulvereola Hampson (Part 7, p. 320). Endemic. Lowland forest.

“Eilema” sandakana Draudt (Part 7, p. 321). Endemic. (Lowland).

“Eilema” brevivalva Holloway (Part 7, p. 321). Borneo, Thailand (C & P). Lower montane forest.

“Eilema” trimacula Holloway (Part 7, p. 322). Borneo, Thailand (C & P). Lowland (to lower montane) forest.

“Eilema” pseudocretacea Holloway (Part 7, p. 323). Endemic. Lower montane forest.

“Eilema” longpala Holloway (Part 7, p. 323). Borneo, Thailand (C & P). Lowland forest.

“Eilema” sp. (Part 7, p. 324). Endemic. (Montane).

Brunia antica Walker (Part 7, p. 324). Oriental tropics to Sundaland. (Lowland, ?coastal).

Brunia sarawaca Butler (Part 7, p. 325). N.E. Himalaya, Thailand (C & P), Sundaland. Lowland forest.

Brunia apicalis Walker (Part 7, p. 326). Endemic. Lowland to lower montane.

Brunia nebulifera Hampson (Part 7, p. 326). Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia. (Lowland).

Mantala tineoides Walker (Part 7, p. 327). Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia (B), Thailand (C & P). Lowland to lower montane forest.

Euconosia aspersa Walker (Part 7, p. 328). Borneo, Bali. (Lowland alluvial and coastal forest).

Euconosia xylinoides Walker (Part 7, p. 328). Endemic. Lowland heath forest.

Euconosia obscuriventris Holloway (Part 7, p. 328). Borneo, Sumatra. Lowland dipterocarp forest.

Pseudoscaptia rothschildi Draudt (Part 7, p. 329). N.E. Himalaya, Thailand (C & P), Sundaland. Lowland (to lower montane) forest.

Subtribe NUDARIINA (107 species)

Cyana perornata Walker (Part 7, p. 332). N.E. Himalaya, Thailand (C & P), Sundaland. Lowland (to lower montane) forest. Note 384. Note 384. Leong (2010g) illustrated the cocoon and emergent adult male of Cyana perornata. He also illustrated a larva that, from its size, was deduced to be that of perornata. It had a general velvety black appearance, with tufts of secondary setae arising from rows of reddish verrucae. There were also pairs of cream-coloured dots along the dorsum of the subdominal section, the pair on A1 being more prominent. The larva was feeding on a film of lichen low on the trunk of a large tree.

Cyana saulia Swinhoe (Part 7, p. 332). Endemic. (Coastal).

Cyana conclusa Walker (Part 7, p. 333). Borneo, Sumatra. Lowland forest.

Cyana maiae Holloway (Part 7, p. 334). Endemic. Lowland to lower montane forest.

Cyana cruentata Talbot (Part 7, p. 334). Endemic. Upper montane forest.

Cyana malayensis Hampson (Part 7, p. 335). Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia, Palawan. Lowland forest.

Cyana selangorica Hampson (Part 7, p. 335). Sundaland. Lowland forest.

Cyana barisana Roesler & Küppers (Part 7, p. 335). Borneo, Sumatra. (Lowland).

Cyana inconclusa Walker (Part 7, p. 335). Sundaland, Thailand. (Lowland to lower montane forest).

Cyana costifimbria Walker (Part 7, p. 336). Thailand (C & P), Sundaland, Palawan. Lowland forest, also disturbed habitats.

Cyana pudens Walker (Part 7, p. 336). Thailand (C & P), Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia, Philippines. Lowland forest.

Cyana horsfieldi Roepke (Part 7, p. 337). Thailand (C & P), Sundaland, Palawan. (Lowland to lower montane forest).

Cyana determinata Walker (Part 7, p. 337). Thailand (C & P), Sundaland. Lowland (including disturbed) forest.

Cyana infantula Hampson (Part 7, p. 338). Endemic. Lowland, including secondary forest.

Cyana sp. 4802 (Part 7, p. 338). Endemic. (Lowland forest).

Cyana effracta Walker (Part 7, p. 339). Himalaya to Taiwan and Sundaland. (Disturbed montane habitats).

Cyana tettigonioides Heylaerts (Part 7, p. 340). Sundaland, Palawan. (Lower montane forest).

Thumatha orientalis Holloway (Part 7, p. 340). Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia (B), Sri Lanka. (?Lowland).

Asura fulguritis Hampson (Part 7, p. 341). Thailand (C & P), Sundaland. Lowland and lower montane forest.

Lyclene biseriata Hampson (Part 7, p. 344). Endemic. Lowland, including disturbed and cultivated areas.

Lyclene apiseriata Holloway (Part 7, p. 344). Endemic. Lower montane forest.

Lyclene sp. 5206 (Part 7, p. 345). Endemic. (Upper montane forest).

Lyclene excaviseriata Holloway (Part 7, p. 345). Endemic. (Lowland and lower montane forest).

Lyclene xanthopera Hampson (Part 7, p. 345). Thailand (C & P), Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia. Lowland to lower montane forest.

Lyclene postseriata Holloway (Part 7, p. 346). Endemic. (Lowland to lower montane forest).

Lyclene acutiseriata Holloway (Part 7, p. 346). Borneo, Thailand (C & P). Lowland forest.

Lyclene falciseriata Holloway (Part 7, p. 346). Endemic. Lowland to lower montane forest.

Lyclene circumdata Walker (Part 7, p. 347). Thailand (C & P), Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia. Lowland (including coastal and disturbed habitats) and lower montane forest.

Lyclene quadrata Holloway (Part 7, p. 347). ?Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia. (Lowland to lower montane).

Lyclene poring Holloway (Part 7, p. 348). Endemic. (Lowland forest).

Lyclene obscurilinea Holloway (Part 7, p. 348). Endemic. Upper montane forest.

Lyclene mesilaulinea Holloway (Part 7, p. 349). Endemic. (Lower) montane forest.

Lyclene obtusilinea Holloway (Part 7, p. 349). Endemic. Upper montane forest.

Lyclene angulinea Holloway (Part 7, p. 350). Endemic. (Lower montane forest).

Lyclene pudibunda Snellen (Part 7, p. 350). N.E. Himalaya, Borneo, Sumatra. (Lowland to lower montane).

Lyclene pseudobunda Holloway (Part 7, p. 351). Endemic. Lowland forest.

Lyclene cuneigera Walker (Part 7, p. 351). Sundaland. (Lowland).

Lyclene classeigera Holloway (Part 7, p. 351). Borneo, Sumatra. (Lowland forest).

Lyclene ashleigera Holloway (Part 7, p. 352). Endemic. Lowland forest.

Lyclene cuneifera Walker (Part 7, p. 352). Thailand (C & P), Sundaland. Lowland (to lower montane) forest.

Lyclene areolifera Holloway (Part 7, p. 352). Endemic. Lowland (to lower montane) forest.

Lyclene angulifera Holloway (Part 7, p. 353). Borneo, Sumatra. Lowland to lower montane forest.

Lyclene unguifera Holloway (Part 7, p. 353). Borneo, Thailand (C & P). Lower montane forest.

Lyclene multiramorum Holloway (Part 7, p. 354). Endemic. (Lowland) and montane forest.

Lyclene fusciramorum Holloway (Part 7, p. 355). Endemic. (Lower and) upper montane forest.

Lyclene peloa Swinhoe (Part 7, p. 355). Thailand (C & P), Sundaland. Lowland forest, disturbed and cultivated areas.

Lyclene obsoleta Moore (Part 7, p. 355). N.E. Himalaya, Thailand (C & P), Borneo. (Lowland).

Lyclene calamaria Moore (Part 7, p. 356). N.E. Himalaya to Sundaland. (Lowland to montane, disturbed forest). Note 385. Note 385. It is possible that Lyclene calamaria is a junior synonym of Setina (now Neasura) apicalis Walker (1854, List Specimens lepid. Insects Colln Br. Mus., 2: 521; China). It is externally very similar to Setina bipunctata Walker (1859, J. Proc. Linn. Soc. (Zool.) 3: 185, Singapore, in OUMNH), currently placed as a synonym of apicalis. This potential synonymy needs further exploration by dissection, as does the suggestion by Cerný & Pinratana (2009: 84) that the syntypic series of calamaria may also include material of L. dosara Moore, including the female currently labelled as type.

Lyclene distributa Walker (Part 7, p. 356). Thailand (C & P), Sundaland. (Lowland forest).

“Lyclene” synestramena Hampson (Part 7, p. 357). Thailand (C & P), Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia (B), Bali. Lowland forest.

“Lyclene” asaphes Hampson (Part 7, p. 357). Thailand (C & P), Sundaland. Lowland forest.

Cabarda sequens Walker (Part 7, p. 358). Thailand (C & P), Sundaland. Lowland (including disturbed) forest.

Adites bizonoides Walker (Part 7, p. 359). Endemic. Lowland.

Adites sandakan Holloway (Part 7, p. 360). Endemic. Lowland.

Adites temburong Holloway (Part 7, p. 360). Endemic. (Lowland forest).

Adites curvata Holloway (Part 7, p. 360). Endemic. (Lowland forest).

Adites alticurvata Holloway (Part 7, p. 361). Endemic. (Lower montane forest).

Adites hosei Holloway (Part 7, p. 361). Endemic. (?Lowland).

Adites pseudolyclene Holloway (Part 7, p. 361). Endemic. (Montane forest).

Adites bifida Holloway (Part 7, p. 362). Endemic. (Lowland).

Adites parang Holloway (Part 7, p. 362). Endemic. Lowland forest.

Adites trusmadi Holloway (Part 7, p. 363). Endemic. (Lower montane forest).

Adites longispina Holloway (Part 7, p. 363). Endemic. (Lowland forest).

Adites cornutata Holloway (Part 7, p. 363). Endemic. (Lowland forest).

Adites vagilinea Walker (Part 7, p. 364). Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia. (Lowland forest).

Adites frigida Walker (Part 7, p. 364). N.E. Himalaya, Thailand (C & P), Sundaland. (Lowland).

Adites pseudofrigida Holloway (Part 7, p. 365). Endemic. (Lowland forest).

Quadrasura ktimuna van Eecke (Part 7, p. 366). Endemic. (?Lowland).

Barsine lucibilis Swinhoe (Part 7, p. 367). Endemic. Lowland (to lower montane) forest, including disturbed areas.

Barsine euprepia Hampson (Part 7, p. 367). Endemic. Lowland to montane forest.

Barsine rosistriata Holloway (Part 7, p. 367). Endemic. Lower to upper montane forest.

Barsine rubricostata Herrich-Schäffer (Part 7, p. 368). Thailand (C & P), Sundaland. (Lowland), lower (and upper) montane forest.

Barsine roseororatus Butler (Part 7, p. 368). Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia. Lowland (incl. disturbed) forest, (montane).

Barsine cruciata Walker (Part 7, p. 368). Thailand (C & P), Sundaland. Lowland and lower montane forest.

Barsine euprepioides Walker (Part 7, p. 368). Thailand (C & P), Sundaland, Philippines. Lowland forest.

Barsine bornescripta Holloway (Part 7, p. 369). Endemic. Lowland forest.

Barsine crustata Talbot (Part 7, p. 369). Thailand (C & P), Sundaland. Lowland forest.

Barsine lineatus Walker (Part 7, p. 370). Thailand (C & P), Sundaland, Wallacea. Lowland forest.

Barsine flavodiscalis Talbot (Part 7, p. 370). Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia. Lower and upper montane forest.

Barsine complicata Butler (Part 7, p. 370). Endemic. Lowland (to lower montane) forest.

Barsine pallinflexa Holloway (Part 7, p. 370). Thailand (C & P), Sundaland. Lowland forest.

“Barsine” exclusa Butler (Part 7, p. 371). Sundaland, Andamans, Thailand (C & P). Lowland (including secondary) forest.

“Barsine” porphyrea Snellen (Part 7, p. 372). Sundaland. Lowland forest.

“Barsine” sullia Swinhoe (Part 7, p. 372). Endemic. (Lowland).

“Barsine” perpusilla Walker (Part 7, p. 373). Thailand (C & P), Borneo, Sumatra. Lowland forest.

“Barsine” syntypica Swinhoe (Part 7, p. 373). Thailand (C & P), Sundaland. Lowland and lower montane forest.

“Barsine” hypoprepioides Walker (Part 7, p. 373). Endemic. (Lowland).

Graptasura trilacunata Holloway (Part 7, p. 374). Endemic. (Lowland forest).

Graptasura mesilau Holloway (Part 7, p. 374). Endemic. (Montane forest).

Eutane” nivea Hampson (Part 7, p. 375). Endemic. Lowland forest.

“Eutane” alba Hampson (Part 7, p. 375). Endemic. (Lowland).

Schistophleps fulvioides Holloway (Part 7, p. 376). Endemic. Lower (and upper) montane forest.

Schistophleps punctifulvia Holloway (Part 7, p. 376). Endemic. (Lowland) to lower montane forest.

Schistophleps microfulvia Holloway (Part 7, p. 377). Borneo, Java. Lowland forest.

Schistophleps alluvifulvia Holloway (Part 7, p. 377). Endemic. Lowland alluvial forest.

Schistophleps lobifulvia Holloway (Part 7, p. 378). Endemic. (Lowland heath forest).

Schistophleps pyrifulvia Holloway (Part 7, p. 378). Borneo, Thailand (C & P). (Disturbed lowland forest).

Schistophleps nigropuncta Holloway (Part 7, p. 378). Endemic. (Lowland forest).

Nudariphleps gauldi Holloway (Part 7, p. 380). Endemic. (Lowland forest).

Chamaita trichopteroides Walker (Part 7, p. 381). Borneo, Sumatra. (Lowland) to lower montane forest.

Chamaita sundanympha Holloway (Part 7, p. 381). Borneo, Java. Lowland forest.

Chamaita sp. 5263 (Part 7, p. 382). ?Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia. (Lowland forest).

Caulocera crassicornis Walker (Part 7, p. 383). Thailand (C & P), Sundaland. (Lowland).

Caulocera xantholopha Hampson (Part 7, p. 383). Endemic. (Lowland).

Nudaria phallustortens Holloway (Part 7, p. 384). Sundaland. Upper montane.

Nudaria sundamollis Holloway (Part 7, p. 385). Borneo, Java. (Lowland).

“Nudaria” albipunctella Hampson (Part 7, p. 385). Thailand (C & P), Sundaland. Lowland (?disturbed) forest.

Subtribe CISTHENINA (35 species)

Aemene marginipuncta Talbot (Part 7, p. 388). Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia. Upper montane forest.

Aemene clarimaculata Holloway (Part 7, p. 389). Thailand (C & P), Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia. Lowland forest.

Aemene micromesozona Holloway (Part 7, p. 389). Thailand (C & P), Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia (B). Lowland forest.

Aemene pseudonigra Holloway (Part 7, p. 390). Endemic. Upper montane forest.

Garudinia pseudolatana Holloway (Part 7, p. 391). Endemic. Lowland forest.

Garudinia bimaculata Rothschild (Part 7, p. 391). Taiwan, Borneo, Sulwesi. (Lowland).

Garudinia simulana Walker (Part 7, p. 391). Borneo, Thailand (C & P). Lower montane forest.

Garudinia acornuta Holloway (Part 7, p. 391). Sundaland. Lowland (to lower montane) forest.

Garudinia triangulata Holloway (Part 7, p. 392). Endemic. (Lowland to lower montane forest).

Garudinia truncata Holloway (Part 7, p. 392). Endemic. (Lowland).

Garudinia macrolatana Holloway (Part 7, p. 393). Endemic. (Lowland forest).

Padenia duplicana Walker (Part 7, p. 393). Thailand (C & P), Sundaland, Wallacea. Lowland forest.

Padenia obliquifascia Rothschild (Part 7, p. 394). Thailand (C & P), Sundaland. Lower montane forest.

Pseudoblabes oophora Zeller (Part 7, p. 394). Indian Subregion to Sundaland. Lowland forest.

Cyclosodes flavicostata Hampson (Part 7, p. 396). Borneo, Thailand (C & P). (Lowland to lower montane forest).

Omiosia fusipennana Walker (Part 7, p. 397). Endemic. (Lowland forest).

Lobobasis niveimaculata Hampson (Part 7, p. 397). Indo-Australian tropics from N.E. Himalaya to the Solomons. (Lowland), lower (and upper) montane forest.

Garudinistis eburneana Walker (Part 7, p. 398). Thailand (C & P), Sundaland. (Lowland to lower montane zone, including disturbed habitats).

Byrsia aurantiaca Snellen (Part 7, p. 399). Thailand (C & P), Sundaland. Lowland.

Scaptesyle plumosus Rothschild (Part 7, p. 400). Sundaland. Lowland to upper montane.

Scaptesyle mirabilis Hampson (Part 7, p. 400). Endemic. Upper montane zone.

“Scaptesyle” aurigena Walker (Part 7, p. 400). Endemic. (Lowland to) lower montane forest.

“Scaptesyle” sororigena Holloway (Part 7, p. 401). Endemic. (Lowland forest).

Damias occidentalis Rothschild & Jordan (Part 7, p. 402). Borneo, Sumatra. (Lowland forest).

Utriculofera fuscapex Hampson (Part 7, p. 402). Indian Subregion, Borneo. (Lowland forest).

“Utriculofera” macroplaga Hampson (Part 7, p. 403). Borneo, Thailand (C & P). (Lowland).

Macaduma borneana Holloway (Part 7, p. 404). Borneo, Thailand (C & P). Lowland (to lower montane) forest, including coastal and secondary forest.

Oxacme commotoides Holloway (Part 7, p. 404). Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia (B). Lower montane forest.

Oxacme asymmetrica Holloway (Part 7, p. 405). Endemic. (Lowland forest).

Oxacme umbrodorsum Holloway (Part 7, p. 405). Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia. (Lowland to) lower montane forest.

Oxacme calcarea Holloway (Part 7, p. 406). Endemic. (Lowland to lower montane forest on limestone).

Tortricosia excisa Hampson (Part 7, p. 407). Thailand (C & P), Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia. Lowland forest.

Tortricosia pallidexcisa Holloway (Part 7, p. 407). Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia (B). (Montane).

Tortricosia blanda van Eecke (Part 7, p. 407). Thailand (C & P), Sundaland. (Disturbed lowland forest).

Tortricosia classeyi Holloway (Part 7, p. 407). Borneo, Thailand (C & P). (Disturbed lowland forest).

Eugoa generic group (45 species)

Notata parva Hampson (Part 7, p. 411). India, Thailand (C & P), Sundaland, Lesser Sundas, Philippines. Lowland (to lower montane) forest.

Holocraspedon bilineata Hampson (Part 7, p. 411). N.E. Himalaya, Thailand (C & P), Sundaland, Lesser Sundas, Sulawesi. Lowland forest.

Holocraspedon vaneeckei Holloway (Part 7, p. 411). Thailand (C & P), Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia (B), Sumatra. Lowland forest. Note 386. Note 386. This species was compared with Holocraspedon sordidior Rothschild (see also Part 7, p. 409). Eugoa erkunin Pagenstecher (type in BMNH) is an older name for sordidior, syn. n. (R. de Vos, pers. comm.), which therefore becomes Holocraspedon erkunin Pagenstecher comb. n. The original description is: Pitane erkunin Pagenstecher, 1886, Jb nassau. Ver. Naturk. 39: 125; t. loc. Aru Is.

Holocraspedon flava van Eecke (Part 7, p. 412). ?Borneo, Sumatra. (?Upper montane).

Meteugoa ochrivena Hampson (Part 7, p. 412). N.E. Himalaya, Taiwan, Thailand (C & P), Peninsular Malaysia (B), Borneo, Bali. (Lowland to) lower montane forest.

Meteugoa obliquiata Hampson (Part 7, p. 413). Sundaland. (Lowland forest).

Malesia eugoana van Eecke (Part 7, p. 413). Thailand (C & P), Borneo, Java. (Upper montane forest).

Eugoa aequalis Walker (Part 7, p. 414). Thailand (C & P), Sundaland. Lowland (including secondary) forest.

Eugoa trilacunata Holloway (Part 7, p. 415). Endemic. (Lowland, upper montane).

Eugoa trifascia Walker (Part 7, p. 415). Thailand (C & P), Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia. Lowland and lower montane forest.

Eugoa trifasciata Snellen (Part 7, p. 415). Thailand (C & P), Borneo, Sumatra. Lowland forest.

Eugoa pseudarcuata Holloway (Part 7, p. 416). Endemic. Lowland forest.

Eugoa bipunctata Walker (Part 7, p. 416). Thailand (C & P), Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia. Lowland forest.

Eugoa basipuncta Hampson (Part 7, p. 416). India, ?Taiwan, Thailand (C & P), Sundaland. (Lowland).

Eugoa obliquipuncta Holloway (Part 7, p. 417). Borneo, Thailand (C & P). Lowland forest.

Eugoa bipunctalis van Eecke (Part 7, p. 417). Thailand (C & P), Sundaland. Lowland to lower montane forest.

Eugoa alleni Holloway (Part 7, p. 417). Borneo, Thailand (C & P). (Lowland forest).

Eugoa mangle Holloway (Part 7, p. 419). Endemic. (Mangrove).

Eugoa submontana Holloway (Part 7, p. 419). Endemic. Lower montane forest.

Eugoa tessellata Holloway (Part 7, p. 420). Borneo, Thailand (C & P). Lowland forest.

Eugoa holocraspedon Holloway (Part 7, p. 420). Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia (B). Lowland forest, especially heath and swamp forest.

Eugoa crassa Walker (Part 7, p. 421). Borneo, Thailand (C & P). Lowland forest.

Eugoa alticrassa Holloway (Part 7, p. 421). Endemic. (Lowland to) lower montane forest.

Eugoa bipuncta Heylaerts (Part 7, p. 422). Thailand (C & P), Sundaland, Lesser Sundas, Sulawesi. Lowland (?disturbed forest).

Eugoa inconspicua Walker (Part 7, p. 422). Borneo, Thailand (C & P). Lowland (including disturbed) forest.

Eugoa muluana Holloway (Part 7, p. 423). Borneo, Thailand (C & P). Lower montane forest.

Eugoa pectinicrassa Holloway (Part 7, p. 423). Borneo, Thailand (C & P). (Lowland forest).

Eugoa indeclaratana Walker (Part 7, p. 423). Borneo, Thailand (C & P). Lowland forest.

Eugoa uniformis Holloway (Part 7, p. 424). Endemic. Lowland (including secondary and coastal) forest.

Eugoa apiensis Holloway (Part 7, p. 424). Endemic. (Lower montane forest on limestone).

Eugoa rufibasis Holloway (Part 7, p. 425). Endemic. (Disturbed coastal forest).

Eugoa bacchi Holloway (Part 7, p. 425). Endemic. (Lowland, secondary and coastal forest).

Eugoa tineoides Walker (Part 7, p. 425). Endemic. (Disturbed lowland forest).

Eugoa clavata Holloway (Part 7, p. 426). Endemic. (Disturbed lowland forest).

Eugoa aridoides Holloway (Part 7, p. 426). Endemic. Lowland (including secondary) forest.

Eugoa cucullata Holloway (Part 7, p. 427). Endemic. Lowland (including secondary) forest.

Eugoa vagigutta Walker (Part 7, p. 427). Thailand (C & P), Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia (B). Lowland (including coastal) forest.

Eugoa turbida Walker (Part 7, p. 427). Thailand (C & P), Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia (B). Lowland forest.

Eugoa hampsoni Holloway (Part 7, p. 428). Endemic. (Lowland).

Eugoa humerana Walker (Part 7, p. 428). Thailand (C & P), Sundaland. Lowland forest.

Eugoa hectogamoides Holloway (Part 7, p. 428). Endemic. (Regenerating lowland alluvial forest).

Cyclosiella dulciculoides Holloway (Part 7, p. 429). Borneo, Thailand (C & P). (Lowland forest).

Cyclosiella spiralis van Eecke (Part 7, p. 429). Thailand (C & P), Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia (B), Sumatra. Lowland forest (including heath, swamp and coastal forest).

Trischalis subaurana Walker (Part 7, p. 430). Indo-Australian tropics. Lowland and lower montane forest.

Trischalis stomata Holloway (Part 7, p. 430). Thailand (C & P), Sundaland. Lowland (especially heath) forest (to lower montane).

Unassigned to subtribe, ?apomorphic genera (33 species)

Blavia caliginosa Walker (Part 7, p. 431). Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia (B). (Lowland).

Chrysoscota brunnea Swinhoe (Part 7, p. 432). Thailand (C & P), Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia (B), Sumatra. (Lowland to lower montane forest).

Chrysoscota cotriangulata Holloway (Part 7, p. 432). Thailand (C & P), Sundaland. Lowland, lower (and upper) montane forest.

Stictane serrata Holloway (Part 7, p. 433). Endemic. (Lowland to lower montane forest).

Stictane parvipectinata Holloway (Part 7, p. 435). Endemic. Lower montane forest and scrub on limestone.

Stictane ciliata Holloway (Part 7, p. 435). Endemic. (Disturbed lowland and coastal forest).

Stictane filiformis Holloway (Part 7, p. 436). Endemic. (Lowland forest).

Stictane pectinata Holloway (Part 7, p. 436). Endemic. (Lower montane forest).

Stictane muara Holloway (Part 7, p. 437). Endemic. Lowland, mainly mangrove.

Narosodes punctana Walker (Part 7, p. 439). Indian Subregion, Peninsular Malaysia (B), Borneo. Lowland (including heath, secondary and coastal) forest.

“Narosodes” hampsoni Draudt (Part 7, p. 439). Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia (B). (Lowland).

Tampea reversa Walker (Part 7, p. 440). Thailand (C & P), Borneo, Java. (Lowland, lower montane).

Tampea accepta Butler (Part 7, p. 440). Borneo, Wallacea, Kei Is. Lowland forest.

Tampea nodosa Holloway (Part 7, p. 441). Endemic. (Lowland and lower montane forest).

Tampea sp. 2053 (Part 7, p. 442). Endemic. (Upper montane forest).

Neoduma ectozona Hampson (Part 7, p. 442). Thailand (C & P), Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia (B), Philippines. (Lowland).

Tospitis nulliferana Walker (Part 7, p. 443). Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia (B). (Lowland forest).

Darantasia cuneiplena Walker (Part 7, p. 444). Sundaland, Philippines. Lowland forest.

Darantasia seria Holloway (Part 7, p. 444). Endemic. (Coastal habitats).

Heliosia” monosticta Hampson (Part 7, p. 445). Endemic. Lowland (including heath and coastal) forest.

Stictosia flexilisana Walker (Part 7, p. 446). Borneo, Thailand (C & P). Lowland forest.

Stictosia flava van Eecke (Part 7, p. 446). Sundaland. Lower montane forest.

Stictosia crocea Holloway (Part 7, p. 446). Endemic. (Lowland forest).

Stictosia decubitana Walker (Part 7, p. 447). Endemic. (?Lowland).

Eurosia” melanopera Hampson (Part 7, p. 447). Borneo, Thailand (C & P). Lowland forest, mainly secondary.

Diduga annulata Hampson (Part 7, p. 448). Thailand (C & P), Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia (B), Sumbawa. (Montane).

Diduga pectinifer Hampson (Part 7, p. 448). Endemic. (Lowland).

Diduga trichophora Hampson (Part 7, p. 449). Thailand (C & P), Sundaland. (Lowland forest).

Diduga dorsolobata Holloway (Part 7, p. 449). Endemic. (Disturbed lowland forest).

Diduga ciliata Holloway (Part 7, p. 449). Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia (B). (Lowland).

Diduga barlowi Holloway (Part 7, p. 449). Endemic. (Lowland forest, some disturbed).

Hemonia orbiferana Walker (Part 7, p. 450). Indian Subregion to Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia. Lowland (and lower montane) forest.

Hemonia rotundata Snellen (Part 7, p. 451). Thailand (C & P), Sundaland, Wallacea. Lowland (including secondary) forest.

Tribe SYNTOMINI (56 species)

Amata wallacei Moore (Part 6, p. 8). Sundaland. Lowland.

Amata elisoides Holloway (Part 6, p. 8). Endemic. Lowland. Note 387. Note 387. The genitalia slide number for the paratype of Amata elisoides should be 4263.

Amata elisa Butler (Part 6, p. 10). Endemic. Lowland.

Amata cinctelisa Holloway (Part 6, p. 10). Endemic. (?Montane).

Amata megista Hampson (Part 6, p. 11). Endemic (Kinabalu only). No precise habitat data.

Amata brooksi Holloway (Part 6, p. 11). Endemic. (Lowland).

Amata derivata Walker (Part 6, p. 12). Sundaland. (Lowland).

Amata apicelisa Holloway (Part 6, p. 12), Endemic. (Lowland).

Amata stellaris Snellen (Part 6, p. 13). Sundaland. (Lowland).

Amata flavibrooksi Holloway (Part 6, p. 13). Endemic. (Lowland).

Amata pleurosticia Hampson (Part 6, p. 13). Endemic. Lowland.

Amata egenaria Walker (Part 6, p. 14). Endemic. Lowland.

Amata dilatata Snellen (Part 6, p. 14). Sundaland. (?Lowland).

Amata borneogena Obraztsov (Part 6, p. 15). Endemic. No precise habitat data.

Amata tetragonaria Walker (Part 6, p. 15). Endemic. Lowland, heath forest.

Amata prepuncta Holloway (Part 6, p. 15). Endemic. Lowland.

Amata macroflavifer Holloway (Part 6, p. 16). Endemic. (Lowland to (montane?)).

Amata teinopera Hampson (Part 6, p. 16). Endemic. (Kinabalu only). No precise habitat data.

Amata kinensis Hampson (Part 6, p. 17). Endemic. (Kinabalu only). No precise habitat data.

Amata pseudextensa Rothschild (Part 6, p. 17). Endemic. (Kinabalu only).

Amata trifascia Holloway (Part 6, p. 18). Endemic. (Kinabalu only). (Upper montane).

Amata vicarians Holloway (Part 6, p. 18). Endemic with montane races. Upper montane.

Amata mjobergi Talbot (Part 6, p. 19). Endemic (G. Murud only). Montane.

Amata elongimacula Hampson (Part 6, p. 20). Endemic (Pulo Laut only). Lowland.

Amata expandens Walker (Part 6, p. 20). Sundaland. (?Lowland).

Amata decorata Walker (Part 6, p. 21). Endemic (?Lowland).

Amata exapta Swinhoe (Part 6, p. 21). Java, Lesser Sundas, Pulo Laut. Lowland.

Amata cantori Moore (Part 6, p. 22). Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia. No precise habitat data.

Amata pryeri Hampson (Part 6, p. 22). Borneo, Java. (?Lowland).

Amata symphona Swinhoe (Part 6, p. 22). Endemic. (Lowland).

Amata huebneri Boisduval (Part 6, p. 23). Indo‑Australian tropics. (Lowland).

Amata sp. (new record, Plate 8). Endemic? (Montane). Note 388. Note 388. Four specimens (in RMNH, Leiden; Plate 8) of an Amata (Plate 8) that may be of a new species was taken in low forest dominated by Acmena at 1050m on G. Lumut, Pasir district, Kalimantan Timur (E.J. van Nieukerken, pers. comm.). It measures 18mm and is characterised by a general dull yellowish scaling in the spaces between the veins. In this it resembles A. tigrina Walker and A. elwesi Rothschild from Cambodia and Burma.

Streptophlebia obliquistria Hampson (Part 6, p. 24). Endemic (Kinabalu only). No precise habitat data.

Trichaetoides separabilis Walker (Part 6, p. 25). Endemic. Lowland.

Trichaetoides divisura Walker (Part 6, p. 25). Borneo, Sumatra. (?Lowland).

Trichaetoides borealis Rothschild (Part 6, p. 26). Endemic. Lowland (heath forest).

Trichaetoides chloroleuca Walker (Part 6, p. 26). Sundaland. (Lowland).

Trichaetoides hosei Rothschild (Part 6, p. 27). Endemic. (Montane).

Trichaetoides albiplaga Walker (Part 6, p. 28). Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia, Thailand. (Lowland to montane).

Trichaetoides apicalis Walker (Part 6, p. 28). Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia (B), Sumatra. No precise habitat data.

Eressa semifusca Hampson (Part 6, p. 29). Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia. (Lowland).

Eressa vespina Rothschild (Part 6, p. 29). Endemic. (Lowland).

Caeneressa diaphana Kollar (Part 6, p. 30). Oriental tropics to Sundaland. (Montane).

Caeneressa brithyris Druce (Part 6, p. 31). Borneo, Sumatra. (?Lowland).

Caeneressa robusta Holloway (Part 6, p. 31). Endemic (Kinabalu only). (Upper montane).

Caeneressa marcescoides Holloway (Part 6, p. 31). Endemic. (Lowland).

Caeneressa longipennis Walker (Part 6, p. 32). Endemic. (Lowland).

Caeneressa leucozona Hampson (Part 6, p. 32). Endemic. (Lowland).

Caeneressa syntomoides Rothschild (Part 6, p. 33). Endemic. (Lowland).

Caeneressa annosa Walker (Part 6, p. 33). Sundaland. (Lowland).

Caeneressa everetti Rothschild (Part 6, p. 33). Endemic. (Lowland).

Caeneressa sexpuncta Rothschild (Part 6, p. 34). Endemic. (Lowland).

Caeneressa lutosa Holloway (Part 6, p. 34). Endemic. (Montane).

Syntomoides imaon Cramer (Part 6, p. 35). Oriental tropics to Taiwan, the Ryukyu Is. (Owada, 2004) and Sundaland. (Lowland).

Auriculoceryx transitiva Walker (Part 6, p. 36). Endemic. (Lowland).

Auriculoceryx pterodactyliformis Holloway (Part 6, p. 37). Endemic. Lowland (to upper montane).

Tribe ARCTIINI (46 species)

Subtribe SPILOSOMINA (19 species)

Spilosoma ericsoni Semper (Part 6, p. 42). Endemic. Upper montane, (lowland). Note 389. Note 389. Southeast Asian species traditionally placed in Spilosoma Curtis (type species lubricipeda Linnaeus, Europe) have been transferred to Spilarctia Butler (type species lutea Hufnagel, Europe), as part of a tendency to identify groupings within the old concept of Spilosoma (see Inoue, 1988; V.V. Dubatolov, pers. comm.). However, it is evident from Watson et al. (1980) that there is a problem with type species identity for Spilarctia; even if this is the case, the potential type taxa involved for the two generic names do not show morphological differences indicating that they are not congeneric (R. de Vos, pers. comm.), so Spilosoma is once again applied to all Bornean species here; see also Cerný (2011).

Spilosoma rubriventris Talbot (Part 6, p. 43). Endemic. Upper montane.

Spilosoma groganae Holloway (Part 6, p. 43). Borneo, Palawan (Cerný, 2011). Lower to upper montane. Note 390. Note 390. V.V. Dubatolov (pers. comm.) is investigating the complex of species of which S. groganae is a member, and will describe as a new species the Sumatran and Peninsular Malaysian populations attributed to ananda Roepke in Part 6; this is the species illustrated in Barlow (1982). Cerný (2011, pers. comm.) has recorded a further member of this group (Holloway, 1982; but not mentioned in Part 6), S. accensa Swinhoe, from Palawan in the Philippines, noting a specimen from Borneo collected by K. Martini at 1150m on G. Trus Madi in Sabah. It is similar to groganae but the male has a distinctly translucent central zone to the hindwing.

Spilosoma accensa Swinhoe (Cerný, 2011). Peninsular Malaysia, Sumatra, Borneo, Palawan. (Montane). Note 390. Note 390. V.V. Dubatolov (pers. comm.) is investigating the complex of species of which S. groganae is a member, and will describe as a new species the Sumatran and Peninsular Malaysian populations attributed to ananda Roepke in Part 6; this is the species illustrated in Barlow (1982). Cerný (2011, pers. comm.) has recorded a further member of this group (Holloway, 1982; but not mentioned in Part 6), S. accensa Swinhoe, from Palawan in the Philippines, noting a specimen from Borneo collected by K. Martini at 1150m on G. Trus Madi in Sabah. It is similar to groganae but the male has a distinctly translucent central zone to the hindwing.

Spilosoma hosei Rothschild (Part 6, p. 44). Borneo, Palawan (Cerný, 2011). Lowland.

Spilosoma thomasi Holloway (Part 6, p. 44). Endemic. Lower to upper montane.

Spilosoma borneensis Rothschild (Part 6, p. 45). Endemic. (Lower to upper montane). Note 391. Note 391. Thomas (1994) reviewed the casigneta Kollar group of Spilosoma, which includes borneensis, roseata Rothschild (Java), and two new species from Sumatra: rufofusca Thomas; adumbrata Thomas.

Spilosoma strigatula Walker (Part 6, p. 45). Thailand (C & P), Sundaland, Philippines (Cerný, 2011). Lowland. Note 392. Note 392. The identity of S. griseabrunnea Holloway has been explored further in relation to a number of very similar species in southeast Asia (the strigatula Walker group) by Dubatolov & Kishida (2010). They described a new subgenus, Praephragmatobia Dubatolov & Kishida for the group and recognised three subgroups within it. The typical group includes strigatula, gurkoi Dubatolov (Mentawi Is.), sumatrana Swinhoe (Sumatra) and continentalis Rothschild (Peninsular Malaysia). The second group contains griseabrunnea, cervina Walker (Sumatra and islands to the west, Peninsular Malaysia) and rubescens Walker (Burma and Yunnan to Sumatra). The third group consists of three new species distributed allopatrically over the Philippines archipelago, including Palawan. It has not been possible to assess whether these species are the same as those described by Cerný (2011).

Spilosoma griseabrunnea Holloway (Part 6, p. 46). Endemic. Lowland; open habitats. Note 392. Note 392. The identity of S. griseabrunnea Holloway has been explored further in relation to a number of very similar species in southeast Asia (the strigatula Walker group) by Dubatolov & Kishida (2010). They described a new subgenus, Praephragmatobia Dubatolov & Kishida for the group and recognised three subgroups within it. The typical group includes strigatula, gurkoi Dubatolov (Mentawi Is.), sumatrana Swinhoe (Sumatra) and continentalis Rothschild (Peninsular Malaysia). The second group contains griseabrunnea, cervina Walker (Sumatra and islands to the west, Peninsular Malaysia) and rubescens Walker (Burma and Yunnan to Sumatra). The third group consists of three new species distributed allopatrically over the Philippines archipelago, including Palawan. It has not been possible to assess whether these species are the same as those described by Cerný (2011).

Spilosoma hypogopa Hampson (Part 6, p. 46). Sundaland, Palawan. Lowland. Note 393. Note 393. Leong & Chang (2010) described and illustrated the larvae of S. hypogopa in Singapore, feeding on the bird’s nest fern, Asplenium nidus (Aspleniaceae), individually or in groups. The larvae were typical of the genus, densely invested with plumose secondary setae arising from low verrucae. These and the body were black at the anterior and posterior ends, with an orange‑brown central section. The larvae dispersed to pupate. Those retained formed dense ovate cocoons incorporating larval setae woven together.

     Though this one observation cannot be taken as indicative of specialism, it is interesting to note that the only host record for the related Sundanian species S. vandepolli is from Angiopteris (Marattiaceae), another fern (Robinson et al., 2001). Cerný (2011) has recorded both species from the Philippines, hypogopa from Palawan and vandepolli from Mindanao and Negros. The record of hypogopa from Thailand (Cerný & Pinratana, 2009) is probably of a distinct species (K. Cerný, pers. comm.).

Spilosoma vandepolli Rothschild (Part 6, p. 47). Thailand (C & P), Sundaland, Philippines. (Lowland). Note 393. Note 393. Leong & Chang (2010) described and illustrated the larvae of S. hypogopa in Singapore, feeding on the bird’s nest fern, Asplenium nidus (Aspleniaceae), individually or in groups. The larvae were typical of the genus, densely invested with plumose secondary setae arising from low verrucae. These and the body were black at the anterior and posterior ends, with an orange‑brown central section. The larvae dispersed to pupate. Those retained formed dense ovate cocoons incorporating larval setae woven together.

     Though this one observation cannot be taken as indicative of specialism, it is interesting to note that the only host record for the related Sundanian species S. vandepolli is from Angiopteris (Marattiaceae), another fern (Robinson et al., 2001). Cerný (2011) has recorded both species from the Philippines, hypogopa from Palawan and vandepolli from Mindanao and Negros. The record of hypogopa from Thailand (Cerný & Pinratana, 2009) is probably of a distinct species (K. Cerný, pers. comm.).

Lemyra ypsilon Rothschild (Part 6, p. 48). Sundaland. (Lowland) to lower montane.

Lemyra maculifascia Walker (Part 6, p. 48; Thomas, 1990: 52). Sundaland. Lesser Sundas, Wallacea, S. Moluccas. Note 394. Note 394. Thomas (1990) published the revision of Lemyra Walker that was anticipated in Part 6. His revision confirmed one species for the Bornean list and brought the species covered in the next note into the genus. The additional species is in effect confirmation of the occurrence of maculifascia Walker for Borneo, as discussed in the generic account in Part 6, though no indication of further material is given by Thomas. He did, however, treat the maculifascia complex (also discussed by Holloway (1982: 217)), as a single species ranging from Sundaland to New Guinea and Australia, bringing parvula Hulstaert (New Guinea) and malayensis Hampson (Bali) into its synonymy. Thomas retained L. quadrisaccus Holloway (Peninsular Malaysia) as distinct and listed a Sumatran fauna of five species, including three newly described endemics. Cerný & Pinratana (2009) recorded quadrisaccus from Thailand.

Lemyra bornemontana Holloway (Part 6, p. 49). Endemic. Upper montane.

Lemyra singularis Roepke (new record). Java, Borneo. (Lowland). Note 395. Note 395. A single male of L. singularis Roepke from Samarinda in the lowlands of Kalimantan was noted in the collection of Muzium Zoologicum Bogoriense, Indonesia. This species and its synonym, Secusio javanica Roepke (Thomas, 1990: 37), were described from Java by Roepke (1940). The female resembles a Lemyra species in its blackish brown markings on bright yellow, but the male seen had very dark brown forewings with a yellow triangle at the centre and yellow hindwings.

Areas galactina Hoeven (Part 6, p. 50). Oriental tropics from the Himalaya and S.W. China to Taiwan, Sundaland and Philippines. (Montane). Note 396. Note 396. Dubatolov et al. (2009) have reviewed the subspecies within Areas galactina. They placed the Bornean population in ssp. hollowayi Dubatolov, Haynes & Kishida and described two further subspecies from Indochina and S.W. China (inouei Dubatolov, Haynes & Kishida) and the Philippines, including Palawan (owadai Dubatolov, Haynes & Kishida).

Aethalida borneana Holloway (Part 6, p. 51). Endemic. Lowland (to montane). Note 397. Note 397. Dubatolov & Kishida (2005) reviewed the genus Aethalida Walker, provided a key to the species and described two new ones, A. hollowayi (Sulawesi) and A. owadai (Saleyar I.), bringing the total to seven. Cerný (2011) has established that the two Philippines taxa synonymised in Part 6 are in fact distinct.

Creatonotos transiens Walker (Part 6, p. 52). Oriental tropics to Sundaland and Philippines. Lowland, open habitats. Note 398. Note 398. Dubatolov & Holloway (2007) reviewed species of the Creatonotos transiens Walker complex, describing C. kishidai from Sulawesi.

Creatonotos gangis Linnaeus (new record). Oriental tropics. (Lowland, mainly cultivated areas). Note 399. Note 399. C. gangis was recorded in Borneo for the first time in 2003, a single individual coming to light in the Bau limestone area of Sarawak during sampling by the Sarawak Biodiversity Centre (C. Karim, pers. comm.). Elsewhere in its range, it is a common species of disturbed and open habitats in the lowlands. The longitudinal black markings in the centre of the forewing are diagnostic. The possibility that the species is in fact a complex is currently under investigation  (see Dubatolov, 2010).

Subtribe CALLIMORPHINA (5 species)

Argina astrea Drury (Part 6, p. 54). Indo‑Australian tropics. Lowland, open habitats.

Utetheisa pulchelloides Hampson (Part 6, p. 56). Indo‑Australian tropics. Lowland, open habitats.

Utetheisa lotrix Cramer (Part 6, p. 57). Old World tropics. (Lowland). Note 400. Note 400. Utetheisa lotrix is confirmed for Borneo by material in the FRC, Sepilok, Sabah, examined by the author. A phylogeny of subgenus Utetheisa has been published by DaCosta (2010).

Utetheisa abraxoides Walker (Part 6, p. 58). Endemic. Lowland to upper montane. Note 401. Note 401. The Nyctemera‑like species in Utetheisa (subgenera Pitasila Moore and Atasca Swinhoe) have been revised by de Vos (2007). He also recorded a spurious specimen of abraxoides from N. Thailand with data as mentioned on p. 417 (de Vos, 2007: 38). Host records for the group (one added since 1988) are still restricted to Boraginaceae.

Tinoliodes dehanna Pagenstecher (Part 6, p. 60). Sundaland. lowland to (lower montane). Note 402. Note 402. W. Speidel (pers. comm.) has pointed out that Callimorpha coccinea Swinhoe (1904, Trans. ent. Soc. Lond. 1904: 151) is a synonym of Tinoliodes dehanna. It is curated (but not indexed) as such in BMNH, but was overlooked in Part 6. It would have priority over ssp. borneana Roepke if the validity of the subspecies can be supported (see discussion in Part 6).

Subtribe PERICOPINA (17 species)

Nyctemera lacticinia Cramer (Part 6, p. 65). Oriental Region to Sundaland. (Montane).

Nyctemera baulus Boisduval (Part 6, p. 66). Thailand (C & P), Sundaland to Samoa. Lowland to lower montane, open habitats.

Nyctemera sonticum Swinhoe (Part 6, p. 66). Philippines, N. Borneo. (?Lowland).

Nyctemera pagenstecheri Pagenstecher (Part 6, p. 67). Lesser Sundas, Pulo Laut. (Lowland).

Nyctemera latistriga Walker (Part 6, p. 67). Oriental tropics to Philippines, Lombok. Lowlands to (lower montane), open habitats.

Nyctemera ludekingii Vollenhoven (Part 6, p. 68). Borneo, Sumatra. Montane.

Nyctemera adversata Schaller (Part 6, p. 68). Himalaya, eastern Oriental Region to Sundaland, Philippines. Lowland to lower montane, open and secondary habitats.

Nyctemera regularis Snellen (Part 6, p. 69). Borneo, Sumatra. Lowland to lower montane, open habitats.

Nyctemera tripunctaria Linnaeus (Part 6, p. 69). S.E. Asia to Palawan, Sulawesi. (Lowland, open habitats). Note 403. Note 403. Nyctemera radiata Walker replaces N. tripunctaria in the Philippines, with the exception of Palawan (de Vos & Cerný, 1989).

Nyctemera kiauensis Holloway (Part 6, p. 70). Endemic. (Lower montane).

Nyctemera tenompoka Holloway (Part 6, p. 70). Endemic. (Lower montane).

Nyctemera kinibalina Snellen (Part 6, p. 70). Endemic. Upper montane.

Nyctemera calcicola Holloway (Part 6, p. 71). Endemic. Upper montane.

Nyctemera coleta Stoll (Part 6, p. 71; Plate 7). Oriental Region east to New Guinea. Lowland to lower montane. Note 404. Note 404. N. coleta was not illustrated in Part 6. This is remedied in Plate 7.

Nyctemera muelleri Vollenhoven (Part 6, p. 72). Indochina, Thailand, Sundaland. Lowland to upper montane. Note 405. Note 405. The evergista‑group of Nyctemera has been revised by de Vos (2002). The range of muelleri has been extended northwards into southeast Asia. The group consists of an array of species that extends east to the Bismarck Is. These species are allopatric except for overlap between muelleri and the mainland Asian carissima Swinhoe, and the distribution pattern of the array is a variant on the theme discussed by Holloway (1987) and Holloway & Nielsen (1998).

Nyctemera kinabaluensis Reich (Part 6, p. 72). Endemic (Kinabalu). Lower to upper montane. Note 406. Note 406. N. kinabaluensis forms a group with a number of Philippines species such as browni Schultze, palawanica de Vos & Cerný, angustipennis Kishida, undulata de Vos & Cerný and others in the arctata Walker group as discussed by de Vos & Cerný (1999: 153 et. seq.). They included Borneo in the distribution given for true arctata Walker, but this is an error (R. de Vos pers. comm.). A single specimen of the Taiwan subspecies of arctata, albofasciata Wileman, has been recorded from Luzon, but de Vos & Cerný (1999) raised the possibility that the label data might be incorrect. These species belong to the arctata subgroup; the luzonensis‑subgroup of de Vos & Cerný (1999) contains four montane species endemic to the Philippines but also extends further east to the S. Moluccas.

Nyctemera montana Holloway (Part 6, p. 73). Endemic (Kinabalu). Upper montane.

Subtribe PHAEGOPTERINA (3 species)

Amerila astreus Drury (Part 6, p. 61). Oriental Region to New Guinea. Lowland to upper montane. Note 407. Note 407. Amerila astreus Drury has been included in the ongoing analyses of Zahiri et al. (in preparation), following that of Zahiri et al. (2011). Preliminary results have indicated that the genus Amerila Walker may be better placed in the Syntomini rather than the Arctiini, or in a position basal to these tribes.

Amerila omissa Rothschild (Part 6, p. 62). N.E. Himalaya, Thailand (C & P), Borneo. (Lowland), lower to upper montane.

Pareuchaetes pseudoinsulata Rego Barros (Part 6, p. 63). S. America, introduced, and now established more widely in the Philippines (Cerný, 2011) and in Thailand (C & P). Lowlands, weedy habitats.

Subtribe EUCHROMIINA (2 species)

Euchromia elegantissima Wallengren (Part 6, p. 38). Oriental tropics to Sundaland, Philippines (Lowland).

Euchromia horsfieldi Moore (Part 6, p. 39). Sundaland, Lesser Sundas. Lowland.

Subfamily AGANAINAE (28 species)

Agape chloropyga Walker (Part 6, p. 79). Sundaland to New Guinea, Queensland. Lowland (to lower montane).

Peridrome orbicularis Walker (Part 6, p. 80). N.E. Himalaya to Sundaland, Lesser Sundas. (Lowland).

Euplocia membliaria Cramer (Part 6, p. 81). N.E. Himalaya to Sulawesi and Lesser Sundas. (Lowland).

Neochera dominia Cramer (Part 6, p. 83). Indo‑Australian tropics. (Lowland).

Neochera marmorea Walker (Part 6, p. 83). N.E. India, Sundaland. Lowland (to upper montane).

Neochera inops Walker (Part 6, p. 84). N.E. Himalaya to Sundaland. (Lowland).

Neochera privata Walker (Part 6, p. 84). Andamans, Sundaland, Lesser Sundas, Sulawesi. (Lowland). Note 408. Note 408. Zwier (2007) investigated the undescribed Neochera Hübner species from Sulawesi mentioned on p. 83 of Part 6 and concluded that it was a subspecies of N. privata. It was described as N. privata fennekenae Zwier.

Asota kinabaluensis Rothschild (Part 6, p. 86). Endemic. (Lower to) upper montane.

Asota kageri Kobes (new record; Plate 8, Fig 145). Sumatra, Borneo, ?Thailand. (Lower montane). Note 409. Note 409. Asota kageri Kobes (1988, Heterocera Sumatrana 2: 81) was originally described from Sumatra but a series (in Museum Witt, Munich, and ZMAN, Amsterdam) has been taken in forest at 1100m in southern Kalimantan (vicinity of Kandangan and Loksado); the species or a close relative may also occur in N. Thailand (J.H.H. Zwier, pers. comm.). It is atypically small for the genus with yellow ground colour, the wings with broad black borders and, on the forewing, a few black spots in the basal half (Plate 8). DNA barcoding from a wide range of Asota species (S.E. Miller & J.H.H. Zwier, pers. comm.) has indicated that kageri is clearly a member of the genus, associating it with kinabaluensis Rothschild, a species with very different facies but sharing the feature of strongly bipectinate male antennae. The male genitalia are illustrated in Fig 145.

Asota heliconia Linnaeus (Part 6, p. 86). Indo‑Australian tropics. Lowland (to upper montane); disturbed habitats.

Asota plana Walker (Part 6, p. 87). Oriental tropics east to New Guinea. (Lowland to upper montane).

Asota albiformis Swinhoe (Part 6, p. 87). Borneo, Wallacea, Moluccas. Upper montane.

Asota paphos Fabricius (Part 6, p. 87). N.E. Himalaya, Sundaland. Lowland.

Asota egens Walker (Part 6, p. 88). Oriental Region east to New Guinea. Lowland (to upper montane), secondary forest.

Asota caricae Fabricius (Part 6, p. 88). Indo‑Australian tropics. Lowland, including open habitats.

Asota producta Butler (Part 6, p. 89). Indian Subregion to Sundaland. (Lowland, upper montane).

Asota javana Cramer (Part 6, p. 89). Sundaland, Wallacea. Lowland to lower montane.

Psimada quadripennis Walker (Parts 15 & 16, p. 316). Oriental tropics, Seram. Lowland.

Psimada hybrida Prout (Parts 15 & 16, p. 317). Sundaland, Thailand. No precise habitat data.

Mecodina lanceola Guenée (Parts 15 & 16, p. 318). N.E. Himalaya, Sundaland. Lowland forest. Note 410. Note 410. Leong (2010e) has described and illustrated the mature larva of Mecodina lanceola and its development in Singapore. The prolegs on A3 are only sl;ightly reduced. The dorsal side of the larva is bright green with a series of four closely placed longitudinal white bands on each side, the dorsal three more broken transversely over A1-6, more strongly so on A2-5, particularly at the centre of each where there is a narrow transverse band of green, and between them where there is a narrow ring of white. There is a greyish tinge to the thin dark dorsal line and to dark patches within the mainly white anal segments. The head is mostly green apart from an irregular white ‘E’ extending over the dorsal part. The ventral half of the body  is paler, more greyish. The pre-pupal larva turned a dark purplish red and pupated in a shelter of leaves loosely drawn together with silken threads. The host plant was Ficus variegata (Moraceae).

Mecodina leucosticta Hampson (Parts 15 & 16, p. 319). Sundaland, Sulawesi. Lowland forest.

Mecodina albodentata Swinhoe (Parts 15 & 16, p. 319). Oriental tropics to Sundaland, Sulawesi. Lowland forest.

Mecodina violacea Holloway (Parts 15 & 16, p. 319). Endemic. Lowland forest.

Mecodina praecipua Walker (Parts 15 & 16, p. 320). Indo-Australian tropics to Bismarcks and Queensland. Lowland forest.

Mecodina bisignata Walker (Parts 15 & 16, p. 321). Indo-Australian tropics to Bismarcks and Queensland. (Lowland).

Mecodina viridacea Holloway (Parts 15 & 16, p. 321). Sundaland. (Lowland forest).

Mecodina diastriga Hampson (Parts 15 & 16, p. 322). Sundaland. (Lowland and lower montane forest).

Mecodina poaphiloides Walker (Parts 15 & 16, p. 322). Sundaland, Thailand. (Lowland).

Subfamily HERMINIINAE (224 species)

Bertula momusalis Walker (Part 17, p. 28). Endemic. Lowland

Bertula lobativalva Holloway (Part 17, p. 29). Sundaland. (Lowland, disturbed habitats).

Bertula pollocki Holloway (Part 17, p. 30). Endemic. (Lowland to lower montane).

Bertula bifurcata Holloway (Part 17, p. 30). Endemic. (Lowland).

Bertula alpheusalis Walker (Part 17, p. 30). N.E. Himalaya, Taiwan, Sundaland. Lowland forest.

Bertula nigra Swinhoe (Part 17, p. 31). Borneo, Singapore, Peninsular Malaysia (B). Coastal habitats, including mangrove.

Bertula gollum Holloway (Part 17, p. 31). Endemic. (Lowland heath forest).

Bertula mesilau Holloway (Part 17, p. 31). Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia (B). Montane forest.

Bertula rufithorax Holloway (Part 17, p. 32). Endemic. (Montane forest).

Bertula pallidisca Holloway (Part 17, p. 32). Endemic. (Lowland forest).

Bertula subnigripuncta Holloway (Part 17, p. 33). Endemic. (Disturbed lowland forest).

Bertula depressalis Snellen (Part 17, p. 33). Sundaland, Philippines. Lowland (including secondary and plantation) forest.

Bertula microdepressalis Holloway (Part 17, p. 34). Endemic. Lowland forest.

Bertula phlegeusalis Walker (Part 17, p. 34). Endemic. Lowland forest and disturbed areas.

Bertula spineusalis Holloway (Part 17, p. 35). Endemic. (Upper montane forest).

Bertula wallacea Holloway (Part 17, p. 36). Borneo, Sulawesi, S. Moluccas. (Montane forest).

Bertula willotti Holloway (Part 17, p. 36). Endemic. (Regenerating lowland forest).

Bertula waterstradti Holloway (Part 17, p. 37). N.E. Himalaya, Borneo. (No precise habitat data available).

Bertula tespisalis Walker (Part 17, p. 37). Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia. Lowland to lower montane forest (including softwood plantations).

Bertula micealis Walker (Part 17, p. 37). Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia (B). Lowland (including secondary and plantation) forest.

Bertula erectilinea Swinhoe (Part 17, p. 38). Endemic. No precise habitat data available.

Bertula transcaerulea Holloway (Part 17, p. 38). Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia (B). (Lowland to lower montane).

Bertula owadai Holloway (Part 17, p. 39). Borneo, Sumatra. Lowland forest.

Bertula insignifica Rothschild (Part 17, p. 39). Sundaland. (Lowland).

Bertula partita Hampson (Part 17, p. 40). Indian Subregion, China, Borneo, Bali, Sulawesi. (Lowland and montane disturbed forest and cultivated areas).

Bertula rostrilinea Prout (Part 17, p. 41). Endemic. (Upper montane forest).

Bertula scoulari Holloway (Part 17, p. 41). Endemic. (Upper montane forest).

Bertula scoonesi Holloway (Part 17, p. 41). Endemic. (Lowland heath forest).

Bertula pughi Holloway (Part 17, p. 42). Endemic. (Lowland alluvial and heath forest).

Bertula inconspicua Swinhoe (Part 17, p. 42). Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia (B). Lowland forest.

Bertula sphaerula Swinhoe (Part 17, p. 42). Endemic. (No precise habitat data available).

Bertula carta Swinhoe (Part 17, p. 43). Sundaland. Lowland (including disturbed and plantation) forest.

Bertula picta Pagenstecher (Part 17, p. 43). Borneo, Java. Lowland.

Bertula crucialis Felder & Rogenhofer (Part 17, p. 44). Sundaland. Lowland (including secondary and plantation) forest.

Bertula delosticha Swinhoe (Part 17, p. 44). Sundaland. (Lowland (including secondary) forest).

Bertula angulifascia Holloway (Part 17, p. 45). Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia. (Lowland forest).

Bertula pallidicosta Holloway (Part 17, p. 45). Endemic. (Lowland forest).

Bertula pallidipulla Holloway (Part 17, p. 45). Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia (B). (Lowland to upper montane forest).

Bertula rufosa Holloway (Part 17, p. 46). Endemic. Lowland to upper montane forest.

Bertula pulla Swinhoe (Part 17, p. 46). Endemic. No precise habitat data available.

Bertula micropulla Holloway (Part 17, p. 47). Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia (B), Sumatra. Lowland (and lower montane) forest.

Bertula bornedescripta Holloway (Part 17, p. 47). Endemic. Lowland heath forest.

Bertula proctori Holloway (Part 17, p. 48). Endemic. Lowland heath forest.

Bertulapostlineata Holloway (Part 17, p. 48). Endemic. (Lowland forest).

Raphiscopa undulata Felder & Rogenhofer (Part 17, p. 50). Sundaland. (Lower montane forest).

Raphiscopa serrata Prout (Part 17, p. 50). Endemic. Upper montane forest.

Raphiscopa mulundulata Holloway (Part 17, p. 50). Endemic. Upper montane forest.

Raphiscopa medialis Holloway (Part 17, p. 50). Endemic. ((Lowland) to montane forest).

Raphiscopa viridialis Holloway (Part 17, p. 51). Endemic. (Lowland to montane forest).

Raphiscopa hirsuta Holloway (Part 17, p. 52). Sundaland. (Lowland forest).

Raphiscopa egnasidoides Holloway (Part 17, p. 52). Endemic. (Lower montane).

Raphiscopa albipunctata Holloway (Part 17, p. 53). Endemic. (Lowland forest).

Raphiscopa albireniformis Holloway (Part 17, p. 53). Endemic. (Upper montane forest).

Egnasides rudmuna Swinhoe (Holloway, 2005: 44). Endemic. Lowland forest.

Isana larusalis Walker (Part 17, p. 54). Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia. Lowland forest.

Isana albiscripta Holloway (Part 17, p. 54). Endemic. (Lowland to lower montane forest).

Isana muluensis Holloway (Part 17, p. 55). Endemic. (Upper montane forest).

Isana kinabaluensis Holloway (Part 17, p. 55). Endemic. Montane forest.

Isana irregularusalis Holloway (Part 17, p. 56). Endemic. (Lowland forest).

Isana eugenes Prout (Part 17, p. 56). Endemic. Montane forest.

Isana quadrilateralis Holloway (Part 17, p. 57). Endemic. (Upper montane forest).

Mosopia megaspila Walker (Part 17, p. 58). Sundaland. (Lowland to montane forest, with disturbance).

Mosopia eudoxusalis Walker (Part 17, p. 59). Sundaland, Thailand. Lowland (including secondary) forest.

Mosopia pallidusalis Holloway (Part 17, p. 59). Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia (B), ?Thailand. Lowland (including secondary) forest.

Mosopia kononenkoi Holloway (Part 17, p. 60). Sundaland, Thailand. Lowland (including secondary and plantation) forest.

Hepsidera lignea Swinhoe (Part 17, p. 61). Sundaland. Lowland forest.

Hepsidera ferruginea Holloway (Part 17, p. 61). Sundaland. (Coastal town).

Catadoides longipalpis Swinhoe (Part 17, p. 63). Sundaland. (Lowland).

Catadoides russula Holloway (Part 17, p. 63). Endemic. (Montane forest).

Alelimma pallidifusca Hampson (Part 17, p. 64). N.E. Himalaya, Thailand, Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia, Sulawesi. (Lowland).

Alelimma ochreofusca Holloway (Part 17, p. 65). Borneo, Philippines. (Lowland).

Globosusa borneana Holloway (Part 17, p. 66). Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia (B). Lowland forest (including secondary and plantation).

Idia substigmata Holloway (Part 17, p. 67). Borneo, Sumatra. (Lowland and lower montane forest).

Idia ocellata Holloway (Part 17, p. 68). Borneo, Sumatra. (Montane forest).

Idiagnetusalis Walker (Part 17, p. 68). Borneo, Burma, N. India. (Lowland).

Oxaenanus brontesalis Walker (Part 17, p. 69). N.E. Himalaya to Sundaland and Philippines. Lowland forest and disturbed habitats.

Oxaenanus kalialis Swinhoe (Part 17, p. 70). Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia. Lowland forest and disturbed habitats.

Oxaenanus parvikalialis Holloway (Part 17, p. 70). Endemic. (Upper montane forest).

Oxaenanus kerangatis Holloway (Part 17, p. 71). Endemic. (Lowland (including heath) forest).

Bleptinodestanaocrossa Prout (Part 17, p. 72). Endemic. (Montane forest).

Forcipivalva amphusalis Walker (Part 17, p. 73). Borneo, Sumatra. Lowland.

Forcipivalva melanostalus Rothschild (Part 17, p. 73). Borneo, Sumatra. (Lowland forest).  

Forcipivalva kerangatis Holloway (Part 17, p. 74). Endemic. (Lowland heath forest).

Hydrillodes lentalis Guenée (Part 17, p. 76). Indian Subregion to Japan and Australia. (Lowland).

Hydrillodes hemusalis Walker (Part 17, p. 77). Sundaland, Wallacea, S. Moluccas. Disturbed lowland forest.

Hydrillodes subbasalis Walker (new record; Part 17, p. 77; Plate 6, Figs 143, 144, 146). Andamans, Peninsular Malaysia, Borneo. (Lowland secondary forest). Note 411. Note 411. A female (Plate 6, Fig 146; in FRC, Sepilok) of Hydrillodes subbasalis Moore (1877, Proc. zool. Soc. Lond. 1877: 613) has been taken at 500m in secondary forest at Moyog, near Penampang in Sabah. The species was discussed in relation to H. hemusalis Walker in Part 17, p. 77. The prominent creamy white medial band of the forewing is diagnostic. In the genitalia, the narrow processes flanking the ostium are longer than in typical subbasalis from the Andamans (Fig 144). The male genitalia are illustrated in Fig 143.

Hydrillodes gravatalis Walker (Part 17, p. 78). Indian Subregion to Sundaland. Lowland to lower montane forest.

Hydrillodes erythusalis Walker (Part 17, p. 78). Endemic. Lowland to lower montane forest.

Hydrillodes moloalis Walker (Part 17, p. 79). Sundaland. Lowland to lower montane.

Hydrillodes toresalis Walker (Part 17, p. 79). Indo-Australian tropics to New Guinea. Lowland to upper montane.

Hydrillodes plicaloides Holloway (Part 17, p. 80). Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia (B). (Lowland) to lower montane forest.

Hydrillodes eucaula Prout (Part 17, p. 81). Endemic. Montane forest.

Hydrillodes pala Holloway (Part 17, p. 81). Endemic. (Lowland forest).

Hydrillodes telisai Holloway (Part 17, p. 82). Endemic. (Lowland heath forest).

Hydrillodes danum Holloway (Part 17, p. 82). Endemic. (Lowland forest).

Hydrillodes labi Holloway (Part 17, p. 83). Endemic. (Lowland disturbed habitats).

Hydrillodes pertruncata Prout (Part 17, p. 83). Endemic. Upper montane forest.

Hydrillodes pterota Prout (Part 17, p. 83). Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia. Lower to upper montane forest.

Hydrillodes poiensis Prout (Part 17, p. 84). Endemic. Upper montane forest.

Hydrillodes murudensis Prout (Part 17, p. 84). Endemic. Upper montane forest.

Echanella obliquistriga Prout (Part 17, p. 85). Borneo, ?Sulawesi. (Upper montane forest).

Echanella temperata Prout (Part 17, p. 86). Sundaland, Sulawesi. Lowland to upper montane forest. Note 412. Note 412. The unique female of Nodaria flavifusca Hampson (1895, Fauna Br. India, Moths 3: 56) from the Naga Hills in N.E. India appears to be an Echanella similar to temperata and is therefore placed in that genus, comb. n. The genitalia are very similar to those of female temperata, but formal synonymy of the two species under flavifusca should await discovery and examination of males from India.

Ochrotrigona praetextata Hering (Part 17, p. 86). Sundaland. Lowland to montane.

Paracolax ochrescens Holloway (Part 17, p. 88). Endemic. Lowland forest.

Paracolax grisescens Holloway (Part 17, p. 88). Endemic. Lowland forest.

Paracolax montanus Holloway (Part 17, p. 89). Endemic. (Upper montane (and ?lowland) forest).

Paracolax ocellatus Holloway (Part 17, p. 90). Endemic (Lower montane forest).

Paracolaxpectinatus Holloway (Part 17, p. 90). Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia. (Lowland forest).

Hadennia hypenalis Walker (Part 17, p. 91). Indian Subregion, Taiwan, Sundaland. Lowland forest.

Hadennia mysalis Walker (Part 17, p. 91). Sri Lanka, Japan, Taiwan, S.E. Asia, Peninsular Malaysia (B), Borneo. Lowland forest and disturbed areas.

Hadennia maculifascia Hampson (Part 17, p. 92). S.E. Asia, Sundaland. Disturbed lowland forest.

Hadennia subapicibrunnea Holloway (Part 17, p. 92). Borneo, S. Moluccas. (Montane).

Hadennia pallifascia Holloway (Part 17, p. 93). Endemic. Montane forest.

Hadennia harmani Holloway (Part 17, p. 93). Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia. (Lowland (including secondary) forest).

Hadennia suttoni Holloway (Part 17, p. 94). Endemic. (Lowland forest).

Hadennia nigerrima Swinhoe (Part 17, p. 94). Borneo, Nias, Thailand. (Lowland).

Hadennia hisbonalis Walker (Part 17, p. 95). N.E. Himalaya, Taiwan, Sundaland. (Lowland).

Hadennia angustifascia Holloway (Part 17, p. 95). Sundaland. (Lowland forest).

Hadennia transvestita Holloway (Part 17, p. 95). Endemic. (Lowland forest).

Hadennia incompleta Prout (Part 17, p. 96). Borneo, Thailand. (Montane forest).

Hadenniakimae Holloway (Part 17, p. 96). Borneo, Singapore. Lowland forest. Note 413. Note 413. Hadenniakimae has been recorded from Singapore (Leong, 2009g).

Adrapsa ablualis Swinhoe (Part 17, p. 98). Indo-Australian tropics to New Caledonia. Lowland, disturbed habitats.

Adrapsa alsusalis Walker (Part 17, p. 99). Endemic. (Lowland).

Adrapsa pseudoscopigera Holloway (Part 17, p. 99). Endemic. (Lowland).

Adrapsa tenomigera Holloway (Part 17, p. 100). Endemic. Lowland.

Adrapsa ereboides Walker (Part 17, p. 100). Sundaland. Lowland (including secondary) forest.

Adrapsa terroides Holloway (Part 17, p. 100). Endemic. Lowland forest.

Adrapsa thermesia Swinhoe (Part 17, p. 101). Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia (B). (Montane forest).

Adrapsa marmorea Swinhoe (Part 17, p. 101). Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia, Sumatra (HS/K). Lower montane.

Adrapsa editha Swinhoe (Part 17, p. 101). Endemic. (Lowland to lower montane forest).

Adrapsa lunuleditha Holloway (Part 17, p. 102). Endemic. Montane forest.

Adrapsa angulilinea Prout (Part 17, p. 102). Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia. (Lowland forest).

Adrapsa geometroides Walker (Part 17, p. 103). Indian Subregion to New Guinea. Lowland forest and plantation.

Adrapsa orgyoides Walker (Part 17, p. 103). Sundaland. (Lowland).

Adrapsa insolida Prout (Part 17, p. 103). Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia. Upper montane forest.

Adrapsa maerens Holloway (Part 17, p. 104). Borneo, Nias. (Lower montane forest).

Adrapsa abnormalis Swinhoe (Part 17, p. 104). N.E. Himalaya, Thailand, Borneo, Java. (Lowland forest).

Bocana manifestalis Walker (Part 17, p. 106). Indo-Australian tropics to Samoa. Lowland (including plantation), lower montane (and upper montane) forest. 

Bocana silenusalis Walker (Part 17, p. 106). N.E. Himalaya, Sundaland. Lowland (including plantation) forest.

Bocana longicornis Holloway (Part 17, p. 106). Endemic. (Lowland forest).

Subsimplicia punctilinea Prout (Part 17, p. 108). Endemic. Montane forest.

Subsimplicia purpuralis Holloway (Part 17, p. 108). Endemic. Upper montane forest.

Subsimplicia reniformis Holloway (Part 17, p. 108). Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia (Barlow colln). Lowland forest.

Nodaria externalis Guenée (Part 17, p. 110). Oriental tropics to Sundaland. Lowland disturbed habitats.

Nodaria cingala Moore (Part 17, p. 111). Sri Lanka, Borneo, Sulawesi, Seram. (Lowland disturbed habitats).

Simplicia robustalis Guenée (Part 17, p. 112). India to New Guinea and Queensland. Lowland (especially secondary and disturbed) forest and plantation.

Simplicia discosticta Hampson (Part 17, p. 113). Sri Lanka, Sundaland. Lowland forest, disturbed and cultivated habitats.

Simplicia cornicalis Fabricius (Part 17, p. 113). Indo-Australian and Pacific tropics. (Lowland).

Simplicia pseudeusalis Holloway (Part 17, p. 114). Endemic. (Montane forest).

Simplicia butesalis Walker (Part 17, p. 114). Sundaland. Lowland forest.

Simplicia concisalis Walker (Part 17, p. 115). Indo-Australian tropics. Lowland (including secondary) forest.

Simplicia acutivalva Holloway (Part 17, p. 116). Endemic. (Lowland heath) and lower montane forest.

Simplicia variegata Holloway (Part 17, p. 116). Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia. Lowland (including plantation) forest.

Simplicia xanthoma Prout (Part 17, p. 117). India to Taiwan, Japan and Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia. (Montane forest).

Simplicia niphona Butler (Part 17, p. 118). Oriental tropics to Japan and Sundaland. Montane forest.

Simplicia anoecta Prout (Part 17, p. 118). Endemic. (Lowland (to lower montane)).

Simplicia ruptifascia Holloway (Part 17, p. 118). Endemic. (Lower montane forest).

Simplicia eriodes Prout (Part 17, p. 119). Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia (B). Lowland (including secondary) forest.

Simplicia schaldusalis Walker (Part 17, p. 119). Sundaland, S. Moluccas, New Guinea. (Lowland forest and disturbed habitats).

Simplicia griseolimbalis Snellen (Part 17, p. 120). Sundaland to Australia and Solomons. Lowland to upper montane, forested and disturbed habitats.

Simplicia bimarginata Walker (Part 17, p. 120). Sundaland, Wallacea. Lowland forested and disturbed habitats.

Simplicia brevicosta Prout (Part 17, p. 121). Endemic. Montane forest and disturbed areas.

Simplicia mistacalis Guenée (Part 17, p. 121). Indian Subregion to Japan and New Guinea. No precise habitat data available.

Simplicia phaedrusalis Walker (Part 17, p. 121). Sundaland. (Lowland).

Simplicia sp. 19983 (Part 17, p. 122). Endemic. (Lowland forest).

Polypogon reticulatis Leech (Part 17, p. 124). East Asia, S. E. Asia, Borneo, Sumatra. Upper montane forest.

Polypogon mundiferalis Walker (Part 17, p. 125). N.E. Himalaya, Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia. Lowland.

Polypogon radula Holloway (Part 17, p. 125). Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia (B). Lower montane forest.

Polypogon wordsworthi Holloway (Part 17, p. 126). Borneo, Singapore. Lowland and lower montane forest.

Polypogon brackenburyi Holloway (Part 17, p. 127). Endemic. (Lowland heath forest).

Polypogon nothusalis Walker (Part 17, p. 127). Sundaland, Sulawesi. Lowland forest, including plantation, and lower montane forest.

Polypogon producta Hampson (Part 17, p. 128). Sri Lanka, Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia, Sulawesi, ?Seram. (Disturbed lowland and plantation forest).

Polypogon classeyi Holloway (Part 17, p. 128). Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia (B). (Lowland forest).

Polypogon warleyi Holloway (Part 17, p. 129). Endemic. (Disturbed lowland and lower montane forest).

Polypogon kurokoi Owada (Part 17, p. 130). Ryukyu Is., Taiwan, Sri Lanka, Peninsular Malaysia (B), Borneo. (Lowland forest).

Polypogon decipiens Hampson (Part 17, p. 130). Himalaya, Taiwan, Ryukyu Is., Borneo. (Upper montane forest).

Polypogon pallexa Holloway (Part 17, p. 131). Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia (B). Lowland forest.

Polypogon longisaccus Holloway (Part 17, p. 132). Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia (B). (Montane forest).

Polypogon adda Swinhoe (Part 17, p. 133). Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia. No precise habitat data available.

Polypogon albapex Hampson (Part 17, p. 133). Indian Subregion, Peninsular Malaysia (B), Borneo. No precise habitat data available.

Polypogon stidzeras Holloway (Part 17, p. 133). Sundaland. Lowland.

Polypogon neleusalis Walker (Part 17, p. 134). Oriental tropics to Sundaland. (Lowland).

Polypogon ochreipes Prout (Part 17, p. 135). Sundaland. (Lowland).

Polypogon phineusalis Walker (Part 17, p. 135). Sundaland. Lowland.

Polypogon kona Swinhoe (Part 17, p. 136). Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia. (Lowland forest).

Polypogon silvialis Walker (Part 17, p. 136). Sundaland. Lowland (including secondary and plantation) forest.

Polypogon minoraloides Holloway (Part 17, p. 137). Endemic. (Lower montane forest).

Sinarella albeola Rothschild (Part 17, p. 138). Borneo, Sulawesi, Seram, New Guinea. Lowland to upper montane forest.

Sinarella griseola Holloway (Part 17, p. 139). Endemic. Lowland forest.

Hipoepa biasalis Walker (Part 17, p. 140). Indo-Australian tropics east to Australia. Lowland, including logged, forest.

Hipoepa fractalis Guenée (Part 17, p. 141). African and Oriental tropics, China, Japan, Korea, Australia. (Lowland).

Hipoepa plebejus Rothschild (Part 17, p. 141). Borneo, Sumatra. (Lowland).

Progonia oileusalis Walker (Part 17, p. 142). Indian Subregion, Taiwan, Ryukyu Is., Borneo, Philippines. (Lowland).

Progonia kurosawai Owada (Part 17, p. 143). Indian Subregion, Ryukyu Is., Burma, Borneo, Sulawesi. Disturbed coastal habitats.

Progonia fonteialis Walker (Part 17, p. 144). Borneo, Sulawesi. (Lowland).

Progonia serrativalva Holloway (Part 17, p. 144). Endemic. (Lowland).

Progonia erectivalva Holloway (Part 17, p. 144). Endemic. (No precise habitat data available).

Progonia acutivalva Holloway (Part 17, p. 145). Endemic. (No precise habitat data available).

Progonia sp. 19919 (Part 17, p. 145). Endemic. (No precise habitat data available).

Chusaris retataloides Holloway (Part 17, p. 146). Endemic. (Lower montane forest on limestone).

Chusaris mulumaculata Holloway (Part 17, p. 147). Endemic. (Upper montane forest).

Chusaris albilineata Holloway (Part 17, p. 147). Endemic. (Montane forest).

Chusaris purpurisigna Holloway (Part 17, p. 148). Endemic. (Lowland forest).

Chusaris violisigna Holloway Walker (Part 17, p. 148). Endemic. (Lowland heath forest).

Chusaris griseisigna Holloway (Part 17, p. 149). Endemic. (Lowland forest).

Chusaris setocircularis Holloway (Part 17, p. 149). Endemic. (Lowland forest).

Chusaris signicosta Walker (Part 17, p. 149). Endemic. Lowland (to lower montane) forest.

Chusaris obliquisignata Holloway (Part 17, p. 150). Endemic. (Montane forest).

Chusaris bifasciata Holloway (Part 17, p. 150). Endemic. Lowland forest.

Sartagine ovafricta Holloway (Part 17, p. 152). Endemic. Lowland (including plantation) forest. Note 414. Note 414. A male specimen of Sartagine has been collected by H.S. Barlow at the Genting Tea Estate locality (600m) in Peninsular Malaysia. It is smaller (20mm) than ovafricta and a slightly lighter, duller brown generally. The forewing markings are each perhaps half the area of those of ovafricta, the larger one with a darker, brownish centre, and less evident on the underside, where the central wedge of slightly rougher scales is concolorous with the rest, rather than paler and more golden.

Naarda ineffectalis Walker (Part 17, p. 153). Sri Lanka, Borneo. (Lowland, including disturbed habitats).

Naarda melinau Holloway (Part 17, p. 154). Endemic. (Lowland (including heath) forest).

Naarda laufellalis Walker (Part 17, p. 154). Endemic. (Lowland).

Naarda barlowi Holloway (Part 17, p. 155). Endemic. (Lowland forest).

Naarda muluensis Holloway (Part 17, p. 156). Endemic. (Upper montane forest).

Naarda submuluensis Holloway (Part 17, p. 156). Endemic. (Lowland forest).

Naarda serra Holloway (Part 17, p. 156). Endemic. (Lowland forest).

Naarda kinabaluensis Holloway (Part 17, p. 157). Borneo, Sumatra? (Montane).

Naarda acolutha Holloway (Part 17, p. 157). Endemic. (Lowland).

Naarda marginata Holloway (Part 17, p. 158). Endemic. (Lowland (including secondary) forest).

Naarda nodariodes Prout (Part 17, p. 158). Endemic. (Montane).

Naarda sp. 20101 (Part 17, p. 159). Endemic. (Lowland).

Schistorhynx argentistriga Hampson (Parts 15 & 16, p. 417). N.E. Himalaya, S. China, Borneo. Montane forest.

Schistorhynx lobata Prout (Parts 15 & 16, p. 418). Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia. Lowland forest.

Subfamily PANGRAPTINAE (60 species)

Pangrapta shivula Guenée (Parts 15 & 16, p. 326). Indo-Australian tropics. (Lowland).

Pangrapta lasiophora Hampson (Parts 15 & 16, p. 326). Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia (B), Sumatra. Lowland forest.

Pangrapta albiseriata Hampson (Parts 15 & 16, p. 327). Sundaland, Thailand. Lowland forest.

Pangrapta albiscripta Holloway (Parts 15 & 16, p. 327). Endemic. Lowland (to lower montane) forest.

Pangrapta philemonalis Walker (Parts 15 & 16, p. 328). Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia (B). (Lowland to lower montane forest).

Pangrapta macariana Hampson (Parts 15 & 16, p. 328). Sundaland. Lowland to lower montane forest.

Pangrapta athemonalis Walker (Parts 15 & 16, p. 329). Borneo, Sumatra. (Lowland).

Pangrapta holophaea Hampson (Parts 15 & 16, p. 329). Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia. (Lowland).

Pangrapta viridigrisea Holloway (Parts 15 & 16, p. 329). Endemic. Lowland forest.

Pangrapta meander Holloway (Parts 15 & 16, p. 330). Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia. (Lowland to lower montane forest).

Pangrapta elopura Holloway (Parts 15 & 16, p. 330). Sundaland. (Lowland).

Pangrapta metagona Walker (Parts 15 & 16, p. 331). Sundaland, Sulawesi. Lowland to lower montane.

Pangrapta recusata Walker comb. n. (Parts 15 & 16, p. 331, as paragona Holloway). N.E. Himalaya, Thailand, Sundaland, Philippines. Lowland forest. Note 415. Note 415. The holotype (OUMNH: 2661) of Thermesia recusata Walker (1859, J. Proc. Linn. Soc. (Zool.) 3: 191) proves this taxon to be a senior synonym of Pangrapta paragona Holloway, syn. n. Therefore this species now becomes Pangrapta recusata comb. n. In Plate  22  of Part 15 + 16, the numbers 14 and 15 are reversed in error in the legend.

Pangrapta sublineata Holloway (Parts 15 & 16, p. 332). N.E. Himalaya, Vietnam, Borneo, Sumatra. (Lowland).

Pangrapta pannosoides Holloway (Parts 15 & 16, p. 332). Borneo, Java. Montane forest.

Pangrapta chilana Swinhoe (Parts 15 & 16, p. 333). Borneo, Sumatra. (Lower montane).

Pangrapta aviusalis Walker (Parts 15 & 16, p. 333). Sundaland. Lowland (to lower montane) forest.

Pangrapta parsimonalis Walker (Parts 15 & 16, p. 334). N.E. Himalaya to Sundaland. Lowland to lower montane forest. Note 416. Note 416. Pangrapta variegata Rothschild (1920: 124; Sumatra) is a junior synonym of parsimonalis, syn. n.

Pangrapta hylaxalis Walker (Parts 15 & 16, p. 334). Sundaland. Lowland to upper montane forest.

Pangrapta viridentata Holloway (Parts 15 & 16, p. 335). Endemic. (Lowland forest).

Pangrapta poetoides Holloway (Parts 15 & 16, p. 335). Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia (B). Lowland (to lower montane) forest.

Pangrapta hyriona Hampson (Parts 15 & 16, p. 336). Endemic. (Lowland).

Episparis generic group (14 species)

Episparis monochroma Hampson (Parts 15 & 16, p. 294). Endemic. (?Lowland). Note 417. Note 417. The colour of the related Episparis tortuosalis Moore was noted in a mature larva from Peninsular Malaysia to be yellow. The description in Parts 15 &16 (p. 294) was from preserved material.

Episparis costistriga Walker (Parts 15 & 16, p. 294). Himalaya, Sundaland. Lowland (including secondary and plantation) forest (to upper montane). Note 418. Note 418. The larva of E. costistriga was reared by Chung et al. (2009a) from Neolamarckia (Rubiaceae) and illustrated, together with a freshly emerged adult. The larva is a bright green with a paler green head that has a pair of black dots dorsally, enclosed in ‘spectacles’ of pale creamy yellow. The body has prominent dorsolateral bands of this cream colour, squared off by a transverse bar on A8. Further transverse bars occur at the posterior of T3, A2, A4 and A7, and there are black dots at the interior edges of the longitudinal bands in the centre of each segment.

Episparis exprimens Walker (Parts 15 & 16, p. 295). Oriental tropics, Seram. Lowland (including disturbed and secondary) forest.

Episparis minima Pelletier (Parts 15 & 16, p. 295). Endemic. (Lowland).

Claterna cydonia Walker (Parts 15 & 16, p. 296). Indo-Australian tropics to New Guinea. Lowland forest.

Bematha extensa Walker (Parts 15 & 16, p. 297). N.E. Himalaya to Sundaland and Philippines; ?Sulawesi and New Guinea. Lowland (to lower montane) forest.

Gespanna confirmata Walker comb. n. (Parts 15 & 16, p. 298, as pectoralis Walker). Sundaland. Lowland (to lower montane) forest. Note 419. Note 419. The holotype (OUMNH: 2663) of Cotuza confirmata Walker (1859, J. Proc. Linn. Soc. (zool.) 3: 197, Malacca) proves this taxon to be a senior synonym of Gespanna pectoralis Walker, syn. n. Therefore this species now becomes Gespanna confirmata Walker comb. n.

Taviodes fulvescens Hampson (Parts 15 & 16, p. 298). N.E. Himalaya, Thailand, Sundaland. (Lowland forest).

Masca abactalis Walker (Parts 15 & 16, p. 299). Burma, Sundaland to New Guinea. Lowland to upper montane in forested and disturbed habitats.

Focillistis sita Felder & Rogenhofer (Parts 15 & 16, p. 300). Borneo, Sumatra, Sulawesi. Lowland.

Egnasia overdijkinki Prout (Parts 15 & 16, p. 301). Sundaland. (Lowland).

Egnasia distorta Swinhoe (Parts 15 & 16, p. 302). Borneo, Sumatra. Lowland forest.

“Egnasia” sundana Kobes (Parts 15 & 16, p. 302). Borneo, Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia (B). Thailand. Lowland forest.

“Egnasia” conifer Hampson (Parts 15 & 16, p. 302). Philippines, Borneo, Sumatra, Thailand. Lowland (to lower montane) forest.

Throana generic group (15 species)

Throana callista Prout (Parts 15 & 16, p. 304). Endemic. Lower and upper montane forest.

Throana klossi Prout (Parts 15 & 16, p. 305). Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia. Lowland forest. Note 420. Note 420. A larva of a Throana species, probably klossi, was reared from Neolamarckia (Rubiaceae) by Chung et al. (2009a) and illustrated, together with a freshly emerged adult. The larva is very slender, bright green, with a pair of narrow dorsolateral lines running almost the whole length of the body. The anal prolegs are long, splayed out behind. Some fine black dots are present on the thoracic segments.

Throana flavizonata Prout (Parts 15 & 16, p. 305). Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia. (Lowland).

Throana rufipicta Hampson (Parts 15 & 16, p. 305). Endemic. (Lowland).

Throana amyntoralis Walker (Parts 15 & 16, p. 305). Borneo, Singapore. (Lowland forest).

Throana ionodes Hampson (Parts 15 & 16, p. 306). Endemic. (Lowland).

Throana lasiocera Hampson (Parts 15 & 16, p. 306). Peninsular Malaysia (B), Singapore, Borneo. Lowland forest, including coastal forest.

Margana ?tenuilinea Swinhoe (Parts 15 & 16, p. 307). Borneo, Sumatra. (Lowland forest).

Microselene mesostipa Hampson (Parts 15 & 16, p. 308). N.E. Himalaya, Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia. (Lowland).

Microselene mopsa Swinhoe (Parts 15 & 16, p. 308). N.E. Himalaya to Taiwan, Burma, Thailand, Peninsular Malaysia (B), Borneo. (Lowland forest).

Nagadeba” celenoalis Walker (Parts 15 & 16, p. 309). Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia (B), Sumatra. Lowland forest, including coastal and disturbed areas.

“Nagadeba” geminipuncta Hampson (Parts 15 & 16, p. 310). Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia (B). (Lowland).

Throanagonia corona Holloway (Part 17, p. 213). Borneo, Sumatra? Lowland (and lower montane) forest.

Throanagonia tiara Holloway (Part 17, p. 213). Endemic. (Lowland forest).

Collicroana berlyi sp. n. (p. 381, Plate 6, Fig 121). Endemic. (Lowland heath forest). Note 421. Note 421. Collicroana Gen. n.
Type species: berlyi sp. n.
The features of this taxon are unusual enough to set aside the principle of not basing a description, particularly at generic level, on a single specimen, and no obvious genus could be found for even a tentative placement. Even the association with the Throana Walker group of genera needs further investigation. Indeed, the specimen was held over from description in Parts 15 & 16 for this last reason because the genitalia lack the defining features of migration of the ostium forwards into the seventh sternite; this sternite is also unmodified, though trapezoid and somewhat shorter than the tergite. The ostium is set between the seventh and eighth sternites and is unmodified, the ductus bursae runing from it, somewhat fluted, to expand into a irregularly pyriform corpus bursae.
     The general appearance and dark brownish grey, almost black, coloration of the body and wings is reminiscent of the geometrid genus Collix Guenée, but such species have a prominent black discal mark on the forewing rather than a white bar in the orbicular position, and also have a strongly banded pattern on the underside of the wings. The underside is more uniform in Collicroana, with fasciae reproduced paler, though the forewing has a black bar in the discal area with the white orbicular mark recurring strongly just basal to it, the feature that associates it with the Throana group. All wings above and below have a black spot anterior to M3 on the distal margin, and also fine, pale-edged, irregularly zigzag postmedial and submarginal fasciae and a blackish medial.
     The labial palps have the deeply scaled second segment curved downwards to twice the length of the head, with the almost straight, slender third segment continuing its line and being about 20% longer.
Collicroana berlyi sp. n. (Plate 6, Fig 121)
E 13m. See the generic diagnosis.
Holotype E. SARAWAK: Gunong Mulu Nat. Park, R.G.S. Exped. 1977-8 (J.D.Holloway et al.), Site 20, Mar.-April, W. Melinau Gorge, 150m. 422577, FEG 3, kerangas, BM noctuid slide 18788.
Geographical range. Borneo.
Habitat preference. The only specimen was taken in wet heath (kerangas) forest on a river terrace.

Miscellaneous genera, possibly Pangraptinae (9 species)

Poliofoca gebenna Swinhoe (Parts 15 & 16, p. 311). Thailand, Sundaland, Philippines. (Lowland forest, some logged).

Acharya franconia Swinhoe (new record, Plate 7, Figs 139, 142). Java, Sumatra, Borneo, Thailand (Kononenko & Pinratana, 2005: 66). Lowland secondary forest. Note 422. Note 422. Acharya franconia (Egnasia franconia Swinhoe, 1903, Ann. Mag. nat. Hist (7), 11: 508; Plate 7, Figs 139, 142) has been taken in some numbers at fruit bait deployed in disturbed secondary forest at Tawau Hill at Lungmanis near Sandakan (Chey, V. K., pers. comm.). The genus Acharya Moore (type species crassicornis Moore, N.E. Himalaya) contains just the type species and franconia. A. franconia shows striking sexual dimorphism according to illustrations in Kononenko & Pinratana, (2005: Plate 16), the rich brown male resembling some ennomine geometrids, having rather delicate build and bipectinate antennae, and thus might not look out of place amongst the Boarmiini genera illustrated on Plates 9‑13 in Part 11. The female illustrated by Konenko & Pinratana is smaller, darker purplish brown, more robust, noctuid‑like, with facies more as in the Episparis Walker group of genera, Pangrapta Hübner or Tamba Walker. However, females resembling the males have now been located, so that female specimen illustrated by Kononenko & Pinratana is probably not conspecific. Both sexes have angled and scalloped wing margins, the wings more elongate in the male. The wings of franconia are a rich brown. The pale postmedial of the forewing is sinuous, with an expanded, whiter portion one third from the dorsum, and that of the hindwing is distinctly double as illustrated.
     The male abdomen has a modified eighth segment where the sternite has some resemblance to that in some members of the Saroba Walker group of genera, such as Lopharthrum Hampson and some Tamba species, but it lacks lateral rods. The genitalia are atypical of the Saroba group in their simple, tongue‑like valves.
     The female genitalia are also not typical of the Saroba group, having fully developed apodemes on the eighth segment and no coil to the base of the very elongate neck of the corpus bursae. The ductus bursae is short but has a exteriorly sclerotised, funnel‑like antrum with a tongue‑like lip at the ostium, which is drawn anteriorly into the seventh segment by marked shortening of the sternite.
     No clear pointer to the affinities of Acharya is apparent, and it is here associated with genera of the fifth miscellaneous sequence of Parts 15 & 16. There is little difference in facies between the type species and franconia, so conspecificity is possible.

Vestura minereusalis Walker (Parts 15 & 16, p. 312). Sundaland, Thailand. Lowland forests, disturbed habitats, and cultivated areas.

Gracillina prosthenia Hampson (Parts 15 & 16, p. 312). S. Thailand, Sundaland. (Lowland forest).

Thyrostipa sphaeriphora Moore (Parts 15 & 16, p. 313). N.E. Himalaya, Thailand, Sundaland. (Upper montane forest).

Pleurona falcata Walker (Parts 15 & 16, p. 315). India, Burma, Thailand, Andamans, Borneo, Bali, Sulawesi. Lowland forest.

Hyposemansis singha Guenée (Parts 15 & 16, p. 323). N.E. Himalaya to Taiwan and Sundaland. Lowland forest.

“Hyposemansis” volvapex Kobes (Parts 15 & 16, p. 323). N.E. Himalaya, Sundaland. (Lowland forest).

Chrysograpta igneola Swinhoe (Parts 15 & 16, p. 324). Burma, Thailand, Sundaland. (Lowland forest). Note 423. Note 423. A larva of Chrysograpta igneola in Peninsular Malaysia (H.S. Barlow, pers. comm.) was found forming a cocoon under flakes of bark on a short section of stout twig under a Gardenia (Rubiaceae) bush, but this cannot be confirmed as the host plant.

 

Subfamily HYPENINAE (80 species)

Hypena generic group (34 species)

Hypena brevicella Prout (Part 17, p. 173). Endemic. Montane forest.

Hypena strigatus Fabricius (Part 17, p. 173). Oriental tropics to Sundaland, Tanimbar. (no precise habitat data available).

Hypena abjectalis Walker (Part 17, p. 174). Sundaland, Philippines. Lowland

Hypena laceratalis Walker (Part 17, p. 175). Old World tropics to Australia and Cook Is. (No precise habitat data available).

Hypena jugalis Walker (Part 17, p. 176). N.E. Himalaya, Sundaland. Lowland forest.

Hypena ochradelpha Holloway (Part 17, p. 176). Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia. Lowland forest.

Hypena epigaea Swinhoe (Part 17, p. 177). Borneo, Sumatra. Lowland forest. Note 424. Note 424. The presence of Hypena epigaea Swinhoe in Borneo was detected after the Plates for Part 17 had been compiled. It is therefore illustrated here in Plate 7.

Hypena iconicalis Walker (Part 17, p. 177). Oriental tropics. Lowland forest.

Hypena similata Moore (Part 17, p. 178). Indo-Australian tropics east to Fiji. Lowland to montane forest.

Hypena parvigrisea Holloway (Part 17, p. 179). Endemic. (Lowland forest).

Hypena borneolivacea Holloway (Part 17, p. 179). Endemic. (Lowland).

Hypena robustalis Snellen (Part 17, p. 179). S.E. Asia to Fiji. (Montane?).

Hypena mandatalis Walker (Part 17, p. 180). Indian Subregion, Peninsular Malaysia (B), Borneo, Sumatra, Sulawesi, Australia. (Lowland and montane forest).

Hypena ischyra Prout (Part 17, p. 181). Sundaland, Sulawesi. Lowland.

Hypena callichlaena Holloway (Part 17, p. 182). Endemic. Lowland forest.

Hypena gonospilalis Walker (Part 17, p. 182). Indo-Australian tropics to Japan and Samoa. (Lowland to upper montane forest).

Hypena tristigma Holloway (Part 17, p. 182). Endemic. (Montane).

Hypena apiensis Holloway (Part 17, p. 183). Endemic. Lower montane forest on limestone.

Hypena rhombaloides Holloway (Part 17, p. 184). Endemic. (Montane).

Hypena telamonalis Walker (Part 17, p. 184). N.E. Himalaya, Sundaland, Philippines. Montane forest.

Hypena vestita Moore (Part 17, p. 185). Indian Subregion, Borneo. (Montane forest).

Hypena caeruleanotata Holloway (Part 17, p. 186). Borneo, Java. Montane forest.

Dichromia quadralis Walker (Part 17, p. 187). India, Andamans, Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia, Philippines. (Montane forest).

Dichromia laesalis Walker (Part 17, p. 188). Indian Subregion, Sundaland, ?east to Solomons. (Lowland).

Dichromia indicatalis Walker (Part 17, p. 188). Indo-Australian tropics to Japan and Solomons. (Lowland).

Dichromia cognata Moore (Part 17, p. 189). Indian Subregion, Borneo, New Guinea to Vanuatu, also recorded from Tuvalu. (Lowland).

Dichromia linguibursa Holloway (Part 17, p. 189). Borneo, Wallacea. Lowland forest (and softwood plantation).

Dichromia ampullata Holloway (Part 17, p. 190). Borneo, ?Java. (Lowland to montane).

Dichromia thermesialis Walker (Part 17, p. 191). Indian Subregion, China, Borneo, Sumatra, Buru, New Guinea. Montane cultivation.

Dichromia inconspicua Snellen (Part 17, p. 192). Borneo, Sulawesi, Seram, New Guinea. (No precise habitat data available).

Dichromia translaticius Rothschild (Part 17, p. 192). Borneo, Sumatra. (No precise habitat data available).

Dichromia occatus Moore (Part 17, p. 192). Oriental tropics and subtropics, Japan, Korea. Lowland forest.

Harita rectilinea Moore (Part 17, p. 193). Indian Subregion, Sundaland. (Lowland forest).

Euphiuche picta Moore (Part 17, p. 195). N.E. Himalaya, Thailand, Sundaland, Sulawesi. Lowland to montane forest.

Mecistoptera generic group (24 species)

Mecistoptera violescens Hampson (Part 17, p. 162). India, Borneo, Bali, Sulawesi. (Lowland softwood plantation).

Mecistoptera loedli Holloway (Part 17, p. 162). Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia (B), ?Thailand. (Lowland (secondary) forest and lowland softwood plantation).

Mecistopteraemmiae Kobes (Part 17, p. 162). N.E. Himalaya, Borneo, Sumatra. (Lowland).

Hiaspis closteroides Walker (Part 17, p. 164). Thailand, Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia. Lowland forest.

Hiaspis apicalis Swinhoe (Part 17, p. 164). Endemic. Lowland (and lower montane) forest on limestone.

Acidon mariae Lödl (Part 17, p. 165). Sundaland. (Lowland softwood plantation).

Acidon mediobrunnea Holloway (Part 17, p. 165). Endemic. Lower to upper montane forest.

Acidon sabada Swinhoe (Part 17, p. 166). ?Thailand, Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia. Lowland.

Acidon rectivia Holloway (Part 17, p. 166). Thailand, Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia. (Lowland disturbed forest).

Acidon semiochrea Holloway (Part 17, p. 167). Thailand, Peninsular Malaysia (B), Borneo. Primary and secondary lowland forest.

Acidon nigrobasis Swinhoe (Part 17, p. 167). Indian Subregion, Taiwan, Peninsular Malaysia (B), Borneo. (Lowland forest).

Acidon wayangkulit Holloway (Part 17, p. 168). Sundaland. Lowland forest.

Acidon pseudohypena Holloway (Part 17, p. 168). Endemic. (Lowland forest).

Acidon api Holloway (Part 17, p. 169). Endemic. (Montane forest and scrub on limestone).

Acidon castanea Holloway (Part 17, p. 169). Endemic. (Lowland and lower montane forest).

Acidon calcicola Holloway (Part 17, p. 170). Endemic. (Lowland) and lower montane forest, particularly on limestone.

Acidon sp. 19683 (Part 17, p. 170). Endemic. (Upper montane forest). 

Acidon sp. (Part 17, p. 171). Endemic. (Lowland secondary forest).

Hepatica doda Swinhoe (Parts 15 & 16, p. 453). Borneo, Sumatra. (Lowland and lower montane forest).

Hepatica irrorata Swinhoe (Parts 15 & 16, p. 454). N.E. Himalaya, Taiwan, Borneo. (Upper montane forest).

Hepatica orbicularis Holloway (Parts 15 & 16, p. 454). Endemic. (Lowland forest).

Lophomilia striatipurpurea Holloway (Part 13, p. 196). Endemic. Upper montane forest. Note 425. Note 425. Kononenko & Behounek (2009) published a comprehensive treatment of Lophomilia, also associating it with the Mecistoptera generic group, but indicating that further work is needed to establish the systematic position of Lophomilia within the group, and of the group within a wider context (see also Kononenko et al. (2010) with reference to the genus Paragabara Hampson). They suggested that Coarica Moore, a monobasic N. Indian genus, is also closely related, and recorded from earlier literature the synonymy of Atuntsea Berio and Bryograpta Sugi with Lophomilia. They listed thirteen described species divided into seven species-groups, placing striatipurpurea in a group of its own, despite similarities in facies and male genitalia (especially the narrow valves) with L. kobesi Kononenko & Behounek from Sumatra. There is a second Sumatran species, L. diehli Kononenko & Behounek, with much more robust and heavily ornamented valves to the male genitalia.

Gonoglasa camptogramma Hampson (Parts 15 & 16, p. 455). Borneo, Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia (B), Thailand. Lowland forest.

Gonoglasa nigripalpis Walker (Parts 15 & 16, p. 455). Borneo, Sumatra, Thailand. (Lowland).

Miscellaneous genera (22 species)

Catada vagalis Walker (Part 17, p. 196). Indian Subregion, Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia, Philippines. (Lowlands, also montane forest scrub on limestone).

Catada transversalis Moore (Part 17, p. 197). Andamans, Sundaland, S. Moluccas to Bismarcks. (Lowland forest).

Catada bellaria Lödl & Paumkirchner (Part 17, p. 197). Endemic. (Lowland and upper montane forest).

Catada sp. 20060 (Part 17, p. 197). Endemic. (Montane forest).

Catada canaliferalis Moore (Part 17, p. 197). Andamans, Sundaland. Lowland forest and disturbed areas.

Catada nebrida Holloway (Part 17, p. 198). Sundaland. Lowland forest and disturbed areas.

Catada agassizi Holloway (Part 17, p. 198). Endemic. (Lowland).

Catada rufula Holloway (Part 17, p. 199). Endemic. (Lowland).

Nolasena ferrifervens (Parts 15 & 16, pp. 29, 451-2; Part 17, p. 196). Indian Subregion, Borneo, Philippines. Lowland, possibly coastal and mangrove.

Anoratha nabalua Holloway (Part 17, p. 200). Borneo, Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia (B). (Radio Sabah zone).

Anoratha paritalis Walker (Part 17, p. 200). Indo-Australian tropics to Japan and New Caledonia. Lower to upper montane forest.

Niphocona occidentalis Holloway (Part 17, p. 201). N.E. Himalaya, Vietnam, Sundaland. (Lowland forest).

Sarobela litterata Pagenstecher (Part 17, p. 203). Indo-Australian tropics to New Guinea and Queensland. (Lowland disturbed and cultivated areas).

Britha pactalis Walker (Part 17, p. 204). Indian Subregion, China, Taiwan, Borneo, Sulawesi. (Lowland).

Britha biguttata Walker (Part 17, p. 204). Indo-Australian tropics to Bismarcks and Queensland. (Lowland).

Pinacia albistella Walker (Part 17, p. 205). Sundaland, Philippines. (Lowland).

Pinacia molybdaenalis Hübner (Part 17, p. 205). Sundaland, Lesser Sundas, Sulawesi. (Lowland).

Cultripalpa partita Guenée (Parts 15 & 16, p. 314). India, Borneo, Philippines; possibly further east. (?Coastal). Note 426. Note 426. A species of Cultripalpa Guenée has been included in the ongoing molecular analyses of Zahiri et al. (in preparation); it was placed with only weak support as sister to a clade containing three Hypena species. It is therefore transferred here from the fifth miscellaneous sequence of Parts 15 & 16 to the sequence of genera in the Hypeninae in Part 17 that have traditionally been placed in that subfamily but fall outside the Hypena Schrank or Mecistoptera Hampson groups of genera. The male genitalia bear some superficial resemblance to those of Anoratha Moore (figs 608, 609 in Parts 15 & 16 compared with fig 458 in Part 17), but the coupling of tegumen and vinculum differs as do the structures of the eighth abdominal segment. The female genitalia also differ considerably. The transfer is thus made primarily as a stimulus for further study.

Cultripalpa lunulifera Hampson (Parts 15 & 16, p. 314). Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia; possibly further east. (Lowland and montane forest).

Arrade erebusalis Walker (Part 17, p. 207). Indian Subregion, Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia, New Guinea, Bismarcks. Queensland.

Arrade ostentalis Walker (Part 17, p. 207). Indian Subregion, Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia, Philippines. (Lowland forest).

Arrade rudisella Walker (Part 17, p. 208). Borneo, Sumatra, Sulawesi. (Lowland).

 

Subfamily RIVULINAE (30 species)

Rivula aequalis Walker (Part 17, p. 7). Oriental tropics, Japan, Seram, ?New Guinea. Lowland to montane.

Rivula atimeta Swinhoe (Part 17, p. 8). Sundaland, Wallacea. Lowland, mainly disturbed habitats; rice pest.

Rivula bioculalis Moore (Part 17, p. 8). Indian Subregion to Taiwan and Borneo. (Lowland).

Rivula innotabilis Walker (Part 17, p. 9). Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia. (Lowland).

Rivula sordida Walker (Part 17, p. 9). Endemic. (Disturbed areas, secondary forest).

Rivula rentoni Holloway (Part 17, p. 10). Endemic. (Disturbed lowland forest).

Rivula mageei Holloway (Part 17, p. 10). Endemic. (Lowland plantation).

Rivula faircloughi Holloway (Part 17, p. 11). Endemic. (Disturbed coastal forest).

Rivula robinsoni Holloway (Part 17, p. 11). Endemic. (Lowland).

Rivula leucosticta Swinhoe (Part 17, p. 12). India, Borneo. (Lowland forest).

Rivula leuconephra Hampson (Part 17, p. 12). Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia. (Lowland forest).

Rivula calcaripuncta Holloway (Part 17, p. 13). Endemic. (Lower montane forest on limestone).

Rivula basalis Hampson (Part 17, p. 13). Indian Subregion, Taiwan, Thailand, Sundaland. (No precise habitat data available).

Rivula simulatrix Walker (Part 17, p. 14). Sri Lanka, Peninsular Malaysia (B), Java, Borneo. (Lowland to montane; disturbed forest).

Rivula curvifera Walker (Part 17, p. 14). Indian Subregion, W. China, Taiwan, Thailand, Japan, Korea, Peninsular Malaysia (B), Borneo, New Guinea, Australia. Disturbed heath and coastal forest.

Bocula caradrinoides Guenée (Parts 15 & 16, p. 200). Sundaland. Lowland forest.

Bocula sejuncta Walker (Parts 15 & 16, p. 200). Indian Subregion to New Guinea and Queensland. (Lowland to montane).

Bocula hedleyi Holloway (Parts 15 & 16, p. 201). Endemic. (Lowland forest).

Bocula samarinda Holloway (Parts 15 & 16, p.202). Endemic. (Lowland).

Bocula xanthostola Hampson (Parts 15 & 16, p. 202). Sri Lanka, Sundaland. (Lower montane).

Bocula obscurostola Holloway (Parts 15 & 16, p. 202). Endemic. Lowland forest.

Bocula inconclusa Walker (Parts 15 & 16, p. 203). Borneo, Burma. ?Disturbed or cultivated lowland habitats.

Bocula diasticta Hampson (Parts 15 & 16, p. 203). Endemic. (Coastal, including mangrove).

Bocula quadrilineata Walker (Parts 15 & 16, p. 203). Endemic. (Lowland to montane).

Bocula bifaria Walker (Parts 15 & 16, p. 204). Sundaland, Philippines. Lowland forest (to upper montane).

Bocula tuhanensis Holloway (Parts 15 & 16, p. 204). Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia (B). Lowland forest including plantation.

Bocula calthula Swinhoe (Parts 15 & 16, p. 204). Borneo, ?Philippines. No precise habitat data.

Bocula nigrinsula Holloway (Parts 15 & 16, p. 205). Endemic. (Coastal).

Bocula divergens Prout (Parts 15 & 16, p. 205). Thailand, Sundaland. Lowland and lower montane forest.

Bocula anticlina Holloway (Parts 15 & 16, p. 205). Endemic. (Lowland).

 

Subfamily SCOLIOPTERYGINAE (47 species)

Ossonoba torpida Walker (Parts 15 & 16, p. 215). Indo-Australian tropics to New Guinea. Lowland to upper montane forest.

Falana sordida Moore (Parts 15 & 16, p. 216). Oriental tropics to Sundaland. Lowland (to lower montane) forest.

Falana bilineata Holloway (Parts 15 & 16, p. 216). Endemic. Lowland (to upper montane).

Savara anomioides Walker (Parts 15 & 16, p. 218). Sundaland, New Guinea, Solomons. Lowland to montane.

Savara contraria Walker (Parts 15 & 16, p. 218). Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia. (Lowland to montane).

Savara pallidapex Holloway (Parts 15 & 16, p. 219). N.E. Himalaya, Sundaland, New Guinea. Lowland to montane.

Savara latimargo Walker (Parts 15 & 16, p. 220). Indo-Australian tropics to Queensland and Solomons. (Lowland).

Savara biradulata Holloway (Parts 15 & 16, p. 221). Endemic. (Lower montane).

Oxygonitis sericeata Hampson (new record; p. 384, Plate 7, Figs 140. 141). Indian Subregion to Sundaland, Philippines, Sulawesi. (Lowland). Note 427. Note 427. Oxygonitis Hampson
Type species: sericeata Hampson.
     The facies is somewhat as in Savara Walker, except the forewing is much more acutely bifalcate as illustrated, a rich dark vinous brown with a faint pale bluish irroration in places, particularly just distal to the fine, gently curved (concave distad), oblique postmedial. The postmedial and antemedial are similar, darker than the ground, but edged paler on the sides away from the medial zone. The medial zone contains a large, slightly bilobed, faintly darker, reniform stigma and a much smaller, often paler orbicular. Both these stigmata can be obscure.
     The male abdomen has the apodemes of the basal sternite slightly doubled and with a crossbar posteriorly to where they converge as in other Scoliopterygini, and the eighth segment has some similarities with that in Savara, but the tergite has a much broader and clearly defined central band that tapers to terminate posteriorly in a sclerotised ring, resembling a bottle-opener overall, perhaps more as in “Anomisdiscisigna Hampson (Parts 15 & 16: 224). The sternite is similar to that of Savara but with the anterior margin obtusely biangular rather than bilobed. The genitalia have the uncus long, hooked, somewhat as in Asta Walker species, and lacking the typical distally displaced scaphium seen in other members of the tribe. The valve has a massive, distally bifid corema from the exterior of the base as in discisigna, though this is not bifid. The valve also has a corema on the interior surface of the cucullus and a trio of erect processes from its base, one triangular and the other two twice and three times as long, slender and tapering. The aedeagus vesica is small, with three broad‑based, nipple‑like cornuti.
     The female genitalia have the ductus bursae long, sclerotised, with a straight basal portion and a longer, swollen distal portion. The corpus bursae is pyriform, basally twisted and generally obliquely corrugated.
     The genus contains the type species and sericeoides Prout (Seram, New Guinea, Bismarcks, Australia). The latter is externally similar but has shorter slender processes on the valve of the male genitalia. The record of this species from Australia is on the assumption that this is biogeographically more likely than the record of sericeata in Nielsen et al. (1996).
Oxygonitis sericeata Hampson (Plate 7, Figs 140, 141)
Oxygonitis sericeata Hampson, 1893, Illustr. typical Specimens Lepid. Het. Colln.
Br. Mus., 9: 22.
Diagnosis. See the first paragraph of the generic description above.
Geographical range. Indian Subregion, Burma, Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia (Barlow colln), Java, Borneo, Philippines, Sulawesi.
Habitat preference. Two specimens have been taken recently by Dr Chey Vun Khen at Kaingaran (720m) near Tambunan, and there is one from Kiroket (all in FRC, Sepilok). There is also an older specimen from Penungah. All these are lowland zone localities in Sabah.

Anomis flava Fabricius (Parts 15 & 16, p. 235, under Cosmophila Boisduval). Pantropical. (Lowland forest and secondary vegetation). Note 428. Note 428. In Parts 15 & 16 it was overlooked that Poole (1989: 88, 90) had revised the opinions of Nye (1975) on the identity of the type species of Anomis Hübner, indicating it to be erosa Hübner. This taxon is part of the complex attributed to Cosmophila Boisduval for Borneo, so these species must revert to Anomis. This reopens the question of the generic  placement of a large number of New World species related to exacta Hübner, the species recognised as the type species of Anomis by Nye (1975). For this reason, Lafontaine & Schmidt (2010) have retained all N. American taxa of the complex in Anomis. However, those assigned to Gonitis Guenée and Rusicada Walker in Parts 15 & 16 are still listed under these genera here.

 Anomis lyona Swinhoe (Parts 15 & 16, p. 236, under Cosmophila Boisduval). Indo-Australian tropics to Australia and New Caledonia. (Lowland).

Anomis scitipennis Walker (Parts 15 & 16, p. 236, under Cosmophila Boisduval). Thailand, Sundaland, Sulawesi, New Guinea. Lowland forest.

Anomis guttanivis Walker (Parts 15 & 16, p. 236, under Cosmophila Boisduval). Indian Subregion to Sundaland. (Lowland).

“Anomis” discisigna Hampson (Parts 15 & 16, p. 224). Himalaya, Borneo, New Guinea. (Lowland and lower montane forest on limestone).

“Anomis” albipunctula Hampson (Parts 15 & 16, p. 223). Sundaland. Lowland to upper montane, including disturbed and cultivated areas.

“Anomis” cupienda Swinhoe (Parts 15 & 16, p. 224). Borneo, Sumatra, New Guinea. Lower to upper montane forest.

Rusicada nigritarsis Walker (Parts 15 & 16, p. 231). Indo-Australian tropics to Samoa. (Coastal vegetation).

Rusicada revocans Walker (Parts 15 & 16, p. 232). Borneo to Queensland, Fiji and New Caledonia. (Lowland to lower montane open and disturbed habitats).

Rusicada combinans Walker (Parts 15 & 16, p. 232). Oriental tropics to Philippines. (Lowland).

Rusicada prima Swinhoe (Parts 15 & 16, p. 233). India to Sundaland. Lowland to upper montane forest.

Rusicada leucolopha Prout (Parts 15 & 16, p. 233). N.E. Himalaya to Japan and Borneo, Sumatra. Lower and upper montane forest.

Rusicada albitibia Walker (Parts 15 & 16, p. 234). Japan, Indo-Australian tropics to Queensland and the Solomons. (Lowland).

Gonitis involuta Walker (Parts 15 & 16, p. 237). Indo-Australian and Pacific tropics. (Hill forest).

Gonitis sumatrana Swinhoe (Parts 15 & 16, p. 238). Sundaland. Lowland to lower montane including secondary forest.

Gonitis mesogona Walker (Parts 15 & 16, p. 238). Japan, Oriental tropics to Sundaland. (Montane: disturbed forest and cultivation).

Lineopalpa horsfieldi Guenée (Parts 15 & 16, p. 239). N.E. Himalaya to New Guinea. Lower montane forest to Radio Sabah zone.

Lineopalpa orsara Swinhoe (Parts 15 & 16, p. 240). Borneo, Wallacea, S. Moluccas, New Guinea. Upper montane to Radio Sabah zone.

Lineopalpa birena Holloway (Parts 15 & 16, p. 240). Borneo, Sumatra. Lower and upper montane forest.

Lineopalpa dealbata Prout (Parts 15 & 16, p. 240). Sundaland, Sulawesi, S. Moluccas, New Guinea. (Montane forest).

Arthisma mutilata Walker comb. n. (Parts 15 & 16, p. 241, as scissuralis Moore). Indo-Australian tropics to New Guinea and Queensland. (Lowland to upper montane). Note 429. Note 429. The holotype (OUMNH: 2658) of Anomis mutilata Walker (1859, J. Proc. Linn. Soc. (Zool.) 3: 189, Singapore) proves this taxon to be a senior synonym of Arthisma scissuralis Moore. Therefore this species now becomes Arthisma mutilata Walker comb. n.

Arthisma rectilinea Roepke (Parts 15 & 16, p. 242). Sundaland. Lowland (including plantation and secondary) to upper montane forest.

Arthisma amisa Swinhoe (Parts 15 & 16, p. 242). Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia (B), Sumatra. (Disturbed lowland forest).

Dinumma combusta Walker (Parts 15 & 16, p. 243). Sundaland. Lowland, lower (and upper) montane forests.

Dinumma spiculata Holloway (Parts 15 & 16, p. 244). Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia (B). Lowland (to lower montane).

Dinumma oxygrapha Snellen (Parts 15 & 16, p. 245). Wallacea, Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia, Lesser Sundas. Lowland.

Miscellaneous genera, possibly Scoliopteryginae (12 species)

Thalatta holortha Hampson (Parts 15 & 16, p. 284). Sundaland. (Lowland).

Thalatta argentipuncta Kobes (Parts 15 & 16, p. 284). Borneo, Sumatra. (Lowland to lower montane forest).

Malagonia lineata Felder & Rogenhofer comb. n. (Parts 15 & 16, p. 285, as sundana Holloway). Sundaland. (Lowland). Note 430. Note 430. An earlier description of Malagonia sundana Holloway has been discovered in Hypena? lineata Felder & Rogenhofer (1874, Reise öst. Fregatte Novara, Lep: pl. 120, 39), described from Malacca in Peninsular Malaysia. This taxon therefore becomes Malagonia lineata Felder & Rogenhofer comb. n. with Malagonia sundana Holloway as syn. n.

Malatrogia castanitis Hampson (Parts 15 & 16, p. 286). N.E. Himalaya, Sundaland. (Lower montane forest).

Xanthanomis fuscifrons Walker (Parts 15 & 16, p. 287). Sundaland. Lowland to lower montane, including disturbed habitats.

Xanthanomis vomeroi Holloway & Zilli (Parts 15 & 16, p. 287). Sundaland. (Lowland to montane forest, often with disturbance).

Xanthanomis xanthina Holloway & Zilli (Parts 15 & 16, p. 288). Sundaland, Thailand. (Lowland).

Goniophila excavata Swinhoe (Parts 15 & 16, p. 289). Sundaland. Lowland, particularly disturbed coastal, forest.

“Goniophila” ashleyi Holloway (Parts 15 & 16, p. 289). Endemic. (Lowland forest).

“Goniophila” niphosticha Hampson (Parts 15 & 16, p. 289). S.E. Asia, Borneo. (Upper montane forest).

Lycimna polymesata Walker (Parts 15 & 16, p. 290). N.E. Himalaya, Sundaland. (Lowland and lower montane).

Chilkasa falcata Swinhoe (Parts 15 & 16, p. 291). Indian Subregion to Sundaland, Philippines. Lowland to upper montane forest.

 

Subfamily CALPINAE (20 species)

Tribe CALPINI (5 species)

Calyptra minuticornis Guenée (Parts 15 & 16, p. 247). Indo-Australian tropics to Queensland and Bismarcks. (Lowland and lower montane; disturbed and cultivated habitats). Note 431. Note 431. Bänziger (2007) described fruit‑piercing habits in Calyptra minuticornis.

Oraesia emarginata Fabricius (Parts 15 & 16, p. 249). Oriental tropics to Borneo and Wallacea. (Lowland to montane forest with cultivation and disturbance).

Plusiodonta calcaurea Holloway (Parts 15 & 16, p. 251). Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia. Montane forest on limestone.

Plusiodonta wahri Holloway (Parts 15 & 16, p. 252). Endemic. (Lowland).

Plusiodonta ramlii sp. n. (p. 385, Plate 7, Fig 117). Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia. (Lowland). Note 432. Note 432. Discovery of a male in Peninsular Malaysia showed that the female tentatively associated with Plusiodonta wahri Holloway in Parts 15 & 16 (plate 15: 29; fig 457) is a distinct species. This species is formally described here.
Plusiodonta ramlii sp. n. (Plate 7, Fig 117)
G, EE 15-16mm. The forewing is rich dark brown apart from a paler brown reniform ring that is rectangular with rounded corners, and several zones of pale silvery white blotches: basally; three conjoined transversely subbasally; an oblique series of triangles exterior to the postmedial, the one on the dorsum very much larger, based on the concavity between the medial angular projection of the wing and the tornus. The female genitalia were illustrated in Parts 15 & 16 (Fig 457). The male genitalia have the costal margin of the valve almost a right‑angle rather than distinctly obtuse as in the two other Bornean species, and the apical process is much shorter, not so strongly flexed inwards as in wahri or angled inwards as in calcaurea. The central saccular process is much larger but appears to be fused to the interior lamina of the valve. The aedeagus is much shorter and thicker than in calcaurea, with a conical vesica that has a large, dense patch of reversed spines dorsally.
Holotype G. Genting Tea Estate, 610m, W. Pahang, MALAYSIA, 21.9.[19]90 (H.S. Barlow), BM noctuid slide 19549.
Geographical range. Peninsular Malaysia, Borneo.
Habitat preference. In addition to the holotype and the female described in Parts 15 & 16, a second female was taken by Dr Chey Vun Khen in a Paraserianthes softwood plantation at about 200m near Brumas in Sabah.

Tribe OPHIDERINI (12 species)

Eudocima salaminia Cramer (Parts 15 & 16, p. 254). Indo-Australian tropics to Samoa. (Lowlands to Radio Sabah zone).

Eudocima dividens Walker (Parts 15 & 16, p. 255). Sundaland, Wallacea. (Lowland, upper montane forest).

Eudocima cocalus Cramer (Parts 15 & 16, p. 255). N.E. Himalaya to Australia and Solomons. (Lowland forest).

Eudocima discrepans Walker (Parts 15 & 16, p. 256). N.E. Himalaya and W. China to Sundaland. (Lowland, upper montane and Radio Sabah zones). Note 433. Note 433. Eudocima discrepans has been reared from Tinomiscium (Menispermaceae) in Singapore (Leong, 2009h). The larva is grey with diffusely bounded oblique black bands anteriorly, back from the prolegs on A6 and over the anal zone posterior to the hump. There are numerous, small, black-bordered bars and dots of white and (from the spiracles ventrally) blue throughout, and large ocelli on both A2 and A3.

Eudocima sikhimensis Butler (Parts 15 & 16, p. 256). Indian Subregion to Sundaland. Lowland to upper montane.

Eudocima aurantia Moore (Parts 15 & 16, p. 257). Indo-Australian tropics to Solomons and Queensland. Lowland to upper montane.

Eudocima phalonia Linnaeus (fullonia Clerck) (Parts 15 & 16, p. 257). Old World tropics and subtropics. Lowlands to Radio Sabah zone (through hill-topping?)

Eudocima srivijayana Bänziger (Parts 15 & 16, p. 259). Sundaland, Lesser Sundas, Wallacea. Lowland to upper montane.

Eudocima homaena Hübner (Parts 15 & 16, p. 260). Oriental tropics. Lowland to upper montane.

Eudocima smaragdipicta Walker (Parts 15 & 16, p. 260). Sundaland. Lowland forest. Note 434. Note 434. Leong (2009c) has described and illustrated the final instar of the larva of E. smaragdipicta, reared in Singapore from Fibraurea (Menispermaceae), the same host as noted in Parts 15 & 16.

Eudocima kinabaluensis Feige (Parts 15 & 16, p. 260). Endemic. Lowland (to montane) forest.

Eudocima mionopastea Hampson (Parts 15 & 16, p. 261). Sundaland. Lowland to upper montane forest.

Tribe PHYLLODINI (3 species)

Phyllodes eyndhovii Vollenhoven (Parts 15 & 16, p. 263). Himalaya to Taiwan and Sundaland. (Cultivation in lower montane forest).

Phyllodes staudingeri Semper (Parts 15 & 16, p. 263). Sundaland, Philippines, New Guinea. (Lowland and upper montane forest).

Phyllodes verhuelli Vollenhoven (Parts 15 & 16, p. 263). Sundaland, Philippines. (Lowland to upper montane).

 

Subfamily HYPOCALINAE (4 species)

Hypocala andamana Wileman (Parts 15 & 16, p. 168). Oriental tropics. Lowland to upper montane.

Hypocala deflorata Fabricius (Parts 15 & 16, p. 168). Old World tropics. (Upper montane).

Hypocala violacea Butler (Parts 15 & 16, p. 169). Indo-Australian tropics. Lowland to upper montane.

Hypocala subsatura Guenée (Parts 15 & 16, p. 170). Oriental tropics to Sundaland. Lowland to upper montane.

 

Subfamily HYPENODINAE (22 species)

Luceria opiliusalis Walker (Part 17, p. 218). Endemic. (Lowland).

Luceria oculalis Moore (Part 17, p. 218). Old World tropics. (Coastal vegetation and lowland forest).

Luceria albipupillata Holloway (Part 17, p. 219). Endemic. (Lowland forest).

Luceria bakeri Holloway (Part 17, p. 219). Philippines, Borneo. (Lower montane forest).

Schrankia obstructalis Walker (Part 17, p. 221). Endemic. (Lowland forest).

Schrankia bruntoni Holloway (Part 17, p. 221). Endemic. (Lowland forest).

Schrankia spiralaedeagus Holloway (Part 17, p. 222). Endemic. (Lowland forest).

Schrankia dusunorum Holloway (Part 17, p. 222). Endemic. (Lowland forest).

Tribe MICRONOCTUINI (10 species)

Subtribe POLLEXINA (8 species)

Tolpia conscitulana Walker (Fibiger, 2007: 23). Endemic. (?Lowland).

Tolpia crispus Fibiger (Fibiger, 2007: 24; Plate 6, Fig 131). Endemic. (Lowland to montane: 1530m).

Tolpia sarawakia Fibiger (Fibiger, 2007: 27; Plate 6, Fig 129). Endemic. (Lowland, to 1800ft).

Tolpia kuchingia Fibiger (Fibiger, 2007: 29). Endemic. (Lowland).

Tolpia mccabei Fibiger (Fibiger, 2007: 31). Endemic. (Lowland forest).

Disca hackeri Fibiger (Fibiger, 2007: 35). Endemic. (Lowland).

Pollex pouchi Fibiger (Fibiger, 2007: 78). Endemic. (Montane forest).

Pollex modus Fibiger (Fibiger, 2008: 106). Endemic. (Lowland).

Subtribe TACTUSINA (2 species)

Costasensora honeyi Fibiger (Fibiger, 2010: 53). Endemic. (Lower montane forest on limestone).

Asytegumen absurdus Fibiger (Fibiger, 2010: 76). Endemic. (Lowland forest).

Miscellaneous genera (4 species)

Feathalina caudata Holloway (Part 17, p. 223). Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia (B). (Lower montane forest).

Feathalina postreducta Holloway (Part 17, p. 224). Endemic. (Lowland).

Feathalina osseata Holloway (Part 17, p. 224). Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia (B). (Lowland forest).

Eucosmocara plumifera Swinhoe (Part 17, p. 225). Borneo, Sumatra, Sulawesi, Talaut, New Guinea, Australia. (No precise habitat data available).

 

Subfamily BOLETOBIINAE (312 species)

Tribe BOLETOBIINI (29 species)

Artigisa nigrosignata Walker (Parts 15 & 16, p. 375). Indian Subregion, Borneo. (?Lowland).

Drepanorhina shelfordi Swinhoe (Parts 15 & 16, p. 376). Endemic. Lowland.

Panilla homospila Hampson (Parts 15 & 16, p. 377). Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia (B). Lowland.

Panilla poliochroa Hampson (Parts 15 & 16, p. 378). Taiwan, Borneo, Philippines. (Lowland).

Panilla nigrinotata Hampson (Parts 15 & 16, p. 378). Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia, Philippines. (Lowland forest).

Panilla combusta Hampson (Parts 15 & 16, p. 378). N.E. Himalaya, Borneo, Sumatra. Lowland.

Panilla terminalis Hampson (Parts 15 & 16, p. 379). Sundaland. Lowland. Note 435. Note 435. Material of Panilla terminalis has been located from Sumatra (BMNH) and Peninsular Malaysia (FRIM colln).

Diomea lignicolora Walker (Parts 15 & 16, p. 380). Indian Subregion, Thailand, Sundaland, Sulawesi. Lowland forest.

Diomea eupsema Swinhoe (Parts 15 & 16, p. 381). Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia, Thailand. Lowland (to montane) forest.

Diomea nigrisuffusa Holloway (Parts 15 & 16, p. 381). Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia (B), Sulawesi. (Lower montane forest).

Diomea rotundata Walker (Parts 15 & 16, p. 381). Indian Subregion, Taiwan, Borneo, Sumatra, Philippines, Sumba. (Lowland).

Diomea dialitha Hampson (Parts 15 & 16, p. 382). Endemic. Lowland.

Diomea roydsi Holloway (Parts 15 & 16, p. 382). Endemic. (Lowland).

Diomea absorbens Walker (Parts 15 & 16, p. 383). Endemic. (Lowland).

Diomea orbifera Walker (Parts 15 & 16, p. 383). Sikkim, Borneo. (Lowland forest).

Diomea triangulata Holloway (Parts 15 & 16, p. 383). Endemic. (Lowland forest).

Diomea diffusifascia Swinhoe (Parts 15 & 16, p. 384). Borneo, ?Philippines. Lowland forest.

Diomea hirdi Holloway (Parts 15 & 16, p. 384). Borneo, Java, Thailand. Lowland forest.

Diomea tricuspida Hampson (Parts 15 & 16, p. 385). Endemic. (Lowland).

Diomea garroodi Holloway (Parts 15 & 16, p. 385). Borneo, Bali. (Lowland).

Caduca albopunctata Walker (Parts 15 & 16, p. 386). Indian Subregion, Taiwan, Sundaland. Lowland forest.

Caduca phronimus Rothschild (Parts 15 & 16, p. 386). Borneo, Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia (B), Thailand. (Lowland and lower montane forest).

Veia homopteroides Walker (Parts 15 & 16, p. 387). Thailand, Sundaland. Lowland.

Maguda suffusa Walker (Parts 15 & 16, p. 388). Borneo, Japan. (Lowland).

Maguda santubong Holloway (Parts 15 & 16, p. 388). Endemic. (Lowland forest).

Maguda danum Holloway (Parts 15 & 16, p. 389). Endemic. (Lowland forest).

Maguda telisai Holloway (Parts 15 & 16, p. 389). Endemic. (Lowland heath forest).

Maguda immundalis Walker (Parts 15 & 16, p. 389). Borneo, Philippines. (Lowland).

Maguda multifasciata Swinhoe (Parts 15 & 16, p. 390). Sri Lanka, Burma, Borneo. Lowland.

Tribe ARAEOPTERONINI (9 species)

Araeopteron griseata Hampson (Part 13, p. 77). Sri Lanka, ?Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia, Fiji. (Lowland).

Araeopteron leucoplaga Hampson (Part 13, p. 77). Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia. (Lowland).

Araeopteron canescens Walker (Part 13, p. 77). Australia, New Caledonia, Borneo. (Lowland).

Araeopteron goniophora Hampson (Part 13, p. 78). Sri Lanka, Borneo. (Lowland).

Araeopteron sp. (Part 13, p. 78). Endemic? (Montane area of habitation).

Acidaliodes strenualis Hampson (Part 13, p. 79). Endemic. (Lowland).

Hyriodes leucocraspis Hampson (Part 13, p. 79). Endemic. (Lowland).

Pseudcraspedia punctata Hampson comb. rev. (Part 13, p. 80, under Sigela Hulst). N.E. Himalaya, Vietnam, Borneo. (Lowland). Note 436. Note 436. Lafontaine & Schmidt (2010: 122) tentatively associated Sigela Hulst with the New World subfamily Scolecocampinae, rather than with the Araeopteronini, and revived Quandara Nye from synonymy with Sigela. The species punctata Hampson is the only Old World taxon that has been (unsatisfactorily) attributed to this complex, and may well be related to Araeopteron. It is the type species of Pseudcraspedia Hampson, and therefore that genus is revived for punctata pending further revision of the Araeopteronini, Gen. rev.

Niaccaba sumptualis Walker (Part 13, p. 81). Sri Lanka, Ryukyu Is., Borneo. (Lowland forest, including disturbed forest).

Tribe AVENTIINI (131 species)

Laspeyria ruficeps Walker (Part 13, p. 85). Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia. Lowland forest, including disturbed and secondary forest.

Laspeyria sparsa Walker (Part 13, p. 85). Endemic. (Lowland forest).

Laspeyria excisa Hampson (Part 13, p. 85). N.E. Himalaya, Sundaland, Philippines. (Montane forest).

Laspeyria viridicincta Hampson (Part 13, p. 86). India, Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia, Sulawesi. Lowland forest.

Laspeyria adusta Wileman & West (Part 13, p. 86). Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia, Philippines. (Lowland forest).

Nechesia albotentata Walker (Part 13, p. 87). Indo-Australian tropics to Queensland. Lowland (including plantation) forest to lower montane forest.

Cerynea omphisalis Walker (Part 13, p. 88). Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia, ?Sulawesi. (Lowland).

Cerynea melanocephala Wileman & West (Part 13, p. 89). Philippines, Borneo. Lowland forest and disturbed habitats.

Cerynea contentaria Walker (Part 13, p. 89). Endemic. (Lowland).

Cerynea punctilinealis Walker (Part 13, p. 90). Indo-Australian tropics to Solomons. Lowland forest and disturbed habitats.

Cerynea argentescens Hampson (Part 13, p. 91). Endemic. (Lowland).

Cerynea indecisa Walker (Part 13, p. 91). Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia, Sulawesi. (Lowland disturbed habitats and lower montane forest on limestone). 

Cerynea rubra Swinhoe (Part 13, p. 92). Sundaland. (Lowland, from forest to habitation).

Cerynea retakensis Holloway (Part 13, p. 92). Endemic. (Upper montane forest).

Cerynea sepiata Warren (Part 13, p. 92). Endemic. No precise habitat data.

Toanopsis engenes Prout (Part 13, p. 93). Endemic. Montane forest.

Toanopsis particolor Warren (Part 13, p. 93). Sundaland. (Montane).

Toanopsis ichingae Holloway (Part 13, p. 94). Endemic. (Montane forest).

Toanopsis cyclophora Holloway (Part 13, p. 94). Endemic. (Lower montane forest).

Toanopsis sp. 20696 (Part 13, p. 95). Endemic. (Lowland forest).

Toanopsis homala Prout (Part 13, p. 95). Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia. (Lowland) to lower montane forest.

Obana vagipennata Walker (Part 13, p. 96). Borneo, New Guinea, Queensland. (Lowland).

Oruza crocodetoides Holloway (Part 13, p. 99). Sundaland. (Disturbed lowland localities).

Oruza lacteicosta Hampson (Part 13, p. 99). Sri Lanka, Taiwan, Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia, Sulawesi. (Lowland forest, including plantation).

Oruzaatriapicata Hampson (Part 13, p. 99). Sundaland. (Lowland).

Zurobata rorata Walker (Part 13, p. 101). Indian Subregion, Sundaland. Lowland plantation forest.

Zurobata intractata Walker (Part 13, p. 101). N.E. Himalaya to New Guinea. Lowland forest and plantation.

Zurobata indefinita Warren (Part 13, p. 101). Sundaland. (Lowland forest, including secondary and plantation forest).

Zurobata fissifascia Hampson (Part 13, p. 102). Sri Lanka, Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia. Lowland forest.

Zurobata vacillans Walker (Part 13, p. 102). Oriental tropics and New Guinea. Lowland to montane forest and plantation forest.

Zurobata pallidigriseata Holloway (Part 13, p. 103). Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia. (Lowland forest, including secondary and plantation).

Zurobata obscurogriseata Holloway (Part 13, p. 104). Endemic. (Lowland forest).

Zurobatabiarmioides Walker (Part 13, p. 104). Endemic. (Lowland).

Cruxoruza decorata Swinhoe (Part 13, p. 105). N.E. Himalaya, Taiwan, Thailand, Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia. Lowland forest, including plantations.

Cruxoruza geometrica Holloway (Part 13, p. 105). Borneo, Thailand. Lowland forest.

Lophoruza vacillatrix Hampson (Part 13, p. 106). Indian Subregion, Sundaland. (Hill forest).

Lophoruza dasycara Prout (Part 13, p. 107). Endemic. Upper montane forest.

Lophoruza viridicara Holloway (Part 13, p. 107). Endemic. (Montane forest).

Ataboruza divisa Walker (Part 13, p. 108). Indo-Australian tropics to Australia and Bismarck Is. No precise habitat data.

Ataboruza stragulata Pagenstecher (Part 13, p. 109). Indo-Australian tropics to Australia and Solomons. Lowland secondary and plantation forest.

Ataboruza lauta Butler (Part 13, p. 110). Indo-Australian tropics to Japan and Solomons. Lowland forest.

Ataboruza brunei Holloway (Part 13, p. 110). Endemic. Lowland forest, including secondary forest.

Ataboruza discisigna Warren (Part 13, p. 111). Sri Lanka, Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia. Lowland forest.

Ataboruza unipuncta Warren (Part 13, p. 111). Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia, Sulawesi. (Hill and lower montane forest).

Eugnathia cithara Swinhoe (Part 13, p. 113). Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia. Lowland forest.

Eugnathia jugosa Swinhoe (Part 13, p. 113). India, Sundaland, Wallacea, Timor. No precise habitat data.

Eugnathia kuehi Holloway (Part 13, p. 114). Endemic. (Montane forest).

Eugnathia tamsi Roepke (Part 13, p. 114). Borneo, Sulawesi. (Disturbed lowland forest).

Eugnathia rosalba Holloway (Part 13, p. 115). Borneo, ?Philippines. (Lowland).

Eugnathia xenia Swinhoe (Part 13, p. 115). Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia. (Lowland forest).

Eugnathia lunifera Moore (Part 13, p. 116). Indian Subregion, Ryukyu Is., Java, Borneo, Sulawesi. (Lowland).

Eugnathia cheyi Holloway (Part 13, p. 116). Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia. (Secondary lowland forest).

Eugnathia pictipennis Hampson (Part 13, p. 117). S. India, Borneo, Sulawesi. (Lowland forest).

Eugnathia diagonalis Hampson (Part 13, p. 117). Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia. (Lowland).

Arasada pyraliformis Moore (Part 13, p. 118). Indian Subregion, Taiwan, Sundaland. Lowland to 1050m, including disturbed and cultivated habitats.

Arasada albicosta Hampson (Part 13, p. 120). N.E. Himalaya to Sundaland. (Lowland forest).

Arasada ornata Wileman (Part 13, p. 120). Japan, Borneo. (Montane).

Hyposada astona Swinhoe (Part 13, p. 121). Endemic. No precise habitat data.

Hyposada hydrocampata Guenée (Part 13, p. 121). Indo-Australian tropics to New Guinea and Queensland. Lowland, plantation forests and habitation.

Hyposada postalbata Holloway (Part 13, p. 122). Sundaland. Lowland forest.

Hyposada ineffectaria Walker (Part 13, p. 122). Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia. (Lowland).

Hyposada mollis Warren (Part 13, p. 123). Sundaland. (Lowland forest).

Hyposada serendipitatis Holloway (Part 13, p. 123). Sri Lanka, Borneo. (Lowland, disturbed areas).

Hyposada bipunctata Holloway (Part 13, p. 124). Endemic. (Lowland and hill forest at 600m).

Hyposada meyi Holloway (Part 13, p. 124). Endemic. (Montane forest).

Hyposada erubescens Warren (Part 13, p. 125). Endemic. (Lowland habitation).

Craspedosada longipalpis Swinhoe (Part 13, p. 126). Sundaland. No precise habitat data.

Corgatha zonalis Walker (Part 13, p. 127). Oriental tropics to Borneo and Philippines. Lowland disturbed areas, some with forest.

Corgatha castanearubra Holloway (Part 13, p. 128). Endemic. (Montane forest).

Corgatha atripuncta Warren (Part 13, p. 128). Endemic. (Lowland disturbed areas).

Corgatha griseicosta Holloway (Part 13, p. 128). Endemic. (Montane forest).

Corgatha albilunata Holloway (Part 13, p. 129). Endemic. (Montane forest).

Corgatha brumasa Holloway (Part 13, p. 129). Endemic. (Lowland softwood plantation).

Corgatha faircloughi Holloway (Part 13, p. 129). Endemic. (Lowland disturbed and secondary forest).

Corgatha sp. 20260 (Part 13, p. 130). Endemic. (Lowland forest).

Corgatha marshallae Holloway (Part 13, p. 130). Endemic. (Disturbed, regenerating alluvial forest).

Corgatha classeyi Holloway (Part 13, p. 130). Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia. (Disturbed lowland forest and secondary growth).

Corgatha flavipuncta Hampson (Part 13, p. 131). Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia. Lowland softwood plantation and secondary forest.

Corgatha implexata Walker (Part 13, p. 131). Sundaland. Lowland forest, including softwood plantations, and more common in forest in limestone.

Corgatha niveicosta Hampson (Part 13, p. 132). Sundaland. Lower montane forest.

Corgatha leucosticta Hampson (Part 13, p. 132). Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia. Lowland forest and softwood plantations.

Corgatha semipardata Walker (Part 13, p. 132). Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia. Lowland to lower montane forest.

Corgatha nigripalpis Walker (Part 13, p. 133). Sri Lanka, Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia, Sulawesi. Disturbed lowland forest, including softwood plantations.

Corgatha tornalis Wileman (Part 13, p. 134). Taiwan, Borneo. (Lowland forest).

Corgatha rubecula Warren (Part 13, p. 134). Endemic. (Montane).

Corgatha pseudominor Holloway (Part 13, p. 134). Endemic. Disturbed lowland forest and softwood plantations.

Corgatha quadricostaria Walker (Part 13, p. 135). Endemic. (Lowland forest).

Corgatha sp. 20741 (Part 13, p. 135). Endemic. (Lowland forest).

Corgatha luteicosta Holloway (Part 13, p. 135). Endemic. (Montane forest and scrub, mostly on limestone).

Corgatha albicinctalis Walker (Part 13, p. 136). Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia. Lowland forest with disturbance.

Corgatha viridicinctalis Holloway (Part 13, p. 137). Endemic. (Lowland softwood plantation).

Corgatha atrimargo Hampson (Part 13, p. 137). Borneo, Philippines. (Disturbed lowland forest, including heath and coastal forest).          

Corgatha oligochroa Prout (Part 13, p. 137). Endemic. Upper montane forest.

Corgatha obliquidisca Holloway (Part 13, p. 138). Endemic. (Montane forest).

Corgatha luteifascia Holloway (Part 13, p. 138). Sundaland. (Lower montane forest on limestone).

Corgatha sp. or spp. (Part 13, p. 139).

Corgatha vermilionis Holloway (Part 13, p. 139). Endemic. (Dry heath forest on sand and montane scrub on limestone karst).

Enispa eosarialis Walker (Part 13, p. 141). Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia. Forest, including secondary forest, up to 1500m.

Enispa rosellus Hampson (Part 13, p. 141). Sri Lanka, Taiwan, Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia. Lowland forest.

Enispa elataria Walker (Part 13, p. 141). Sri Lanka, Taiwan, Sundaland. Lowland (including logged) forest.

Enispa albinellus Hampson (Part 13, p. 142). Sri Lanka, Borneo, New Guinea, Solomons. (Lowland).

Enispodes purpurea Hampson (Part 13, p. 142). Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia. Disturbed or secondary lowland forest.

Epigrypera eriogona Hampson (Part 13, p. 143). Endemic. Lowland forest, including disturbed areas and softwood plantations.

Metaemene circumpunctata Holloway (Part 13, p. 145). Endemic. Upper montane forest.

Metaemene albigrisea Holloway (Part 13, p. 145). Endemic. (Lower montane forest).

Metaemene obscurogrisea Holloway (Part 13, p. 146). Endemic. (Montane forest).

Metaemene mediopunctata Holloway (Part 13, p. 146). Endemic. (Disturbed lowland and lower montane forest).

Metaemene atrigutta Walker (Part 13, p. 146). Japan, China, Taiwan, Nicobars, Sundaland east to New Guinea. Lowland, ?coastal.

Metaemene niasica Pagenstecher (Part 13, p. 148). Sundaland. Lowland forest, often with disturbance.

Metaemene santubong Holloway (Part 13, p. 149). Endemic. Lowland (?heath) forest.

Metaemene satellita Holloway (Part 13, p. 149). Endemic. Lowland forest.

Metaemene collina Holloway (Part 13, p. 150). Endemic. Lowland to lower montane forest.

Metaemene robusta Holloway (Part 13, p. 150). Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia. Lowland forest.

Metaemene melinau Holloway (Part 13, p. 151). Endemic. (Lowland wet heath forest).

Metaemene sp. 20330 (Part 13, p. 151). Endemic. (Lowland alluvial forest).

Metaemene sp. 21102 (Part 13, p. 151). Endemic. No precise habitat data.

Decticryptis producta Holloway (Part 13, p. 153). Borneo, Bali, Sumatra, Moluccas, New Guinea, ?Australia. (Lowland, ?coastal).

Decticryptis pulchra Holloway (Part 13, p. 153). Endemic. (Disturbed lowland forest).

Aroana rubra Bethune Baker (Part 13, p. 153). Indo-Australian tropics to Australia and Solomons. Lowland to montane forest.

Aroana baliensis Hampson (Part 13, p. 155). Taiwan and S. Japan, Sundaland, Sumbawa, Sulawesi. Lowland forest.

Aroana smarti Holloway (Part 13, p. 156). Endemic. (Montane forest).

Prolophota trigonifera Hampson (Part 13, p. 157). Oriental tropics to Sundaland. Lowland forest.

Prolophota mjobergi Prout (Part 13, p. 157). Endemic. (Lowland forest).

Hypenagonia vexataria Walker (Part 17, p. 209). Endemic. Lowland forest.

Hypenagonia longipalpis Hampson (Part 17, p. 209). Indian Subregion, Borneo. (Lowland plantation).

Hypenagonia brachypalpia Hampson (Part 17, p. 210). Sri Lanka, ?Peninsular Malaysia, Borneo. (Disturbed lowland forest).

Hypenagonia dohertyi Holloway (Part 17, p. 210). Endemic. (Lowland).

Hypenagonia hefferi Holloway (Part 17, p. 210). Endemic. (Montane forest and scrub on limestone).

Hypenagonia henseli Holloway (Part 17, p. 211). Endemic. (Upper montane forest).

Hypenagonia pallifurca Holloway (Part 17, p. 211). Endemic. (Upper montane forest).

Hypertrocta posticalis Walker (Part 13, p. 158). Indian Subregion, Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia. (Lowland forest).

Saroba generic group (79 species)

Attonda adspersa Felder & Rogenhofer (Parts 15 & 16, p. 338). Sundaland, Sulawesi, New Guinea, Solomons. Lowland (to lower montane) forest.

Singara diversalis Walker (Parts 15 & 16, p. 339). N.E. Himalaya, S. China, Thailand, Borneo, Sumatra. (Montane).

Sarobides inconclusa Walker (Parts 15 & 16, p. 340). N.E. Himalaya to Solomons. Lowland (to lower montane) forest.

Saroba pustulifera Walker (Parts 15 & 16, p. 340). Indian Subregion to S. China and Sundaland, Sulawesi. (Lowland).

“Saroba” pansa Swinhoe (Parts 15 & 16, p. 341). Sundaland. (Lowland to montane).

“Saroba” flavipicta Hampson (Parts 15 & 16, p. 341). Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia (B), Sumatra. (Lowland).

“Saroba” maculicosta Walker (Parts 15 & 16, p. 341). Indo-Australian tropics to Bismarcks. Lowland to upper montane.

“Saroba” ceylonica Walker (Parts 15 & 16, p. 342). Indian Subregion to Sundaland. (Lowland to montane forest).

“Saroba” pilosa Holloway (Parts 15 & 16, p. 342). Endemic. Upper montane forest.

“Saroba” ochreisparsa Hampson (Parts 15 & 16, p. 343). N.E. Himalaya, Burma, Peninsular Malaysia (B), Borneo. (Lowland).

“Saroba” antecedens Walker (Parts 15 & 16, p. 343). Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia (B), Sumatra, Thailand, N.E. Himalaya. (Lowland forest).

Trichoblemma badia Swinhoe (Parts 15 & 16, p. 344). Sundaland. (Lowland forest).

Condate pseudohypenoides Holloway (Parts 15 & 16, p. 345). Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia. (Lowland forest).

Condate orsilla Swinhoe (Parts 15 & 16, p. 346). Sundaland, Philippines. (Lowland to lower montane).

Condate rectiorsilla Holloway (Parts 15 & 16, p. 346). Endemic. Lowland to lower montane forest on limestone, (upper montane).

Condate nabalua Holloway (Parts 15 & 16, p. 347). Endemic. (Lower and upper montane forest).

Condate angulina Guenée (Parts 15 & 16, p. 347). Oriental tropics to Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia. (Lowland).

Condate purpureorufa Hampson (new record, Plate 6, Fig 123). Sri Lanka, Taiwan, Peninsular Malaysia, Borneo, Sulawesi. (Lowland). Note 437. Note 437. Condate purpureorufa Hampson (Plate 6, Fig 123)
Raparna purpureorufa Hampson, 1907, J. Bombay nat. Hist. Soc. 17: 666.
Diagnosis. This species has facies and features of the male abdomen similar to those of C. angulina Guenée, but is a smaller species with a more reddish violet‑brown general wing colour. The forewing postmedial is weaker than in angulina but similarly angled. The line on the costal side of the angle is thicker than that on the dorsal side, but the reverse holds in angulina or it is of even width. The hindwing pale fascia is diagnostically double. In the male genitalia the saccular process of the valve is longer and more slender than in angulina, apically bifid.
Geographical range. Sri Lanka, Taiwan, Peninsular Malaysia, Borneo, Sulawesi.
Habitat preference. Only three specimens from Borneo have been seen: one from 300m in lowland forest of the Ulu Temburong of Brunei; two (in FRC, Sepilok) from softwood plantations (Gmelina, Paraserianthes) near Brumas in the lowlands of Sabah.

Mesasteria sanguilinea Hampson (Parts 15 & 16, p. 348). Endemic. (Lowland).

Tiruvaca subcostalis Walker (Parts 15 & 16, p. 348). Sundaland to Solomons. Lowland forest and cultivated areas.

Tiruvaca hollowayi Kobes (Parts 15 & 16, p. 349). Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia (B), Sumatra. (Lowland to montane forests).

Lopharthrum comprimens Walker (Parts 15 & 16, p. 350). Indo-Australian tropics to Solomons. (Lowland and lower montane).

Tropidtamba lepraota Hampson (Parts 15 & 16, p. 350). Indo-Australian tropics to Solomons and Australia. Lowland habitats from forest to cultivation.

Tamba submicacea Walker (Parts 15 & 16, p. 352). India, Thailand, Borneo, Sumatra. (Lowland forest).

Tamba ochra Prout (Parts 15 & 16, p. 352). Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia, Thailand. Lowland forest.

Tamba euryodia Prout (Parts 15 & 16, p. 352). Sundaland, Thailand. (Lowland forest).

Tamba hemiionia Hampson (Parts 15 & 16, p. 352). Sundaland. (Lowland).

Tamba sidonalis Swinhoe (Parts 15 & 16, p. 353). Sundaland, Thailand. (Lowland).

Tamba nigrilinea Walker (Parts 15 & 16, p. 353). Indian Subregion, Andamans, Peninsular Malaysia (B), Borneo, Sumatra. (Lowland forest).

Tamba capatra Swinhoe (Parts 15 & 16, p. 354). Sundaland. (Lowland forest).

Tamba sobana Kobes (Parts 15 & 16, p. 354). Borneo, Sumatra. (Lowland).

Tamba bartelsi Kobes (Parts 15 & 16, p. 354). Borneo, Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia (B), Thailand. (Lowland forest).

Tamba walshae Holloway (Parts 15 & 16, p. 355). Endemic. (Lowland forest).

Tamba delicata Prout (Parts 15 & 16, p. 355). Sundaland. (Lowland forest).

Tamba basiscripta Walker (Parts 15 & 16, p. 356). Sundaland, Philippines. Lowland forest.

Tamba coeruleobasis Kobes (Parts 15 & 16, p. 356). Sundaland. (Lowland forest).

Tamba cosmoloma Prout (Parts 15 & 16, p. 356). Sundaland, Thailand, Sulawesi. Lowland and disturbed forest.

Tamba mnionomera Hampson (Parts 15 & 16, p. 357). Sundaland, Thailand. Lowland.

Tamba lala Swinhoe (Parts 15 & 16, p. 357). Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia. Lowland forest.

Tamba lahera Swinhoe (Parts 15 & 16, p. 357). Sundaland, Andamans, Thailand, Sulawesi. Lowland to montane forest.

Tamba magniplaga Swinhoe (Parts 15 & 16, p. 358). Sundaland, Wallacea to Solomons. Lowland forest.

Tamba pallidiplaga Swinhoe (Parts 15 & 16, p. 358). Sundaland, Thailand. (Lowland forest).

Tamba cautiperas Hampson (Parts 15 & 16, p. 358). Sri Lanka, Hainan, Sundaland, Sulawesi. Lowland forest, some disturbed.

Tamba diaphora Prout (Parts 15 & 16, p. 359). Vietnam, Thailand, Borneo, Sumatra, Seram. (Lowland forest).

Tamba andrica Prout (Parts 15 & 16, p. 359). Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia. (Lowland forest).

Tamba ionomera Hampson (Parts 15 & 16, p. 359). Sundaland, Philippines (Lowland forest).

Tamba carneotincta Hampson (Parts 15 & 16, p. 359). Sundaland. (Lowland heath forest).

Tamba rufipennis Hampson (Parts 15 & 16, p. 360). Bhutan, Peninsular Malaysia (B), Borneo. (Lowland forest).

Tamba occidinawa Holloway (Parts 15 & 16, p. 360). Borneo, Sumatra, Sulawesi, Thailand. Lowland forest.

Tamba apicata Hampson (Parts 15 & 16, p. 361). N.E. Himalaya, Taiwan, Thailand, Peninsular Malaysia (B), Borneo. (Lower montane forest).

Tamba pallidisjuncta sp. n. (p. 390, Plate 7, Fig 120). Sundaland. (Lowland plantation). Note 438. Note 438. Tamba pallidisjuncta sp. n. (Plate 7, Fig 120)
G 15mm. The moth is a slightly variegated blackish brown. The forewings have the central zone slightly paler (though crossed medially by a darker shade), bounded by a pale antemedial fascia basally and a broken pale fascia distally, formed by an oblique section of the postmedial from the costa at two‑thirds and a section of the submarginal running from the tornus approximately at right‑angles to the dorsal margin. The antemedial has a trapezoid black block basad on the costa. The genitalia are typical of the genus but with unusually long, slender distal processes to the valves, the outer one sinuous, reaching the apex of the cucullus, but the inner one, obtusely angled centrally, extending to level with the flexure of the uncus; the uncus is strongly excavated dorsally over its distal half, much as in andrica Prout. Only magniplaga Swinhoe has slender valve processes approaching those of the new species, but these are very much shorter.
Holotype G. SABAH: Brumas, G. arborea, 12.vii.1991 (Chey Vun Khen), BM noctuid slide 19547.
Geographical range. Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia (Barlow colln).
Habitat preference. The only Bornean specimen is from a softwood plantation with Gmelina in the lowlands (about 200m) of Sabah. The one from Peninsular Malaysia is from 600m on slopes with forest fragments amid extensive cultivation.

Tamba kaingaran sp. n. (p. 390, Plate 7). Endemic. (Secondary hill forest). Note 439. Note 439. Tamba kaingaran sp. n. (Plate 7)
E 16mm. The general grey-brown coloration and the submarginal costal grey patch on the forewing are similar to those of rufipennis Hampson and hieroglyphica Hampson (Sundaland (ssp. malayana Prout) to Solomons, but not yet recorded from Borneo) but is distinguished from these and other Tamba by the regular sequence of fasciation on all the wings, including the linear nature of the pale hindwing submarginal. The forewing has curved, pale, thin, linear subbasal and antemedial fasciae, followed by a sequence of four darker, grey‑brown, more diffuse and irregular fasciae in the medial area, and the pale, linear angled postmedial. These dark medial and pale postmedial fasciae recur on the hindwing. The abdomen has a pale brown stripe dorsally, flanked by darker ones.
Holotype E. SABAH: Tambunan, Kaingaran, 30 Mar. 2008 (Dr Chey V.K. & Richard L.A.), in FRC, Sepilok.
Geographical range. Borneo.
Habitat preference. The only specimen was taken in secondary forest at 720m.

Tamba transversa sp. n. (p.391, Plate 7, Fig 119). Endemic. Lowland forest. Note 440. Note 440. Tamba transversa sp. n. (Plate 7, Fig 119)
GG 9-10mm. This is one of the smaller species in the genus and has an unusually transverse arrangement of fasciation on the forewing, including the forewing postmedial (usually strongly angled). The ground colour of the wings is a faintly creamy white, shaded and fasciated a slightly violet brownish grey as illustrated. This shade is deeper distal to the straight postmedials which are of ground colour with a very dark component distad. The forewing postmedial has a central fracture. There are much fainter, curved antemedial and subbasal pale fasciae on the forewing, a diffusely darker medial one between the dark dot of the orbicular and the paler (with dark edges), slightly sigmoid reniform bar. The marginal areas of the wings are crossed by a pair of irregular, pale submarginal fasciae. The male genitalia are typical of the genus, the valves with the inner, costal process broad and the central to outer one small, resembling pallidiplaga Swinhoe and bartelsi Kobes in particular, but with the inner process relatively shorter, broader, outturned, and without the bilateral asymmetry seen in bartelsi. The facies is totally different from both these species.
Holotype G. MALAYSIA: Sabah, Danum Valley, 170m, 4°58' N 117°48' E (S.J. Willott), 1° understorey, Obs. Platform., DVFC, 29.viii.93, BM noctuid slide 19978.
Paratypes: 1G as holotype but understorey 1U, 30.i.94; 1G as holotype but 1° understorey ER, East Ridge, DVFC, 19.vii.94; 2GG INDONESIA: Borneo, Kalimantan Tengah, Barito Ulu 2001, at Busang / Rekut River Junction, 0°38' S, 113°59' E, viii.2001 (G. Martin).
Geographical range. Borneo.
Habitat preference. All material is from lowland dipterocarp forest. The holotype and two paratypes are vouchers for six specimens taken in the primary forest understorey; none was taken in canopy or logged forest samples (S.J. Willott, unpublished data).

“Tamba” dichroma Prout (Parts 15 & 16, p. 361). Sundaland, Thailand. Lowland forest.

Tipasa nebulosella Walker (Parts 15 & 16, p. 362). Sri Lanka, Borneo. (Lowland).

Tipasa renalis Moore (Parts 15 & 16, p. 362). Sri Lanka, Taiwan, Borneo. (Lowland forest).

“Tipasa” eubapta Hampson (Parts 15 & 16, p. 362). Endemic. (Lowland forest).

“Tipasa” obliquiflava Holloway (Parts 15 & 16, p. 363). Borneo, Thailand. (Disturbed lowland forest).

“Tipasa” ferripunctum Walker (Parts 15 & 16, p. 363). Endemic. (Lowland forest).

Parolulis olivescoides Holloway (Parts 15 & 16, p. 364). Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia (B). Lowland.

Parolulis grisescens Holloway (Parts 15 & 16, p. 365). Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia (B). (Lowland).

Parolulis absimilis Hampson (Parts 15 & 16, p. 365). N.E. Himalaya, Peninsular Malaysia (B), Borneo. Lower montane forest.

Parolulis murudensis Prout (Parts 15 & 16, p. 366). Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia (B). (Upper montane forest).

Olulis puncticinctalis Walker (Parts 15 & 16, p. 366). Sri Lanka, Taiwan, Andamans, Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia. (Lowland).

“Olulis” megalopis Hampson (Parts 15 & 16, p. 367). Thailand, Sundaland. (Lowland forest).

“Olulis” subrosea Turner (Parts 15 & 16, p. 367). Borneo, Sulawesi, Seram, Queensland. (Disturbed lowland swamp forest).

“Olulis” iuga Swinhoe (Parts 15 & 16, p. 367). Endemic. Lowland.

“Olulis” sarconia Hampson (Parts 15 & 16, p. 368). Endemic. (Lowland forest).

Metaphoenia plagifera Walker (Parts 15 & 16, p. 368). Endemic. Lowland forest.

Metaphoenia scobinata Holloway (Parts 15 & 16, p. 369). Endemic. (Lowland).

Metaphoenia carneipennis Prout (Parts 15 & 16, p. 369). Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia. Lowland to lower montane forest.

Metaphoenia sp. (Parts 15 & 16, p. 370). Endemic. (Lowland).

Metaphoenia rectifascia Holloway (Parts 15 & 16, p. 370). Endemic. (Lowland and lower montane forest).

Dunira scitula Walker (Parts 15 & 16, p. 371). Sri Lanka, Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia. Lowland and lower montane forest.

Dunira obliquilinea Hampson (Parts 15 & 16, p. 371). Sundaland, Andamans. Lowland forest.

Dunira calcarea Holloway (Parts 15 & 16, p. 372). Endemic. (Lowland forest on limestone).

Dunira lunapex Holloway (Parts 15 & 16, p. 372). Singapore, Borneo. (Lowland).

Dunira maculapex Hampson (new record, p. 391; Plate 6, Fig 122). Sri Lanka, Borneo. (Lowland forest). Note 441. Note 441. Dunira maculapex Hampson (Plate 7, Fig 122)
Capnodes maculapex Hampson, 1893, Illustr. typical Specimens Lepid. Het.
Colln. Br. Mus
., 9: 28, 116.
Diagnosis. The facies is typical of the Eclipsea Hampson section of Dunira Moore, and was compared with that of lunapex Holloway in Parts 15 & 16. The species is smaller, with a straighter, more oblique and distinctly pale basal boundary to the dark apical patch of the forewing.
Taxonomic note. The male genitalia are as in those of typical maculapex except for the ornamentation of the aedeagus vesica. In typical maculapex the basal cornutus is conical, robust, straight. In the Bornean male (slide 19546) it is longer, curved, of even width, and somewhat bifid apically.
Geographical range. Sri Lanka, Borneo.
Habitat preference. The only specimen seen is a male from the understorey of lowland dipterocarp forest at 170m on the West Trail near the Danum Valley Field Centre in Sabah.

“Dunira” rubripunctalis Walker (Parts 15 & 16, p. 372). Sri Lanka, Sundaland, New Guinea, Queensland. (Lowland forest).

Miscellaneous genera (8 species)

Homodes crocea Guenée (Parts 15 & 16, p. 273). Indo-Australian tropics to Bismarck Is. (Lowland, including mangrove, to montane). Note 442. Note 442. Addition of Homodes crocea Guenée to the sample of Erebidae for molecular analysis being studied by Zahiri et al. (in preparation) showed this to be placed clearly within the boletobiine clade of Zahiri et al. (2011), though with no strong association within the clade. Homodes Guenée is therefore transferred from the third miscellaneous sequence of Parts 15 & 16 into the miscellaneous sequence listed at the end of the Saroba group of genera pending further investigation of affinities within the boletobiine clade. The male genitalia have valves that show some similarity in structure to those of Corgatha Walker.

Homodes vivida Guenée (Parts 15 & 16, p. 273). Indian Subregion to Borneo and Sulawesi. (Hill forest).

Homodes lassula Prout (Parts 15 & 16, p. 274). Borneo, Sumatra. (Lowland forest).

Homodes muluensis Holloway (Parts 15 & 16, p. 274). Endemic. (Lowland to lower montane forest).

Homodes perilitha Hampson (Parts 15 & 16, p. 274). S. India, Peninsular Malaysia (B), Borneo, Philippines, ?S. Moluccas. (Lowland (including disturbed) forest).

Homodes bracteigutta Walker (Parts 15 & 16, p. 274). Indo-Australian tropics to New Guinea and N. Australia. (Lowland).

Selenoperas caustiplaga Hampson (Parts 15 & 16, p. 445). Himalaya, Thailand, Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia, Sulawesi. Lowland (and montane) forest.

Acygnatha atrapex Hampson (Part 13, p. 197). N.E. Himalaya, Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia. (Lowland heath and secondary forest).

Tribe EUBLEMMINI (54 species)

Eublemma commoda Walker (Part 13, p. 161). Indo‑Australian tropics east to Solomons. Lowland (including plantation) and lower montane forest.

Eublemma pollocki Holloway (Part 13, p. 163). Borneo, Sulawesi. (Lowland forest).

Eublemma semirufa Hampson (Part 13, p. 163). N.E. Himalaya, Sundaland, Sulawesi. (Lowland secondary forest).

Eublemma abrupta Walker (Part 13, p. 165). Indo‑Australian tropics to New Guinea and Queensland. Lowland (and montane) forest, including with disturbance.

Eublemma versicolor Walker (Part 13, p. 166). Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia, Wallacea. (Lowland).

Eublemma indigofera Holloway (Part 13, p. 168). Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia. Lowland (including secondary) forest.

Eublemma perversicolor Holloway (Part 13, p. 168). Taiwan, Sundaland to New Guinea and Queensland. (Hill dipterocarp forest and lowland agriculture).

Eublemma latistriga Warren (Part 13, p. 169). N.E. Himalaya, Sundaland. Lowland to lower montane forest.

Eublemma quadripunctata Warren (Part 13, p. 169). N.E. Himalaya, Sundaland, Sulawesi, New Guinea. Lowland (to montane) forest, including softwood plantations.

Eublemma richardi Holloway (Part 13, p. 169). Endemic. (Upper montane forest).

Eublemma galactea Hampson (Part 13, p. 170). Peninsular Malaysia, Borneo, Sangihe, Sulawesi, New Guinea. (Lowland).

Eublemma crassiuscula Walker (Part 13, p. 170). Indo‑Australian tropics to Australia and Fiji. Lowland to lower montane forest, including plantations and secondary forest.

Eublemma robinsoni Holloway (Part 13, p. 171). Endemic. Lowland forest.

Eublemma radda Swinhoe (Part 13, p. 171). Thailand, Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia. (Lowland forest with disturbance).

Eublemma longiplaga Warren (Part 13, p. 172). Endemic. (Lowland forest).

Eublemma bosara Holloway (Part 13, p. 172). Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia. (Lowland forest).

Eublemma rhodocraspis Druce (Part 13, p. 172). Endemic. Lowland (including secondary) forest.

Eublemma roseonivea Walker (Part 13, p. 173). Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia. (Lowland forest).

Eublemma roseonivoides Holloway (Part 13, p. 173). Endemic. Lowland forest.

Eublemma barlowi Holloway (Part 13, p. 174). Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia. (Lowland forest).

Eublemma carneola Hampson (Part 13, p. 175). Sundaland. (Lowland).

Eublemma betarosea Holloway (Part 13, p. 175). Endemic. (Lower montane forest).

Eublemma plagirosea Holloway (Part 13, p. 175). Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia. (Lowland).

Eublemma rosibrunnea Holloway (Part 13, p. 175). Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia. Lowland forest, including coastal forest and plantation.

Eublemma rosearcuata Holloway (Part 13, p. 176). Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia. (Lowland forest).

Eublemma willotti Holloway (Part 13, p. 176). Endemic. (Lowland forest).

Eublemma martini Holloway (Part 13, p. 177). Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia. (Lowland forest).

Eublemma ellipsifera Holloway (Part 13, p. 177). Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia. (Lowland forest).

Eublemma trifasciata Moore (Part 13, p. 178). India, Borneo. (Disturbed lowland forest).

Eublemma marmorata Wileman & West (Part 13, p. 178). Borneo, Philippines. (Lowland).

Eublemma ragusana Freyer (Part 13, p. 178). Old World tropics east to Queensland and Fiji. (Disturbed lowland forest).

Eublemma roseana Moore (Part 13, p. 179). India, Borneo, New Guinea, Bismarcks, Queensland. (Disturbed coastal vegetation).

Eublemma cochylioides Guenée (Part 13, p. 179). Old World tropics and subtropics east to Tonga and New Caledonia. (Coastal and riverine forest).

Eublemma pudica Snellen (Part 13, p. 180). Indo‑Australian tropics to Queensland and Samoa. (Disturbed lowland forest and habitation).           

Eublemma dimidialis Fabricius (Part 13, p. 180). Indo‑Australian tropics to Japan, New Guinea and Australia. Disturbed lowland forest).

Eublemma accedens Felder & Rogenhofer (Part 13, p. 181). E. Africa, Arabian Peninsula, Indo‑Australian tropics to Australia, Fiji and New Caledonia. (Coastal and secondary vegetation).

Eublemma truncatalis Walker (Part 13, p. 181). Endemic. No precise habitat data.

Eublemma rubricilia Hampson (Part 13, p. 182). Himalaya, Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia. Lowland softwood plantation?

Eublemma trusmadi Holloway (Part 13, p. 182). Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia. (Disturbed and forested lowland localities).

Eublemma barito Holloway (Part 13, p. 183). Sundaland. (Lowland forest).

Eublemma rufiplaga Hampson (Part 13, p. 183). Borneo, Java. (Lowland, ?heath forest).

Eublemma caretifera Holloway (Part 13, p. 184). Endemic. (Dry lowland heath forest).

Eublemma faircloughi Holloway (Part 13, p. 184). Endemic. (Lowland plantation and hill forest).

Eublemma bacchusi Holloway (Part 13, p. 184). Endemic. (Lowland plantation and hill forest).

Eublemma vestina Swinhoe (Part 13, p. 185). Endemic. (Lowland areas of habitation).

Eublemma ignefusa Hampson (Part 13, p. 185). Sundaland. (Disturbed lowland forest).

Eublemmacastanea Hampson (Part 13, p. 186). Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia. Lowland forest, including softwood plantations, and also disturbed coastal vegetation.

Eublemmabrunea Hampson (Part 13, p. 186). Indian Subregion, Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia. (Lowland to upper montane forest, mostly on limestone).

Mesocopsis posticata Walker (Part 13, p. 188). Endemic. (Lowland).

Mataeomerarenalis Hampson (Part 13, p. 189). Endemic. (Lowland).

Mataeomeraapiensis Holloway (Part 13, p. 190). Endemic. (Montane forest and scrub on limestone).

Mataeomeraoxoniorum Holloway (Part 13, p. 190). Endemic. (Lowland forest).

Mataeomeradigitata Holloway (Part 13, p. 190). Endemic. (Lowland forest?).

Mataeomeraobesicosta Holloway (Part 13, p. 191). Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia. (Lowland forest).

Tribe PHYTOMETRINI (2 species)

Daona mansueta Walker (Part 17, p. 16). Indian Subregion, Burma, Borneo, Seram, New Guinea, Australia. Lowland forest.

Raparna auropurpurea Pagenstecher (Parts 15 & 16, p. 424) Borneo, Nias. (?Lowland open and disturbed habitats).

 

Subfamily ANOBINAE (12 species)

Bessacta pectinata Hampson comb. n. (Parts 15 & 16, p. 276). Oriental tropics to Sundaland. Lowland forest. Note 443. Note 443. The two species placed in Anoba in Parts 15 & 16, pectinata Hampson and rigida Swinhoe, were stated to belong to the Bessacta Warren group of species. Therefore Bessacta is revived, Gen. rev., and the two species combined with it, combs. n. The genus is defined on forewing facies and presence of a long, rod-like dorsal process to the uncus of the male genitalia as discussed in Parts 15 & 16.

Bessacta rigida Swinhoe comb. n. (Parts 15 & 16, p. 277, under Anoba). Sundaland. Lowlands, both in forested and open habitats. Note 443. Note 443. Erygia apicalis was paired with Erebus ephesperis in the analyses of Zahiri et al. (2011, in preparation), but this pairing was not strongly supported. Nevertheless, it represents a hypothesis of relationship, therefore the genus is transferred to Erebini from the first miscellaneous sequence of Parts 15 & 16. Genital morphology and facies features do not appear to offer further synapomorphies. See also the note following.

Anoba” kerangatis Holloway (Parts 15 & 16, p. 277, under Anoba). Endemic. (Wet lowland heath forest).

Tephriopis divulsa Walker (Parts 15 & 16, p. 278). Indian Subregion to Andamans, Peninsular Malaysia (B), Borneo, Sulawesi. Lowland (including disturbed coastal) forest.

Crithote horridipes Walker (Parts 15 & 16, p. 279). Sundaland, ?Vietnam. Lowland (to lower montane) forest.

Crithote pallivaga Holloway (Parts 15 & 16, p. 280). N.E. Himalaya, S. China, Thailand, Borneo, Sumatra. (Lowland and lower montane forest).

Crithote pannicula Swinhoe (Parts 15 & 16, p. 280). Borneo, Philippines. (Lowland, ?coastal).

Plecoptera nebulilinea Walker (Parts 15 & 16, p. 282). Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia. Lowland (including disturbed) forest.

Plecoptera quaesita Swinhoe (Parts 15 & 16, p. 282). Indian Subregion, Burma, Andamans, Borneo, N. Moluccas, Australia. No precise habitat data.

Plecoptera violacea Pagenstecher (Parts 15 & 16, p. 282). Sundaland to New Caledonia and Fiji. (Coastal habitats).

Plecoptera recta Pagenstecher (Parts 15 & 16, p. 283). S. India, Thailand, Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia, Seram. Lowland to upper montane.

Rema costimacula Guenée (Parts 15 & 16, p. 393). N.E. Himalaya, Thailand, Sundaland, Sulawesi. Lowland forest.

 

Subfamily TINOLIINAE (5 species)

Calesia transvestita Holloway (Parts 15 & 16, p. 124). Endemic. (Lowland plantation).

Tinolius sundensis Hampson (Parts 15 & 16, p. 125). Lesser Sundas, Pulo Laut, Sulawesi. (Lowland).

Tamsia hieroglyphica Swinhoe (Parts 15 & 16, p. 394; pp. 393, 399). N.E. Himalaya, Sundaland, Sulawesi. Lowland forest.

Poeta quadrinotata Walker (Parts 15 & 16, p. 425; pp. 393, 399). Sundaland. Lowland to upper montane.

Poeta denotalis Walker (Parts 15 & 16, p. 426). Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia, ?S. Burma. (Lowland).

 

Subfamily EREBINAE (195 species)

Tribe ACANTHOLIPINI (16 species)

Ugia disjungens Walker (Parts 15 & 16, p. 184). Endemic. Lowland forest.

Ugia signifera Walker (Parts 15 & 16, p. 184). Sundaland. Lowland forest, disturbed areas and coastal habitats.

Ugia sundana Hampson (Parts 15 & 16, p. 185). Thailand, Sundaland. Lowland forest.

Ugia eugrapha Swinhoe (Parts 15 & 16, p. 185). Thailand, Sundaland. (Lowland (and lower montane) forest).

Ugia viridior Holloway (Parts 15 & 16, p. 186). Sundaland. Lowland forest.

“Ugia” serrilinea Hampson (Parts 15 & 16, p. 186). Thailand, Sundaland, Sulawesi. Lowland forest.

Heterospila fulgurea Guenée (Parts 15 & 16, p. 187). N.E. Himalaya, Hainan, Thailand, Sundaland. (Lowland to lower montane).

Heterospila nigripalpis Walker (Parts 15 & 16, p. 188). India, Thailand, Borneo, Sumatra. (Hill forest at 900m).

Hypospila bolinoides Guenée (Parts 15 & 16, p. 265). Japan, Indo-Australian tropics to New Guinea and Queensland. Lowland to upper montane.

Tochara creberrima Walker (Parts 15 & 16, p. 266). Indo-Australian tropics to New Guinea and Australia. Lowland (to upper montane).

Tochara olivacea Holloway (Parts 15 & 16, p. 267). Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia (B). (Lowland) to montane.

Hamodes propitia Guérin-Méneville (Parts 15 & 16, p. 268). N.E. Himalaya, Sundaland, Philippines to Queensland and Solomons. Lowland to upper montane.

Hamodes lutea Walker (Parts 15 & 16, p. 269). N.E. Himalaya, Sundaland. Lowland to montane forest.

Hamodes pendleburyi Prout (Parts 15 & 16, p. 269). N.E. Himalaya, Sundaland. Lowland to upper montane forest.

Delgamma pangonia Guenée (Parts 15 & 16, p. 270). W. Africa, Indo-Australian tropics to New Guinea and Queensland. (Lowland and lower montane forest).

Armana nigraericta Swinhoe (Parts 15 & 16, p. 271). N.E. Himalaya, Burma, Sundaland, Philippines. (Lowland).

Tribe SYPNINI (21 species)

Sypna albilinea Walker (Parts 15 & 16, p. 172). N.E. Himalaya, Sundaland. Lowland (to montane) forest.

Sypna persubsignata Holloway (Parts 15 & 16, p. 172). Sundaland. Lowland to upper montane forest.

Sypna martina Felder (Parts 15 & 16, p. 173). N.E. Himalaya, Thailand, Sundaland. Lowlands to Radio Sabah zone.

Sypna subrotunda Prout (Parts 15 & 16, p. 173). Borneo, Sumatra. Forests between lower montane and Radio Sabah zones.

Sypna anisomeris Prout (Parts 15 & 16, p. 174). Endemic. Upper montane forest.

Sypna rholatinum Prout (Parts 15 & 16, p. 174). Endemic. (Lower to) upper montane forest.

Sypna coelisparsa Walker (Parts 15 & 16, p. 174). Sundaland. (Lowland and montane forest).

Sypna brandti Kobes (Parts 15 & 16, p. 174). Borneo, Sumatra. (Montane forest).

Sypnoides pannosa Moore (Parts 15 & 16, p. 175). Himalaya, Borneo, Sumatra. Forest and cultivation in lower montane zones.

Sypnoides infernalis Berio (Parts 15 & 16, p. 176). Endemic. (Lowland to) lower montane forest.

Sypnoides parva Berio (Parts 15 & 16, p. 176). Endemic. Lowland forest.

Hypersypnoides subolivacea Walker (Parts 15 & 16, p. 177). Borneo, Sumatra. (Lowland).

Hypersypnoides fenella Swinhoe (Parts 15 & 16, p. 178). Endemic. Upper montane.

Hypersypnoides submarginata Walker (Parts 15 & 16, p. 178). Oriental tropics to Sundaland. Upper montane forest.

Hypersypnoides borneensis Berio (Parts 15 & 16, p. 179). Borneo, Sumatra. (Montane).

Hypersypnoides kinabaluensis Holloway (Parts 15 & 16, p. 179). Endemic (G. Kinabalu only). Upper montane.

Daddala lucilla Butler (Parts 15 & 16, p. 180). Oriental tropics to New Guinea. Lower montane forest to Radio Sabah zone.

Daddala brevicauda Wileman & South (Parts 15 & 16, p. 181). N.E. Himalaya to Sundaland, Wallacea and Seram. Lowland, lower (and upper) montane forest.

Daddala microdesma Prout (Parts 15 & 16, p. 181). Sundaland. Montane forest.

Daddala quadrisignata Prout (Parts 15 & 16, p. 182). Himalaya, Thailand, Sundaland. Lowland (to montane) forest.

Pterocyclophora ridleyi Hampson (Parts 15 & 16, p. 183). Sundaland, Philippines. Lowland (including secondary) forest, (upper montane).

Tribe EREBINI (11 species)

Erebus hieroglyphica Drury (Parts 15 & 16, p. 162). Oriental tropics. Lowland to lower montane forests and plantations.

Erebus caprimulgus Fabricius (Parts 15 & 16, p. 163). Oriental tropics to Sundaland. Lowland (to montane) forests.

Erebus ephesperis Hübner (Parts 15 & 16, p. 163). Japan, Oriental tropics to Sundaland and Lesser Sundas. Lowland forest.

Erebus gemmans Guenée (Parts 15 & 16, p. 164). Himalaya, Taiwan, Burma, Thailand, Borneo, Sumatra. Upper montane forest.

Erebus macrops Linnaeus (Parts 15 & 16, p. 165). Oriental tropics to Sundaland. (Upper montane).

Lygniodes schoenbergi Pagenstecher (Parts 15 & 16, p. 166). Endemic. Lowland forest.

Erygia apicalis Guenée (Parts 15 & 16, p. 131). Japan, Indo-Australian tropics to Solomons and Queensland. Lowlands, lower montane (to upper montane) forest. Note 444. Note 444. Erygia apicalis was paired with Erebus ephesperis in the analyses of Zahiri et al. (2011, in preparation), but this pairing was not strongly supported. Nevertheless, it represents a hypothesis of relationship, therefore the genus is transferred to Erebini from the first miscellaneous sequence of Parts 15 & 16. Genital morphology and facies features do not appear to offer further synapomorphies. See also the note following.

Erygia spissa Guenée (Parts 15 & 16, p. 132). Indo-Australian tropics to New Guinea. Lowland to upper montane forests.

Erygia precedens Walker (Parts 15 & 16, p. 133). Indo-Australian tropics to Samoa. (Lowland).

Erygia antecedens Walker (Parts 15 & 16, p. 133). Sundaland. (Lowland to upper montane forest).

Sympis rufibasis Guenée (Parts 15 & 16, p. 146). Indo-Australian tropics to Queensland and the Solomons. Lowlands to upper montane zone in forests and disturbed and cultivated areas. Note 445. Note 445. Sympis rufibasis was placed in a sister-relationship to the Erebus / Erygia pairing referred to in the previous note, but this only occurred in one of the preliminary, unpublished analyses and in the tree for the gapdh gene in supporting data for Zahiri et al. (2011). This did, however, prompt the observation here that the male genitalia of Sympis and some Erebus species (compare figs 210 and 249 in  Parts 15 & 16) do show similarities in the complex corematous ornamentation of the valves. Therefore Sympis is also here tentatively transferred to the Erebini from the first miscellanous sequence. In the analysis of Zahiri et al. (2011), the genus was associated with Anisoneura and the Hulodini (p. 397), but with little support; this association has not been recovered in the results of ongoing analyses (Zahiri et al., in preparation).

Tribe CATOCALINI (1 species)

Catocala macula Hampson (Parts 15 & 16, p. 39). Indian Subregion, Thailand, Sundaland, Sulawesi, Seram. (Montane).

Tribe COCYTIINI (18 species)

Serrodes campana Guenée (Parts 15 & 16, p. 88). Indo-Australian tropics. (Upper montane forest).

“Serrodes” caesia Warren (Parts 15 & 16, p. 89). Thailand, Sundaland, Sulawesi, S. Moluccas, New Guinea. Lowland forest.

Avatha discolor Fabricius (Parts 15 & 16, p. 91). Indo-Australian and Pacific tropics. (Upper montane).

Avatha noctuoides Guenée (Parts 15 & 16, p. 91). India, Burma, Andamans, Sundaland. (Lowland plantation).

Avatha gertae Kobes (Parts 15 & 16, p. 92). Borneo, Sumatra. Lowland forest.

Avatha sumatrana Kobes (Parts 15 & 16, p. 92). Borneo, Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia (B). (Lowland forest).

Avatha simplex Roepke (Parts 15 & 16, p. 93). Sundaland. Lowland forest.

Avatha bubo Geyer (Parts 15 & 16, p. 93). Oriental tropics, Sulawesi, Seram. Lowland (including cultivated) habitats.

Avatha garthei Kobes (Parts 15 & 16, p. 94). Borneo, Sumatra, N.E. India. (Lowland, upper montane).

Avatha tepescens Walker (Parts 15 & 16, p. 94). Sundaland. Lowland forest.

Avatha tepescoides Holloway (Parts 15 & 16, p. 94). Endemic. Lowland and montane forest.

Avatha pulcherrima Butler (Parts 15 & 16, p. 95). Sundaland, New Guinea. Lowland to lower (and upper) montane forest.

Avatha pulchrior Holloway (Parts 15 & 16, p. 95). Sundaland, Thailand, Andamans, Sulawesi. Disturbed lowland (and lower montane) forest.

Avatha uloptera Prout (Parts 15 & 16, p. 96). Thailand, Sundaland. Montane forest.

Avatha rufiscripta Hampson (Parts 15 & 16, p. 96). Sundaland. Lowland forest.

Avatha complens Walker (Parts 15 & 16, p. 96). N.E. Himalaya, to Solomons. (Lowland heath and lower montane forest).

Avatha heterographa Hampson (Parts 15 & 16, p. 97). Burma, Borneo, Sumatra. (Lower) to upper montane forest.

Anereuthina renosa Hübner (Parts 15 & 16, p. 98). Burma, Sundaland, Philippines. Lowland and lower montane forest.

Tribe EUCLIDIINI (6 species)

Trigonodes hyppasia Cramer (Parts 15 & 16, p. 73). Indo-Australian tropics and subtropics, west to Arabian Peninsula. Disturbed and secondary forest and cultivation in the lowlands and lower montane zone. Note 446. Note 446. Two taxa included in the synonymy of Trigonodes hyppasia, following the card index in BMNH, are in fact good species (A. Zilli, in prep.). These are anfractuosa Boisduval, a close relation of hyppasia in Africa, and exportata Guenée, also African, shown to be distinct by Berio (1954) and recorded as such by Poole (1989). T. hyppasia extends westwards to the Arabian Peninsula where it flies together with exportata (A. Zilli, in prep.).

Trigonodes cephise Cramer (Parts 15 & 16, p. 74). Indo-Australian tropics. No precise habitat data (lowland).

Mocis undata Fabricius (Parts 15 & 16, p. 75). African and Oriental tropics. Open habitat, cultivation and disturbed forest from lowlands to lower montane zone. Note 447. Note 447. The analysis of Zahiri et al. (2011) grouped a species of Mocis in a well supported clade that included two representatives of the Euclidiini, one being the type genus. These genera have no coremata on the valves of the male genitalia and thus differ from the Ophiusini where coremata are strongly developed. The larvae in Mocis and Trigonodes (also lacking coremata in the adult) feed predominantly on Leguminosae and Gramineae, and Euclidiini typically favour the former family (e.g. Covell, (1984); Goater et al., (2003)). Mocis Hübner and Trigonodes Guenée are therefore placed in the Euclidiini. These genera represent the third section of the Ophiusini noted on p. 40 of Parts 15 & 16.

Mocis frugalis Fabricius (Parts 15 & 16, p. 77). Indo-Australian and Pacific tropics. Cultivation and disturbed forest from lowlands to lower montane zone.

Pantydia metaspila Walker (Parts 15 & 16, p. 100). Indo-Australian tropics. (Lowland to lower montane; disturbed habitats). Note 448. Note 448. The analysis of Zahiri et al. (2011) placed Pantydia diemeni Guenée within a small clade with moderate support for which the name Euclidiini is available as discussed in the previous note. P. diemeni is a member of the typical Australian group of Pantydia Guenée as discussed in Parts 15 & 16, where it was associated with Lygephila Billberg, the type genus of the Toxocampini. A pair of Lygephila was also included in the analysis and was excluded from the Erebinae completely: the group is treated as a tribe of the Erebinae despite this exclusion in the revised N. American checklist (Lafontaine & Schmidt, 2010). It is possible, therefore, that at least typical Pantydia species show some convergence with the Toxocampinae (e.g. as illustrated in Goater et al. (2003)). They do not show any of the diversity of processes in the male genitalia (Holloway, 1979: 515) seen in many other Euclidiini, though the juxta is as in the Ophiusini and the euclidiine genera discussed in the previous note. The valves lack coremata as in other euclidiines, these being present in the Ophiusini. Therefore, on balance, Pantydia is here transferred to the Euclidiini from the Toxocampini.

“Pantydia” metaphaea Hampson (Parts 15 & 16, p. 100). Sri Lanka, Borneo, Sumatra, Philippines, Queensland. (Lowland, upper montane).

Tribes OPHIUSINI & POAPHILINI (46 species)

Artena rubida Walker (Parts 15 & 16, p. 42). Oriental tropics to Sundaland. Lowland to upper montane forest. Note 449. Note 449. Zilli & Lourens (2008) described a new species from the Philippines (Luzon, Leyte, Mindanao) related to Artena rubida, A. reggiantii Zilli & Lourens. The record of rubida from the Philippines by Kononenko & Pinratana (2005) was indicated as likely to be of this new species. The facies is close to that of rubida but the genitalia are distinctive, including (compared to rubida) a much longer and more slender dorsal spine to the uncus, a leg-and-foot-shaped costal process (cf. a duck or goose head) to the right valve, in the male and a shorter but slightly wider ductus bursae with a bulge at its distal end in the female.

Artena dotata Fabricius (Parts 15 & 16, p. 41). Oriental tropics to Sundaland, Lowland forest (to upper montane).

Artena inversa Walker (Parts 15 & 16, p. 43). Sundaland, Philippines, New Guinea. Lowland to Radio Sabah zone.

Artena convergens Gaede (Parts 15 & 16, p. 43 ). Thailand, Sundaland, New Guinea. (Lowland forest).

Artena lacteicincta Hampson (Parts 15 & 16, p. 44). N.E. Himalaya to Borneo, Sumatra. (Lowland to lower montane forest).

Thyas honesta Hübner (Parts 15 & 16, p. 44). Oriental tropics. (Lowland to montane).

Thyas juno Dalman (Parts 15 & 16, p. 44). Oriental tropics, S. Moluccas, Japan, Korea. (Upper montane forest).

Thyas javanica Gaede (Parts 15 & 16, p. 44). Sundaland. Lowland to Radio Sabah zone.

Thyas coronata Fabricius (Parts 15 & 16, p. ). Indo-Australian and Pacific tropics. Lowland to Radio Sabah zone.

Ophiusa tirhacoides Holloway (Parts 15 & 16, p. 48). Endemic. (Disturbed lowland and coastal habitats).

Ophiusa disjungens Walker (Parts 15 & 16, p. 49). Indo-Australian tropics. (Upper montane).

Ophiusa discriminans Walker (Parts 15 & 16, p. 49). Indo-Australian tropics. (Lowland to upper montane).

Ophiusa trapezium Guenée (Parts 15 & 16, p. 50). Indo-Australian tropics. Disturbed forest and cultivation from lowlands to lower montane zone. Note 450. Note 450. Leong (2009d) described and illustrated for the first time the late instar larva of Ophiusa trapezium and its metamorphosis. It is a typical long, slender ophiusine type of larva, though without a conspicuous dorsal hump on A8. It is marked with a fine array of alternating dark and light brown longitudinal lines from the head to the anal segments down to a line just above the legs, below which there is more of a reticulate pattern of pale brown on dark brown. The host plant was Melastoma malabathricum (Melastomataceae).

Ophiusa triphaenoides Walker (Parts 15 & 16, p. 51). Oriental tropics to Sundaland. (Lowland forest).

Ophisma pallescens Walker (Parts 15 & 16, p. 52). Thailand, Sundaland, Sulawesi, Seram, New Guinea. Lowlands to Radio Sabah zone, mostly forest.

Ophisma gravata Guenée (Parts 15 & 16, p. 52). Indo-Australian tropics. (Lowland forest, including secondary and plantation).

Achaea serva Fabricius (Parts 15 & 16, p. 53). Indo-Australian tropics to New Guinea and Queensland. Lowlands to Radio Sabah zone.

Achaea janata Linnaeus (Parts 15 & 16, p. 55). Indo-Australian and Pacific tropics and subtropics. Lowland disturbed and open habitats.

Achaea simplex Walker (Parts 15 & 16, p. 56). N. Moluccas and islands west of New Guinea, Sulawesi, ?Borneo. (Lowland).

Parallelia” calefaciens Walker (Parts 15 & 16, p. 57). N.E. Himalaya to Sundaland, Wallacea and Seram. Lowland to upper montane forest.

“Parallelia” pilosa Holloway (Parts 15 & 16, p. 58). Endemic. (Lowland).

“Parallelia” arctotaenia Guenée (Parts 15 & 16, p. 58). Indo-Australian tropics, Japan, Korea. (Radio Sabah zone).

Buzara onelia Guenée (Parts 15 & 16, p. 60). Oriental tropics. Lowland forest.

Buzara forceps Kobes (Parts 15 & 16, p. 60). Borneo, Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia (B). Lowland, mostly disturbed and cultivated areas.

Buzara pseudoumbrosa Holloway (Parts 15 & 16, p. 60). Borneo, Sumatra. (Lowland and lower montane forest).

Buzara feneratrix Guenée (Parts 15 & 16, p. 61). Sundaland, Thailand. (Montane forest).

Buzara saikehi Holloway (Parts 15 & 16, p. 61). Endemic. (Lowland forest).

Bastilla joviana Stoll (Parts 15 & 16, p. 63). Indo-Australian tropics to New Guinea and Australia. Lowland to upper montane, including cultivated areas.

Bastilla vitiensis Butler (Parts 15 & 16, p. 63). Sundaland to Samoa and Tonga. (Montane?).

Bastilla maturescens Walker (Parts 15 & 16, p. 64). Oriental tropics to Sundaland. (Lowland to lower montane).

Bastilla maturata Walker (Parts 15 & 16, p. 64). N.E. Himalaya to Japan and Sundaland. Montane forest.

Bastilla acuta Moore (Parts 15 & 16, p. 64). Himalaya to Taiwan and Sundaland. Montane forest.

Bastilla flavipurpurea Holloway (Parts 15 & 16, p. 65). Endemic. (Disturbed montane forest).

Bastilla absentimacula Guenée (Parts 15 & 16, p. 65). Indo-Australian tropics to New Guinea. (Lowland forest).

Bastilla amygdalis Moore (Parts 15 & 16, p. 65). Oriental tropics to Sundaland. (Lowland forest).

Bastilla arcuata Moore (Parts 15 & 16, p. 66). Indo-Australian tropics to New Guinea. (Lowland to lower montane forest).

Bastilla fulvotaenia Guenée (Parts 15 & 16, p. 66). Oriental tropics and S. Moluccas. Lowland (including secondary) forest, (upper montane).

Bastilla crameri Moore (Parts 15 & 16, p. 67). Oriental tropics to Sundaland. (Lowland to hill forest).

Bastilla euryleuca Prout (Parts 15 & 16, p. 68). Endemic. (Lowland).

Bastilla circumsignata Guenée (Parts 15 & 16, p. 68). N.E. Himalaya, Sundaland. (Lowland forest).

Macaldenia palumba Guenée (Parts 15 & 16, p. 68). Oriental tropics, ?east to New Guinea, Guam. Lowland to upper montane.

Pindara illibata Fabricius (Parts 15 & 16, p. 70). Oriental tropics. Lowland to upper montane.

Grammodes geometrica Fabricius (Parts 15 & 16, p. 71). Mediterranean; Indo-Australian tropics. Lowland (to lower montane).

Chalciope mygdon Cramer (Parts 15 & 16, p. 72). Oriental tropics to Sundaland. Disturbed and open habitats.

Oxyodes scrobiculata Fabricius (Parts 15 & 16, p. 78). Indo-Australian tropics. Disturbed and cultivated habitats from lowlands to upper montane zone.

Rectipalpula billeti Joannis (Parts 15 & 16, p. 80). N. India to Sundaland and Sulawesi. Forested to cultivated habitats from lowlands to upper montane zone.

Tribe ERCHEIINI (5 species)

Ercheia kebea Bethune-Baker (Parts 15 & 16, p. 81). Thailand, Borneo, Sumatra to Queensland and Fiji. (Lowland forest).

Ercheia multilinea Swinhoe (Parts 15 & 16, p. 81). Sundaland, Wallacea, Seram. Lowland to upper montane forest.

Ercheia cyllaria Cramer (Parts 15 & 16, p.82). Oriental tropics to Sundaland; Seram, Kei. Lowland to upper montane forest, including disturbed forest.

Ercheia pulchrivenula Gaede (Parts 15 & 16, p. 83). Sundaland, Thailand. Lowland to upper montane forest.

Ercheia pulchrivena Walker (Parts 15 & 16, p. 83). Borneo, Sumatra. Lowland (to upper montane forest).

Tribe CATEPHIINI (3 species)

Catephia linteola Guenée (Parts 15 & 16, p. 85). Old World tropics. (Lowland forest).

Catephia runa Swinhoe (Parts 15 & 16, p. 86). Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia. (Lowland).

Paranagia rufostrigata Bethune-Baker (Parts 15 & 16, p. 87). Borneo, Sulawesi, S. Moluccas, New Guinea. Lowland (including disturbed) forest.

Tribe PANDESMINI (2 species)

Pandesma quenavadi Guenée (Parts 15 & 16, p. 102). Oriental tropics to Sundaland, Japan, Queensland. Lowland secondary, coastal and plantation forest.

Polydesma boarmoides Guenée (Parts 15 & 16, p. 104). Indo-Australian and Pacific tropics. (Lowland plantation forest).

Tribe PERICYMINI (1 species)

Pericyma cruegeri Butler (Parts 15 & 16, p. 105). Indo-Australian tropics from China to Sundaland, New Guinea and Queensland. Lowland to upper montane forest. Note 451. Note 451. Leong (2009k) illustrated the mature larva and metamorphosis of Pericyma cruegeri in Singapore. It resembles that described in Parts 15 & 16, but has five closely associated narrow lines dorsally and a broader but more broken one laterally, each segmental section containing, when present, the black spiracle at its dorsal edge, with more black extending on each side. The host-plant was Falcataria (Leguminosae).

Tribe OMMATOPHORINI (1 species)

Ommatophora luminosa Cramer (Parts 15 & 16, p. 107). Himalaya and Taiwan to Sundaland. Lowland to upper montane forest. Note 452. Note 452. In ongoing molecular analyses (Zahiri et al., in preparation), Ommatophora Guenée is confirmed as belonging to the Erebinae, but so far shows no well supported association within that group. The pupa of O. luminosa was noted (Barlow colln) to have a powdery bloom.
Pavesi et al. (2010) have revised the genus, desribing the Taiwan population of luminosa as subspecies monotona Zilli, Pavesi & Vos and also four species from east of Sundaland in addition to burrowsi Prout from the S. Moluccas. Two of these were noted in Parts 15 & 16, that from Bali described as proverai Zilli, Pavesi & Vos and extending east to Flores. There proved to be two new species in Sulawesi, one, celebensis Zilli, Pavesi & Vos, being related to fulvastra Guenée from the Philippines, and the other, obliquilinea Vos, Pavesi & Zilli, perhaps falling into a group with burrowsi and the most eastern species, orientalis Vos, Pavesi & Zilli, from the northern Moluccas and New Guinea.

Tribe HULODINI (19 species)

Hulodes caranea Cramer (Parts 15 & 16, p. 108). Indo-Australian tropics to New Guinea. Lowland to upper montane.

Hulodes donata Schultze (Parts 15 & 16, p. 109). Sundaland to New Guinea and Australia. Lowland to upper montane.

Lacera noctilio Fabricius (Parts 15 & 16, p. 111). Indo-Australian tropics to Samoa. (Lowland).

Lacera nyarlathotepi Zilli & Holloway (Parts 15 & 16, p. 111). Endemic. Lowland to upper montane forest.

Lacera uniformis Holloway (Parts 15 & 16, p. 112). Indo-Australian tropics to Queensland and Vanuatu. (Lowland and hill forest).

Speiredonia obscura Cramer (Parts 15 & 16, p.114). Indo-Australian tropics to N. Australia and New Caledonia. No precise habitat data.

Speiredonia sandokana Zilli & Holloway (Parts 15 & 16, p. 114). Sundaland. (Upper montane forest).

Speiredonia alix Guenée (Parts 15 & 16, p. 114). India, Andamans, Sundaland, Sumbawa, Seram, New Guinea. Lowland forest.

Speiredonia ibanorum Holloway & Zilli (Parts 15 & 16, p. 115). Borneo, India. (Lowland forest). Note 453. Note 453. Speiredonia ibanorum also occurs in India; A. Zilli (pers. comm.) has located a specimen from Calcutta in MNHU, Berlin.

Speiredonia hogenesi Zilli (Parts 15 & 16, p. 115). Sundaland. (Lowland to montane forest).

Speiredonia mutabilis Fabricius (Parts 15 & 16, p. 115). Indo-Australian tropics east to Tonga. (Upper montane).

Ericeia elongata Prout (Parts 15 & 16, p. 117). Indo-Australian tropics to New Guinea and Queensland. Lowland forest.

Ericeia amanda Walker (Parts 15 & 16, p. 117). Sundaland. Lowland (to lower montane) forest.

Ericeia inangulata Guenée (Parts 15 & 16, p. 118). Indo-Australian tropics to New Caledonia and Fiji. Forest from lowlands to Radio Sabah zone.

Ericeia rectifascia Prout (Parts 15 & 16, p. 119). Sundaland. Montane forest.

Ericeia sobria Walker (Parts 15 & 16, p. 119). Queensland, New Guinea, Kei Is., Borneo. (Lowland).

Ericeia pertendens Walker (Parts 15 & 16, p. 120). Indo-Australian tropics to Solomons. (Lowland forest).

Ericeia korintjiensis Prout (Parts 15 & 16, p. 120). Sundaland. Lowland to upper montane forest.

Ericeia eriophora Guenée (Parts 15 & 16, p. 121). Oriental tropics. Forests from lowlands to Radio Sabah zone

Tribe AMPHIGONIINI (2 species)

Amphigonia hepatizans Guenée (Parts 15 & 16, p. 122). Oriental tropics. Lowland (including secondary) to upper montane forests.

Amphigonia motisigna Prout (Parts 15 & 16, p. 122). Thailand, Sundaland. Lowland forest, including logged and secondary forest.

Tribe HYPOPYRINI (5 species)

Hypopyra pudens Walker (Parts 15 & 16, p. 127). Oriental tropics, Japan. Lowland to lower montane forest, including plantations. Note 454. Note 454. Leong (2009b) described and illustrated the final instar larva and metamorphosis of Hypopyra pudens. It is of the typical ophiusine type, though without a strong hump or transverse ridge on A8. It is generally a speckled dark grey, mottled in a few places with paler grey, particularly on the ventral surface. The head is dark brown with an irregular central area of a pale bone colour. The host plant was Falcataria moluccana (Leguminosae; formerly Paraserianthes falcataria). This article also illustrated Hexamitoptera lawinda in life, and Leong, Chew & Foo (2009) illustrated a mating pair of H. pudens and a third hypopyrine, Hypopyra lactipex, in life.

Hypopyra pallidigera Holloway (Parts 15 & 16, p. 128). Borneo, Sumatra. (Lowland forest).

Hypopyra ossigeroides Holloway (Parts 15 & 16, p. 128). Borneo, Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia (B). (Montane).

Hypopyra lactipex Hampson (Parts 15 & 16, p. 129). Sundaland. Lowland forest.

Hexamitoptera lawinda Pagenstecher (Parts 15 & 16, p. 130). Sundaland. Lowland forest.

EREBINAE incertae sedis (37 species)

Anisoneura aluco Fabricius (Parts 15 & 16, p.134). Himalaya to Taiwan and Sundaland, Buru. Lowlands to Radio Sabah zone.

Anisoneura salebrosa Guenée (Parts 15 & 16, p. 134). N.E. Himalaya to Taiwan and Sundaland, Sulawesi. Lowland forest. Note 455. Note 455. Leong, Low & Chan (2010) illustrated copulating pairs of Anisoneura salebrosa in Singapore.

Ischyja anna Swinhoe (Parts 15 & 16, p. 136). Borneo, Singapore. (Lowland).

Ischyja hagenii Snellen (Parts 15 & 16, p. 137). Thailand, Sundaland, Lombok. (Lowland to Radio Sabah zone).

Ischyja ferrifracta Walker (Parts 15 & 16, p. 137). India, Hainan, Thailand, Japan, Sundaland, Lesser Sundas. (Lowland). Note 456. Note 456. Ischyja ferrifracta has been reared from Saurauia (Actinidiaceae) in Peninsular Malaysia (H.S. Barlow, unpublished).

Ischyja inferna Swinhoe (Parts 15 & 16, p. 137). Thailand, Sundaland, Sulawesi. Lowland (to upper montane). Note 457. Note 457. A larva of I. inferna was discovered fully grown on a sapling of Shorea curtisii (Dipterocarpaceae) in Peninsular Malaysia, but was not actually observed to feed on this (S.K.L. Hok & H.S. Barlow, pers. comm.). It was a dark vinous brown with a delicate tracery of pale lines as illustrated in Plate 9. The prolegs on A3 are somewhat reduced and there are protuberances dorsally on A2 and A3. A prominent transverse ridge occurs on A8, with a slighter one on A7, and one barely evident on A6; the pale tracery is more evident running obliquely into the ridge on A7. It is not clear whether the coloration represents prepupal darkening.

Ischyja manlioides Prout (Parts 15 & 16, p. 138). Sundaland. (Lower montane).

Ischyja manlia Cramer (Parts 15 & 16, p. 138). Oriental tropics and S. Moluccas. (Lowland to montane).

Ischyja marapok Holloway (Parts 15 & 16, p. 139). Indian Subregion to Sundaland and Philippines. (Lowland to montane).

Ischyja subreducta Holloway (Parts 15 & 16, p. 140). Endemic. (Lowland to montane).

Ischyja gynnis Prout (Parts 15 & 16, p. 140). Borneo, Sumatra. No precise habitat data.

Ischyja hemiphaea Hampson (Parts 15 & 16, p. 141). Oriental tropics. Lowland to upper montane forests.

Ischyja paraplesius Rothschild (Parts 15 & 16, p. 141). Sundaland. Lowland to upper montane forests.

Platyja umminia Cramer (Parts 15 & 16, p. 143). Indo-Australian tropics to New Guinea and Queensland. Lowland to upper montane forest. Note 458. Note 458. Platyja umminia has been reared from Bauhinia (Leguminosae) in Peninsular Malaysia (H.S. Barlow, unpublished).

Platyja minutipuncta Swinhoe (Parts 15 & 16, p. 143). N.E. Himalaya, Sundaland, Sulawesi. (Lowland to) montane forest.

Platyja sumatrana Felder (Parts 15 & 16, p. 143). Sundaland. (Lowland to montane).

Platyja ciacula Swinhoe (Parts 15 & 16, p. 144). N.E. Himalaya to Sundaland. (Lowland plantation and montane forest).

Platyja umbrina Doubleday (Parts 15 & 16, p. 144). N.E. Himalaya to Sundaland. Lowland (to upper montane) forest.

Platyja acerces Prout (Parts 15 & 16, p. 145). Taiwan, Sundaland. Montane forest.

Platyja silvani Zilli (Parts 15 & 16, p. 145). Endemic. (Montane forest).

Sarobacala albopunctata Semper (Parts 15 & 16, p. 147). Sundaland, Wallacea. (Lowland to upper montane).

Papuacola albisigillata Warren (Parts 15 & 16, p. 148). Borneo, Sumatra, Sulawesi, New Guinea. (Lowland forest).

Papuacola gemina Fabricius (Parts 15 & 16, p. 148). Indian Subregion, Sundaland, Sulawesi, New Guinea. (Lowland forest).

Papuacola costalis Moore (Parts 15 & 16, p. 149). Sundaland to Samoa. (Lowland).

Bamra albicola Walker (Parts 15 & 16, p. 150). Oriental tropics. (Lowlands (to upper montane)).

Dordura aliena Moore (Parts 15 & 16, p. 151). Oriental tropics to Sundaland, New Guinea. Lowlands to upper montane zone in both forested and cultivated areas.

Varicosia venata Hampson (Parts 15 & 16, p.152). Sri Lanka, Java, Borneo. (Lowland).

Varicosia clavifera Prout (Parts 15 & 16, p. 152). Endemic. (Montane).

Pilipectus cyclopis Hampson (Parts 15 & 16, p. 153). Oriental tropics. (Lowlands).

Cephena costata Moore (Parts 15 & 16, p. 154). Himalaya, Taiwan, Thailand, Sundaland. (Upper montane).

Cephena sundana Holloway (Parts 15 & 16, p. 155). Sundaland. (Lowland).

Fodina sumatrensis Prout (Parts 15 & 16, p. 156). Sundaland. Lowland forest.

Brontypena ochrocuprea Pagenstecher (Parts 15 & 16, p. 157). Sundaland. (Lowland, upper montane forests).

Corcobara angulipennis Moore (Parts 15 & 16, p. 158). Indo-Australian tropics to Solomons. (?Lowland).

Thoracolophotos albilimitata Hampson (Parts 15 & 16, p. 159). Sundaland. Lowland forest.

Mesosciera orientalis Hampson (Parts 15 & 16, p. 159). Sundaland. (Lowland forest and open habitats).

Cryptastria fuscomarginata Bethune-Baker (Parts 15 & 16, p. 160). N.E. Himalaya to Bismarck Is. (Lowland and lower montane).

 

Subfamily EULEPIDOTINAE (1 species)

Tribe PANOPODINI (1 species)

Anticarsia irrorata Fabricius (Parts 15 & 16, p. 436). Old World and Pacific tropics. (Lowland).

EREBIDAE incertae sedis (126 species)

Lutzugia trigonalis Kobes (Parts 15 & 16, p. 188). Borneo, Sumatra. Lowland forest.

Avitta discipuncta Felder & Rogenhofer (Parts 15 & 16, p. 190). Indo-Australian tropics from Himalaya to Solomons. Lowland.

Avitta guttulosa Swinhoe (Parts 15 & 16, p. 190). Thailand, Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia. Lowland forest.

Avitta fasciosa Moore (Parts 15 & 16, p. 190). N.E. Himalaya, Japan, Sundaland. Montane forest.

Avitta beta Holloway (Parts 15 & 16, p. 191). N.E. Himalaya, Borneo, Sumatra. (Lowland forest). Note 459. Note 459. A male of Avitta beta was taken by Dr Chey Vun Khen in a Pinus caribaea plantation at about 300m near Brumas in the lowlands of Sabah. The genitalia (slide 19548) are illustrated in Fig 118. The uncus is relatively short. The valve is of even width, with both costal and saccular processes strong as in guttulosa Swinhoe, but the costal one is strongly outcurved rather than sinuous, incurved, and the saccular one is more or less straight, erect, rather than outcurved.

Avitta flavicilia Holloway (Parts 15 & 16, p. 191). Sundaland. (Lowland to) lower montane forest.

Avitta bracteola Holloway (Parts 15 & 16, p. 191). Thailand, Borneo, Sumatra. (Lowland and lower montane forest).

Avitta surrigens Walker (Parts 15 & 16, p. 192). N.E. Himalaya, Sundaland. (Lowland).

Avitta ochromarginata Pagenstecher (Parts 15 & 16, p. 192). Sundaland. (Lowland).

Undatavitta shayleenae Holloway (Parts 15 & 16, p. 193). Borneo, Sumatra. (Lowland and upper montane forest).

Asta quadrilinea Walker (Parts 15 & 16, p. 194). Indian Subregion, Sundaland, Wallacea. Lowland to upper montane forest.

Asta subnigra Holloway (Parts 15 & 16, p. 195). India, Borneo, Sumatra. Lowlands to upper montane forest.

Pantura ophiusalis Walker (Parts 15 & 16, p. 196). Japan, Indo-Australian tropics to Fiji and New Caledonia. (Lowland forest).

Pantura rufifrons Moore (Parts 15 & 16, p. 196). Indo-Australian tropics to New Guinea and Queensland. Lowland to montane forest.

Heoeugorna ochrovittata Pagenstecher (Parts 15 & 16, p. 197). Sundaland. (Lowland).

“Heoeugorna” flavicincta Hampson (Parts 15 & 16, p. 197). Sundaland. (Lowland and lower montane forest).

Chrysopera combinans Walker (Parts 15 & 16, p. 198). Indo-Australian tropics to Fiji. Lowland forest.

Marcillada endopolia Hampson (Parts 15 & 16, p. 206). Sundaland. (Lowland forest).

Batracharta nigritogata Prout (Parts 15 & 16, p. 207). Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia, Sulawesi. (Lowland).

Batracharta divisa Wileman (Parts 15 & 16, p. 208). Taiwan, Thailand, Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia, Sulawesi. (Disturbed lowland forest).

Batracharta obliqua Walker (Parts 15 & 16, p. 208). Indian Subregion, Thailand, Sundaland, Wallacea. Lowland.

Batracharta cossoides Walker (Parts 15 & 16, p. 208). Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia (B), Sumatra, Sulawesi. Lowland.

Batracharta proutae Holloway (Parts 15 & 16, p. 209). Borneo, Sumatra. (Lowland to lower montane).

Batracharta lempkei Kobes (Parts 15 & 16, p. 209). Thailand, Peninsular Malaysia (B), Borneo, Sumatra, Sulawesi. Lowland forest.

Phorica phasipennis Walker (Parts 15 & 16, p. 210). India, Sundaland. (Lowland).

Hyperlopha flavipennis Holloway (Parts 15 & 16, p. 211). Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia. Lowland (to montane) forest.

Hyperlopha crucifera Holloway (Parts 15 & 16, p. 212). Endemic. Lowland to upper montane forest.

Hyperlopha discontenta Walker (Parts 15 & 16, p. 213). Thailand, Sundaland. Lowland (to upper montane) forest.

Platyjionia mediorufa Hampson (Parts 15 & 16, p. 391). N.E. Himalaya to Sundaland. (Lowland to lower montane forest).

Platyjionia sp. (Parts 15 & 16, p. 391). Sundaland. (Regenerating lowland alluvial forest).

Coltopela marginangulata Holloway (Parts 15 & 16, p. 392, under Leptocola; Part 17, p. 226). Borneo, Sulawesi. (Lowland and upper montane forest).

Coltopela lunulata Holloway (Parts 15 & 16, p. 392, under Leptocola; Part 17, p. 226). Borneo, Sumatra. (Lowland forest).

Pseudosphetta fissisigna Hampson (Parts 15 & 16, p. 395). Sundaland, Thailand. Lowland (to lower montane) forest.

Pseudosphetta moorei Cotes & Swinhoe (Parts 15 & 16, p. 395). Oriental tropics, Seram. (Lower montane forest).

Pseudosphetta umbrosa Holloway (Parts 15 & 16, p. 396). Borneo, Sumatra. (Lowland forest).

Rhynchodina molybdota Hampson (Parts 15 & 16, p. 396). Burma, Borneo, Sumatra. Lowland (to lower montane) forest.

Avittonia albidentata Hampson (Parts 15 & 16, p. 398). Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia. (Lowland, possibly also montane).

Lithosiopsis rectigramma Hampson (Parts 15 & 16, p. 399). Indo-Australian tropics ?to New Guinea. (Lowland forest).

Lithosiopsis papuana Hampson (Parts 15 & 16, p. 400). Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia (B), New Guinea, ?Seram. (Lowland and lower montane forest).

“Lithosiopsis” bicoremata Holloway (Parts 15 & 16, p. 400). Endemic. Montane. Note 460. Note 460. No further insight has been obtained into the placement of “Lithosiopsisbicoremata, but two further species have been located that appear to be related. One is currently classified as Pseudogyrtona marmorea Wileman & South (Taiwan), originally described in Oglasa but transferred by Poole (1989) to its current genus, Pseudogyrtona Bethune-Baker. This was discussed in Parts 15 & 16 (p. 414) and is an inappropriate placement. It has features of the male abdomen very close to those of bicoremata. It is therefore transferred to Lithosiopsis Hampson as “Lithosiopsismarmorea Wileman & South comb. n. The other species occurs in Seram (slide 14420). The structure of the male eighth abdominal segment in these species is somewhat suggestive of that found in Bocula species (Parts 15 & 16, p. 199), a genus that has been transferred to the Rivulinae as discussed in the introduction to this section.

Aphypena exhibens Walker (Parts 15 & 16, p. 401). N.E. Himalaya, Borneo. (?Lowland).

Aphypena violacea Holloway (Parts 15 & 16, p. 401). Endemic. (Lowland).

Oglasa lagusalis Walker (Parts 15 & 16, p. 403). Endemic. Lowland.

Oglasa muluensis Holloway (Parts 15 & 16, p. 403). Endemic. (Lowland forest).

Oglasa costimacula Wileman (Parts 15 & 16, p. 404). Taiwan, Thailand, Borneo. (Lowland forest).

Oglasa costisignata Hampson (Parts 15 & 16, p. 404). Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia (B). Lowland (to lower montane) forest.

Oglasa sordidula Walker (Parts 15 & 16, p. 404). Sundaland. Lowland forest.

Oglasa basicomma Holloway (Parts 15 & 16, p. 404). Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia (B). Lowland forest.

“Oglasa” pachycnemis Hampson (Parts 15 & 16, p. 405). Endemic. (Lowland).

Chorsia picatum Butler (Parts 15 & 16, p. 406, Part 12, p. 172). , Peninsular Malaysia (B). (Lowland, lower montane).

Chorsia decolorata Holloway (Parts 15 & 16, p. 406, Part 12, p.172). Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia (B). (Lowland, lower montane).

Chorsia albiscripta Hampson (Parts 15 & 16, p. 406, Part 12, p.173). Indian Subregion, Japan, Peninsular Malaysia (B), Borneo. (Lowland, lower montane).

Chorsia maculosa Walker (Parts 15 & 16, p. 407). Endemic. (Lowland).

Chorsia inordinata Walker (Part 13, p. 191; p. 400, Plate 6, Figs 126, 127). Endemic. (Lowland forest, including secondary). Note 461. Note 461. In Part 13, p. 191, the Bornean taxon inordinata Walker (originally described in Acontia) was transferred from Hyperstrotia Hampson, where it was listed by Poole (1989), to Chorsia Walker. A formal account is presented here.
Chorsia inordinata Walker (Plate 6, Figs 126, 127)
Acontia inordinata Walker, [1863] 1884, J. Proc. Linn. Soc. (Zool), 7: 50.
Diagnosis. The forewing facies is variegated in shades of grey and white with some rufous components, resembling maculosa Walker and griffini Holloway, but there is a distinctly trapezoidal but narrow dark grey bar posterior to the reniform, and the antemedial border to the medial dark zone is almost a right-angle where it gives way to the basal pale zone. The hindwing is a much darker grey than in the other two species. The male abdomen (slide 19578) has the eighth segment unmodified. The valves of the genitalia are tongue‑like with a subbasal, thumb‑like spur from the interior margin of the sacculus. The aedeagus vesica is globular, without ornamentation. The female genitalia have a broad ductus bursae, and the corpus bursae lacks signa.
Taxonomic note. This species was transferred to Chorsia from Hyperstrotia Hampson in Part 13 as stated above, but not redescribed. Poole (1989) listed the N.E. Himalayan taxon procrita Swinhoe as a synonym of inordinata, as the forewing facies is similar. However, the part of the dark grey medial zone posterior to the reniform is centrally rufous rather than with a pale interior, and dark grey is more extensive in the marginal zone, especially along the submarginal, which has a more extensive rufous component; there is also a rufous streak running basad from the reniform. The male abdomen is similar to that of inordinata except the valves are relatively shorter and the processes from the sacculus are more robust, sinuous, tapering to an acute apex. The aedeagus is slightly narrower than in inordinata. The female has a very much narrower ductus bursae. The ostium is flanked, by a pair of oblique, sclerotised, conical pockets. The corpus bursae contains two signa. The species should therefore be restored as Chorsia procrita Swinhoe, stat. rev., comb. n. A large male with similar facies from Sumatra had a male abdomen (slide 20841) with a massively modified eighth segment and much larger genitalia with an acute saccus, and more paddle‑like valves. The aedeagus is much broader than the ductus bursae of inordinata or procrita. It is probably a further, as yet undescribed species.
Geographical range. Borneo
Habitat preference. The holotype female (OUMNH: 1337) was taken in Sarawak by A.R. Wallace, probably in the lowlands. A further female was taken in lowland forest at the Busang Rekut river junction in the Barito Ulu of central Kalimantan. A male, worn, but matching the females in facies, was taken in lowland forest at 250m on the lower slopes of the limestone G. Api in Sarawak.

Chorsia griffini Holloway (Parts 15 & 16, p. 408). Endemic. (Lowland forest).

Chorsia brewini Holloway (Parts 15 & 16, p. 408). Endemic. Lower montane forest on limestone.

Chorsia wattsi sp. n. (p. 401, Plate 6, Fig 124). Endemic. (Lowland forest). Note 462. Note 462. Chorsia wattsi sp. n. (Plate 6, Fig 124)
G 9mm. The size and colour are somewhat as in C. brewini Holloway. The forewings are a pale, slightly vinous grey, marked more darkly with vinous brown. The postmedial is more emphatic than the medial, extending sinously (rather than being evenly curved) around the dark brown discal mark, this being broader, more diffuse, containing a pair of pale spots (it is a simple transverse black dash in brewini). There is a small, ovate dark mark distal to the discal mark, set between the postmedial and the submarginal. The genitalia are similar to those of brewini but the valves are relatively rounded, extending well beyond the apex of the uncus, rather than to the same distance. The aedeagus vesica bears a cornutus almost three times as large as that of brewini, more as in dinglei where the valves do not extend beyond the uncus. The eighth segment is similar, but the coremata of the sternite in brewini are represented by diffuse hair pencils only in wattsi.
Holotype G. SARAWAK: Gunong Mulu Nat. Park, R.G.S. Exped. 1977-8 (J.D.Holloway et al.), Site 24, April, W. Melinau Gorge, 270m. 430558, FEG 4, limestone forest; BM noctuid slide 19580.
Geographical range. Borneo
Habitat preference. The only specimen is from lowland forest on a steep limestone slope.

Chorsia hemicyclopis Hampson (Parts 15 & 16, p. 408). Borneo, Thailand. Lowland (including secondary and disturbed) forest.

Chorsia octosema Hampson (Parts 15 & 16, p. 409). Endemic. (Lowland).

Chorsia carjacobsi Holloway (Parts 15 & 16, p. 409). Borneo, Sulawesi. (Lowland forest). Note 463. Note 463. Two specimens of C. carjacobsi from Sulawesi have been located.

Chorsia rufitincta Hampson (Parts 15 & 16, p. 410). Borneo, Sumatra (new record). Lowland forest.

Chorsia dinglei Holloway (Parts 15 & 16, p. 410). Endemic. (Lowland).

Chorsia kingi Holloway (Parts 15 & 16, p. 410). Endemic. Lowland forest on limestone.

Chorsia colyeri Holloway (Parts 15 & 16, p. 411). Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia (B). (Lowland forest).

Chorsia greenleavesi Holloway (Parts 15 & 16, p. 411). Endemic. (Lowland to upper montane forest).

Chorsia rogersi Holloway (Parts 15 & 16, p. 412). Endemic. (Lowland heath forest).

Chorsia perversa Walker (Parts 15 & 16, p. 412). Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia (B). (Lowland forest).

Chorsia hemmingi Holloway (Parts 15 & 16, p. 413). Endemic. (Disturbed lowland forest).

Chorsia williamsi Holloway (Parts 15 & 16, p. 413). Endemic. Lowland forest.

Chorsia sp. 19579 (p. 401, Plate 6, Fig 125). Endemic. (Lowland secondary forest). Note 464. Note 464. Chorsia sp. 19579 (Plate 6, Fig 125)
A single worn male of what is probably a further species of Chorsia Walker was taken in regenerating (10 years) secondary alluvial forest on abandoned farmland on the banks of the S. Melinau at 50m. The genitalia are distinct from those of all other known Bornean species, but resemble those of perversa somewhat apart from the diversity of processes from the apical part of the valve.

Chorsia quentini Kobes (2010b; Plate 6, Fig 128). Sumatra, Thailand, Borneo. Lowland forest. Note 465. Note 465. Chorsia quentini Kobes (Plate 6, Fig 128)
Chorsia quentini Kobes, 2010b: 13.
This species is relatively large for the genus and atypically patterned apart from white marking subapically on the forewing underside. The upperside of the forewing is rich brown with a paler pinkish grey zone medially that has a curved basal boundary that runs obliquely to the dorsum over its posterior part. There is a subapical white dash and a postmedial triangle of the same colour on the costal margin. The male genitalia are similar to those of williamsi Holloway though have a basal digitate spine on the valve costa rather than one on the sacculus. There are a few sclerites in the aedeagus vesica, in particular a serrate one on the most distal diverticulum; the aedeagus is relatively short and broad.
The species was overlooked as a Chorsia by the author, but had been taken infrequently in lowland forest in Brunei and on G. Santubong in Sarawak. A single specimen was recorded at 50m in secondary (10 years) alluvial forest at 50m on the banks of the S. Melinau during the Mulu survey. The highest records are from 300m. It occurs also in Sumatra and Thailand (Kononenko & Pinratana, 2005, plate 15: 29).

Microxyla stipata Walker (Parts 15 & 16, p. 414). Indian Subregion, Peninsular Malaysia (B), Borneo. (Lowland oil palm plantation).

Pseudogyrtona” modesta Moore (Parts 15 & 16, p. 415). Sri Lanka, Borneo. Lowland (to lower montane) forest.

Barbesola defixa Walker (Parts 15 & 16, p. 416). Borneo, Thailand. Lowland (including logged) and lower montane forest.

Radara infundens Walker (Parts 15 & 16, p. 417). N.E. Himalaya to Sundaland. (?Lowland).

Tathodelta purpurascens Hampson (Parts 15 & 16, p. 419). Sri Lanka, India, Borneo, Bali. (Disturbed lowland forest).

Diascia hayesi Holloway (Parts 15 & 16, p. 419). Sundaland, Thailand. Lowland (to montane) forest.

Cataloxia diagrapta Hampson (Parts 15 & 16, p. 420). Borneo, Singapore. (Lowland).

Rhesala imparata Walker (Parts 15 & 16, p. 421). Indian Subregion, Peninsular Malaysia (B), Singapore, Borneo. (Lowland).

Rhesala nigricans Snellen (Parts 15 & 16, p. 422). Peninsular Malaysia (B), Borneo, Sulawesi. (Lowland to) upper montane forest.

Rhesala fusiformis Holloway (Parts 15 & 16, p. 423). Borneo, Singapore, Peninsular Malaysia (B). Lowland and lower montane forest.

Rhesala falcata Holloway (Parts 15 & 16, p. 423). Endemic. (Lowland to) lower montane forest.

Rhesalides inconcinnalis Walker (new record, Plate 6, Fig 130). Oriental tropics, S. Moluccas. Note 466. Note 466. Several Bornean specimens of the species listed as Rhesala inconcinnalis Walker by Poole (1989) have been located. The male genitalia (Fig 130) show this species to be best placed in Rhesalides Prout (type species keiensis Prout, Kei Is., Timor, ?Java), a genus partially reviewed by Holloway (1979: 519-520), and it is therefore transferred to that genus below. The genitalia of other species in the genus such as asphalta Swinhoe (Queensland, New Guinea, Bismarck Is., Fiji, New Caledonia) and the type species are all very similar as discussed by Holloway (1979), and the genus requires revision; there is an undescribed species in the Solomons. The larva of asphalta has been recorded as feeding on Albizia in Fiji (Robinson, 1975) and that of inconcinnalis also appears to be restricted to that plant genus, with records from India and Thailand (Robinson et al., 2001).
Rhesalides inconcinnalis Walker comb. n. (Plate 6, Fig 130)
Bocula inconcinnalis Walker [1866] 1865, List Specimens lepid. Insects Colln Br
Mus., 34: 1172.
Heterogramma nasionalis Pagenstecher, 1884, Jb. nassau. Ver. Naturk. 38: 248.
Diagnosis. The wings are a uniform medium brown, variably marked more darkly with several fasciae, though these are obscure in many specimens. The forewing has an irregularly zigzag submarginal. There is a postmedial that is bluntly angled round the reniform stigma, and this zone can be shaded darker between the postmedial and a straight boundary just basal to the reniform. There is a zigzag antemedial at the centre of the space between this straight boundary and the base of the wing. In more heavily marked specimens, the submarginal and postmedial markings may recur at the dorsum, decreasing in emphasis towards the costal margin.
Geographical range. Oriental tropics, S. Moluccas.
Habitat preference. Some specimens were taken at Semongok, an area of disturbed lowland forest and cultivation near Kuching in Sarawak. Other material (in FRC, Sepilok) was recorded in various lowland softwood plantations near Brumas in Sabah.

Tadaxa lintona Swinhoe (Parts 15 & 16, p. 426). Endemic. Lowland.

Gesonia obeditalis Walker (Parts 15 & 16, p. 427). E. Africa, Oriental tropics, Australia. Lowland open, cultivated or disturbed habitats.

Gesonia pseudoinscitia Holloway (Parts 15 & 16, p. 428). Endemic. (Lowland open habitats?).

Blasticorhinus decernens Walker (Parts 15 & 16, p. 429). Sundaland, Sulawesi. Lowland disturbed or cultivated areas.

Loxioda dilutalis Snellen (Parts 15 & 16, p. 430). Borneo, Java, ?Christmas I. (Lowland disturbed habitats).

Loxioda shumara Swinhoe (Parts 15 & 16, p. 431). Endemic. (Lowland).

Loxioda sp. (Parts 15 & 16, p. 431). Endemic. (Montane).

“Loxioda” mediofascia Swinhoe (Parts 15 & 16, p. 431). Endemic. (Lowland, ?disturbed habitats).

Carsina” bendioides Walker (Parts 15 & 16, p. 432). India, S.E. Asia, Borneo. (?Lowland). Note 467. Note 467. Blasticorhinus epixandus Rothschild (1920: 121; Sumatra) is a synonym of “Carsinabendioides Walker, syn. n.

Arsacia rectalis Walker (Parts 15 & 16, p. 433). Indo-Australian tropics to Queensland and Solomons. Lower montane forest.

Talariga capacior Walker (Parts 15 & 16, p. 434). N.E. Himalaya to Sundaland. (Lowland).

Stenocarsia sthenoptera Swinhoe (Parts 15 & 16, p. 435). India, Borneo. Lowland (including plantation) forest.

Marapana pulverata Guenée (Parts 15 & 16, p. 437). Oriental tropics to Sundaland, New Guinea. Lowland.

Marapana flavicosta Holloway (Parts 15 & 16, p. 438). Endemic. Montane forest.

Aburina uniformis Swinhoe (Parts 15 & 16, p. 439). N.E. Himalaya, Thailand, Borneo, Sumatra. (Lowland forest).

Lignicida grisechana Holloway (Parts 15 & 16, p. 440). Sundaland, Thailand. Lowland.

Eubryopterella cinerea Holloway (Parts 15 & 16, p. 442). Sundaland. Lowland and lower montane forest.

Eubryopterella triangulata Holloway (Parts 15 & 16, p. 442). Borneo, Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia (B), Thailand. Lowland forest

Nicevillea epiplemoides Hampson (Parts 15 & 16, p. 443). Burma, Thailand, Sundaland. Lowland forest.

Semiothisops macariata Hampson (Parts 15 & 16, p. 444). N.E. Himalaya, Taiwan, Thailand, Sundaland. Lowland forest.

Ilyrgis echephurealis Walker (Parts 15 & 16, p. 446). Sri Lanka, Hainan, Peninsular Malaysia (B), Borneo, Sangihe. (Lowland forest).

Ilyrgis costinotata Hampson (Parts 15 & 16, p. 446). Endemic. (?Lowland).

Goniocraspedon variegata Holloway (Parts 15 & 16, p. 447). Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia, Taiwan. (Lower montane forest).

Goniocraspedon micromistura Holloway (Parts 15 & 16, p. 447). Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia (B). (Coastal).

Ectogonia curvipalpata Holloway (Parts 15 & 16, p. 448). Borneo, Sumatra. (Disturbed lowland forest).

Adra argentilinea Walker (Parts 15 & 16, p. 449). Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia. Lowland, especially coastal.

Adra faircloughi Holloway (Parts 15 & 16, p. 450). Endemic. (Lowland).

Adra api sp. n. (p. 403, Plate 6, Fig 132). Endemic. (Lower montane). Note 468. Note 468. A new species of Adra Walker, a genus placed in the sixth sequence of miscellaneous genera, is described below. In Parts 15 & 16 a tentative connection was made between Adra and the Australasian genus Calathusa Walker, with an association with Casuarina as host plant. This new species is also from a locality close to, but not within, extensive stands of Casuarina.
Adra api sp. n. (Plate 6, Fig 132)
GG 12mm. The facies of this species appears to be intermediate between that of argentilinea Walker and faircloughi Holloway, the pale streak of the forewing being only slightly interrupted by a darker mark in the discal area. However, the material is somewhat worn, and the pattern is not entirely clear. The antennae are fasciculate as in faircloughi, and the genitalia are also closer to those of faircloughi. However, they are significantly smaller with a more slender, less angled uncus. The valves are shorter and broader, and the juxta is relatively larger and has a small central process that is not evident in faircloughi. The abdomen is not modified to the extent of that of faircloughi, and the eighth sternite is approximately circular, with broad, short, splayed apodemes on its anterior margin.
Holotype G. SARAWAK: Gunong Mulu Nat. Park, R.G.S. Exped. 1977-8 (J.D.Holloway et al.), Site 25, April, G. Api, 900m, 427550, lower montane forest, BM noctuid slide 14078.
Paratype G. As holotype.
Geographical range. Borneo
Habitat preference. Both specimens are from lower montane forest on limestone. A Casuarina (Casuarinaceae) species is an important component of the upper montane forest of G. Api, though this does not commence until about 1200m (Collins, Holloway & Proctor, 1984).

Neogabara plagiola Wileman & West (Parts 15 & 16, p. 451). Sundaland to Australia and Fiji. (Disturbed and cultivated areas in lower montane zone).

Bleptinahistaspesalis Walker (Part 17, p. 215). N.E. Himalaya, Borneo. (Lowland).

Modunga palpigera Walker (Part 17, p. 215). Endemic. (Lowland).

Stadna metaspilata Walker (Part 17, p. 216). Endemic. (Lowland).

Meekistrotia bacchusi Holloway (Part 13, p. 192). Borneo, Sumatra. (Lowland forest).

Meekistrotia quinquemaculata Holloway (Part 13, p. 192). Endemic. (Lowland forest).

Ligidia decisissima Walker (Part 13, p. 194). Endemic. (Lowland).

Toana semiochrealis Walker (Part 13, p. 194). Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia. (Lowland).      

Cophanta funestalis Walker (Part 13, p. 197). Indo‑Australian tropics to New Guinea and Queensland. (Lowland).

Flammona quadrifasciata Walker (Part 13, p. 198). Sundaland. Lowland and montane forest.

Microphaeaorientalis Hampson (Part 13, p. 199). Endemic. (Lowland).

Anachrostis siccana Walker (Part 13, p. 200). Endemic. (Lowland).

Anachrostis  fulvicilia Hampson (Part 13, p. 200). Endemic. (Lowland).

Neachrostia diapera Hampson (Part 13, p. 200). Endemic. (Lowland).

Trigonochrostia excisa Hampson (Part 13, p. 201). Endemic. (Lowland).

 


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