species: inara Cramer (= partita Fabricius), India, Africa.
are larger than those of the next genus and have a distinctive forewing
pattern, transversely divided into three: a black and grey basal section; a
paler central section that extends to just beyond the reniform, this being
large and a component of a darker triangle between it and the costa; a double,
straight to slightly curved postmedial just distal to this separates the medial
block from anequally broad marginal area, usually darker and vaguely mottled by
a diffuse and irregular submarginal. The hindwings are a dull brown with paler,
sinuous fasciae medially. The underside is more uniform. In the male, the
antennae are ciliate and the legs,
especially the tibiae, are strongly tufted with scales. The labial palps are
typically catocaline, though the third segment is short compared with that in
the next genus.
male abdomen has the eighth segment unmodified. The uncus is broad or broadly
based on the tegumen, but can be narrow and hooked distally. There is a slight
scaphium. The valves are tongue-like, with an obliquely transverse ridge
centrally, running from an angle on the costa to a spur associated with a
slight notch at the distal end of the sacculus; this feature distinguishes the
genus from Avatha. The juxta is of the inverted ‘V’ type, and there is an
extensively sclerotised anellar tube. The aedeagus vesica is complex with many
diverticula, one or two of which are long. These are scobinate or bear a row of
spines or a cornutus.
female genitalia of the type species (Fig 93) have an ostium and ductus that
extends from the eighth segment anteriorly into the seventh as a complex cleft.
As in Avatha, the seventh sternite is vestigial. The ductus joins the corpus
bursae at the anterior of the seventh segment. The corpus bursae is large,
irregularly but heavily sclerotised, pleated and finely spined or scobinate.
The apical quarter is narrower, less heavily sclerotised, but more densely
genus extends throughout the Old World
tropics; most species are widespread, and representation in any locality is
rarely by more than two of them.
(MS) described the larva of the type species as rather ophiusine in shape, but
always slightly raised at A1 which has a transverse
ridge dorsally. The prolegs on A4 are slightly reduced, those on A3 much more
so. A8 also has a transverse tumidity that bears a pair of black or yellow
conical tubercles. The colour is variable, but usually shades of grey, brown or
yellowish brown, with general variegation. The pupa lacks a powdery bloom.
host plants recorded by Robinson et al. (2001) are
mostly Sapindaceae: Nephelium, Pappea, Sapindus, Schleichera. The exception is Grewia (Tiliaceae). The
records of Prunus and Citrus probably derive
from observations of adult fruit-feeding (e.g. Kuroko & Lewvanich, 1993).
of Oriental species, including campana Guenée, have
been noted as fruit piercers in Thailand (Bänziger, 1982; Kuroko &
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