species: virbia Cramer (= undata Fabricius),
(type species acuta Walker,
[Panama] = disseverans Walker);
(type species archesia Cramer, India = undata);
(type species phasianoides Guenée,
Uruguay, Paraguay); Remigia
(type species latipes Guenée, Guadeloupe I.).
genus as currently treated (Poole, 1989; Zilli, 2000b) includes a diversity of
rather dull, slightly variegated medium to pale brown species found throughout
the tropics. Most resemble Trigonodes that lack the black forewing triangles,
though some, including the type species, have more irregular patterning. Larvae
of the first group favour Gramineae and those of the second group favour
Leguminosae (e.g. Common, 1990; Robinson et al., 2001). One of each is
represented in Borneo. Apart from Cauninda,
all three other genus-group names in synonymy are based on New World taxa that
belong to the Trigonodespatterned type.
the two groups share features of the male genitalia that may indicate monophyly
of the genus, particularly relatively distal bifid or trifid processes to the
valves that often show bilateral symmetry, though shorter processes associated
with their bases may not. There are no coremata. The uncus is usually slender,
accompanied by a scaphium. The juxta is typically ophiusine though it may extend
above the anellus as a rugose, calcar-like rod in the grass-feeding group,
though the type species has shorter processes on each side of the anellus. The
eighth abdominal sternite has a small anterior lacuna as in Trigonodes.
female genitalia (type species) the ostium is set well within the seventh
segment and covered by a narrow, bilobed antevaginal plate produced from the
sternite; there are small pockets flanking its base. The ductus is sclerotised,
folded as in the Parallelia complex, and the elongate-ovate corpus bursae is
generally and densely scobinate. The ductus seminalis arises from the base of
the corpus bursae.
diversity is seen in the Indo-Australian tropics, one species below being
widespread throughout, and the other having an eastern sister-species.
biology of both these species is described below.
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