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Hulodes caranea Cramer
Phalaena caranea
Cramer, [1780] 1782, Uitlandsche Kapellen, 3: 140.
Hulodes angulata Prout, 1928, Bull. Hill Mus., Witley 2: 258, syn. n.
Hulodes caranea Cramer; Holloway, 1976: 33.

Hulodes caranea Hulodes caranea

Diagnosis. Males are dark greyish brown with paler margins to the wings, females are paler, more uniform, with straight, double submarginal fasciae.

Taxonomic note. The species is sometimes referred to as H. carenea; see Nye (1975) for comment on the correct spelling. The name fusifascia Walker was placed both as a synonym of drylla Guenée and as a good species by Poole (1989), but subordinated to caranea by Nielsen et al. (1996). In fact, fusifascia is probably a good species; though similar to caranea in general markings and sexual dimorphism, both sexes are somewhat more buff in ground colour. H. gravata Prout, with ssp. seranensis Prout, is probably conspecific with fusifascia, giving a combined distribution of Australia, New Guinea and Seram. This potential synonymy needs confirmation by dissection. H. ischnethes Prout (see generic description) also has facies and sexual dimorphism similar to caranea. Hulodes angulata angulata Prout (Sumatra) was distinguished originally on the minor grounds of having a hindwing submarginal that curves strongly at the dorsum. The male genitalia are as in caranea and therefore it is brought into synonymy.

Geographical range. Indo-Australian tropics east to New Guinea; also on islands of the Marianas and Carolines.

Habitat preference. The species is infrequent but has been recorded from the lowlands to 2110m.

Biology. The larva was described and illustrated by Moore (1884-1887). It is swollen over A1 and A2, tapering away to the front and back. The prolegs on A3 are reduced. The body is green above the spiracles, a dirty white below. There are irregular dorsal and dorsolateral black bands, broken by white patches on most segments. The white patches on A4 and A5 are confluent, forming an iregular ‘V’ with its base posteriorly. There is a pair of pinkish buff conical tubercles on A8.

The host plants listed by Robinson
et al. (2001) are unspecified Acanthaceae, Dyera (Apocynaceae), Albizia, Paraserianthes (Leguminosae) and Camellia (Theaceae).

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