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Erebus caprimulgus Fabricius
Noctua caprimulgus Fabricius, 1781, Species Insectorum, 2: 210.
Nyctipao exterior Walker, 1858, List Specimens lepid. Insects Colln Br. Mus., 14: 1306.
Nyctipao obliterans Walker, 1858, List Specimens lepid. Insects Colln Br. Mus., 14: 1307.
Nyctipao truncata Moore, 1877, Proc. zool. Soc. Lond., 1877: 608.
Nyctipao orion Hampson, 1913, Cat. Lepid. Phalaenae Br. Mus., 12: 279, syn. n.
Erebus caprimulgus Fabricius; Holloway, 1976: 29; Kobes, 1985: 25.

Erebus caprimulgus Erebus caprimulgus

. Males are larger than in hieroglyphica, dark brown above with the forewing ocellate mark obscure and never with pale cream markings (they are present on the underside, irregular and resembling those of the female). The hindwing costa is more arched than in hieroglyphica, and there is a patch of creamy androconial scales set in a pouch subcostally on the upperside. The female is more variegated, paler on the upperside as illustrated, somewhat variable, but with no strong white spotting above; this is present on the underside postmedially, an irregular row that is strongest at the forewing costa and progressively weakens posteriorly.

Taxonomic note. Kobes recognised a second species, sumatrensis Hampson, in Sumatra. This was originally based on two females that have the postmedial fascia and submarginal spots following a less jagged course, particularly over the central part of the forewing (see Kobes, 1985, plate 21: 2), but the pale spots on the underside of these specimens, used by Kobes (p. 26) to distinguish the species from caprimulgus, seem to fall within the range of variability seen in Bornean caprimulgus; mainland Asian caprimulgus material shows even greater variability.

No genitalia differences were noted in two Bornean males dissected that differ in the development of underside white spots. Bornean material is referable to ssp.
orion Hampson, a somewhat larger insect than typical caprimulgus, that rarely has the whitish delineation of the postmedials seen in many typical specimens.

Geographical range. Oriental Region to Peninsular Malaysia, Sumatra; Borneo (ssp. orion); the holotype female of orion ab. dilutebrunnea is labelled ‘Seram’.

Habitat preference. Most specimens have been recorded from lowland forest below 500m, but singletons have been taken at 1618m on Bukit Retak and at 1620m on G. Kinabalu.

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