caprimulgus Fabricius, 1781, Species Insectorum,
Specimens lepid. Insects Colln Br. Mus., 14: 1306.
Specimens lepid. Insects Colln Br. Mus., 14: 1307.
zool. Soc. Lond., 1877: 608.
orion Hampson, 1913, Cat. Lepid. Phalaenae Br. Mus.,
12: 279, syn.
Erebus caprimulgus Fabricius; Holloway, 1976: 29; Kobes,
Males are larger than in hieroglyphica, dark brown above with the forewing
ocellate mark obscure and never with pale cream markings (they are present on
the underside, irregular and resembling those of the female). The hindwing costa
is more arched than in hieroglyphica,
and there is a patch of creamy androconial scales set in a pouch subcostally on
the upperside. The female is more variegated, paler on the upperside as
illustrated, somewhat variable, but with no strong white spotting above; this is
present on the underside postmedially, an irregular row that is strongest at the
forewing costa and progressively weakens posteriorly.
note. Kobes recognised a second species, sumatrensis
in Sumatra. This was originally based on two females that have the postmedial
fascia and submarginal spots following a less jagged course, particularly over
the central part of the forewing (see Kobes, 1985, plate 21: 2), but the pale
spots on the underside of these specimens, used by Kobes (p. 26) to distinguish
the species from caprimulgus, seem to fall within the range of variability seen
in Bornean caprimulgus; mainland Asian caprimulgus material
shows even greater variability.
No genitalia differences were noted in two Bornean males dissected that differ
in the development of underside white spots. Bornean material is referable to
ssp. orion Hampson, a somewhat larger insect than typical caprimulgus,
that rarely has the whitish delineation of the postmedials seen in many typical
range. Oriental Region to Peninsular Malaysia, Sumatra; Borneo (ssp. orion);
the holotype female of orion ab. dilutebrunnea is labelled ‘Seram’.
preference. Most specimens have been recorded from lowland forest below
500m, but singletons have been taken at 1618m on Bukit Retak and at 1620m on G.
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