FIGURES OF GENITALIA AND OTHER STRUCTURES

The scale on each page indicates 1mm, though a few figures on some pages are to a different scale as indicated below. Specimens illustrated are from Borneo except where indicated. The aedeagus illustrated is from the same specimen as the main part of the genitalia unless indicated to the contrary. In figures of male 8th tergite and sternite where the abdomen has been opened out, the tergite is indicated by 'T'.

2

Phlogophora discalis basal abdominal sternites

3

Mythimna exsanguis basal abdominal sternites

4

Clethrorasa micropuncta basal abdominal sternites

5

Episteme vetula basal abdominal sternites

6

Figure 5 x 4 to show Stobbe's gland (indicated by line)

7

Mimeusemia postica basal abdominal sternites

8

Mudaria minoroides abdomen (paratype)

9

Mudaria magniplaga  abdomen (holotype)

10

Corythurus nocturnus  basal abdominal sternites

11

Mythimna nabalua  basal abdominal sternites

12 

Xestia isolata basal abdominal sternites

13

Lignispalta incertissima  basal abdominal sternites

14

Acronicta rubiginosa basal abdominal sternites

15

Prometopus albistigma  basal abdominal sternites

16

Chasmina sundana basal abdominal sternites

17

Dipterygina dorsipallens  basal abdominal sternites

18

Mudaria luteileprosa  basal abdominal sternites

19

Elusa cyathicornis  basal abdominal sternites

20

Athetis reclusa basal abdominal sternites

21

Dipterygina dorsipallens  8th abdominal sclerites

22

Elusa ceneusalis 8th abdominal sclerites (not separated)

23

Mythimna exsanguis  8th abdominal sclerites

24

Thalatha sinens  8th abdominal sclerites

25

Mythimna nabalua  8th abdominal sclerites

26

Callopistria thalpophiloides 8th abdominal sclerites 

27

Chasmina coremata  8th abdominal sclerites

28

Checupa curvivena  8th abdominal sclerites

29

Chasmina sundana 8th abdominal sclerites

30

Bagada malayica  8th abdominal sclerites

31

Episteme conspicua 8th sternite

32

Episteme vetula  8th sternite

33

Corythurus nocturnus  8th abdominal sclerites

34

Dyrzela, lateral view, unseparated

35

Dyrzela plagiata  8th abdominal sclerites

36

Sasunaga tenebrosa  8th abdominal sclerites (not separated)

37

Dyrzela roseata  8th abdominal sclerites

38

Athetis thoracica  8th abdominal sclerites

39

Callopistria emiliusalis  8th abdominal sclerites

40

Dyrzela tumidimacula  8th abdominal sclerites (not separated)

41

Callopistria montana  8th abdominal sclerites

42

Lignispalta incertissima  7th & 8th abdominal sclerites

43

Callopistria placodoides  8th abdominal sclerites

44

Agrotis ipsilon

45

Agrotis kinabaluensis  aedeagus

46

Agrotis ipsilon  aedeagus

47

Agrotis kinabaluensis

48

Ochropleura costalis

49

Ochropleura costalis  aedeagus

50

Xestia isolata  aedeagus

51

Xestia isolata (x)

52

Xestia isolata

53

Diarsia nigrosigna

54

Diarsia nigrosigna  aedeagus vesica (x2)

55

Diarsia flavostigma

56

Diarsia serrata  (paratype)

57

Diarsia serrata  aedeagus (x2)

58

Diarsia flavostigma  aedeagus vesica (x2)

59

Diarsia borneochracea  aedeagus (x2)

60

Diarsia stictica

61

Diarsia stictica aedeagus vesica (x2)

62

Diarsia borneochracea  (paratype)

63

Diarsia barlowi  (paratype)

64

Diarsia stictica (bursa x2 at right)

65

Diarsia barlowi aedeagus

66

Diarsia banksi  aedeagus vesica (x2)

67

Helicoverpa armigera  (x; Ivory Coast)

68

Diarsia banksi  (paratype)

69

Helicoverpa assulta  aedeagus vesica (Sri Lanka)

70

Helicoverpa armigera  aedeagus vesica

71

Helicoverpa armigera  (non-Bornean)

72

Bornolis kamburonga  aedeagus

73

Bornolis kamburonga

74

Bornolis kamburonga

75

Dictyestra dissectus aedeagus

76

Tiracola plagiata  valve apex

77

Tiracola aureata  valve apex

78

Dictyestra dissectus

79

Apospasta nyei  aedeagus

80

Apospasta luminosa

81

Apospasta nyei  aedeagus

82

Apospasta luminosa aedeagus

83

Tiracola aureata (x; holotype)

84

Tiracola plagiata  base of aedeagus vesica

85

Apospasta luminosa  (x)

86

Tiracola plagiata (x)

87

Mythimna radiata

88

Mythimna radiata  aedeagus

89

Mythimna separata  (Solomons)

90

Mythimna separata aedeagus (x)

91

Mythimna albicosta aedeagus (x)

92

Mythimna albicosta

93

Mythimna formosana aedeagus

94

Mythimna formosana

95

Mythimna aroroyensis

96

Mythimna aroroyensis  apex of aedeagus vesica

97

Mythimna decississima  aedeagus

98

Mythimna albomarginata

99

Mythimna decississima

100

Mythimna albomarginata aedeagus

101

Mythimna calorai aedeagus

102

Mythimna calorai (holotype)

103

Mythimna exsanguis

104

Mythimna exsanguis aedeagus

105

Mythimna reversa  (Sulawesi)

106

Mythimna loreyi

107

Mythimna reversa  aedeagus vesica

108

Mythimna loreyi aedeagus

109

Mythimna irregularis

110

Mythimna venalba  aedeagus

111

Mythimna irregularis  aedeagus vesica

112

Mythimna roseilinea aedeagus

113

Mythimna roseilinea

114

Mythimna venalba  (Sulawesi)

115

Mythimna yu aedeagus

116

Mythimna nabalua

117

Mythimna nabalua  aedeagus

118

Mythimna yu (Sulawesi)

119

Mythimna simillima

120

Mythimna simillima aedeagus

121

Mythimna roseilinea (Sulawesi)

122

Mythimna nabalua

123

Elusa simplex  aedeagus (x2)

124

Elusa ceneusalis  antenna

125

Elusa ceneusalis , aedeagus (x2) above

126

Elusa simplex  (holotype)

127

Elusa cyathicornis  (holotype)

128

Elusa cyathicornis  aedeagus (x2)

129

Elusa ustula , aedeagus (x2) above

130

Elusa mediorufa  (holotype)

131

Elusa mediorufa  aedeagus (x2; vesica not everted)

132

Elusa penanorum  (holotype), aedeagus (x2) below

133

Elusa temburong (holotype), aedeagus (x2) below

134

Elusa puncticeps  (holotype), aedeagus (x2) above

135

Elusa diloba

136

Elusa diloba  aedeagus (x2)

137

Elusa ceneusalis

138

Acronicta pruinosa  (holotype of crenulata, New Guinea)

139

Acronicta rubiginosa

140

Acronicta rubiginosa  aedeagus

141

Acronicta rubiginosa

142

Craniophora malesiae

143

Craniophora malesiae  aedeagus vesica

144

Thalatha sinens

145

Thalatha sinens  aedeagus

146

Craniophora malesiae

147

Platyprosopa nigrostrigata (Bali; bursa not shown)

148

Thalatha sinens

149

Thalathoides conjecturalis (bursa excluded)

150

Thalathoides conjecturalis  aedeagus vesica (x2)

151

Thalathoides curtalis  aedeagus vesica (x2)

152

Platyprosopa nigrostrigata  (Sulawesi)

153

Thalathoides conjecturalis

154

Platyprosopa nigrostrigata  aedeagus

155

Thalathoides curtalis  (paratype)

156

Apamea sodalis tropica  aedeagus

157

Actinotia australis (holotype), aedeagus below

158

Apamea sodalis tropica (holotype; Luzon)

159

Phlogophora nigroplumbea  aedeagus above (holotype of melasema)

160

Phlogophora styx  (paratype) aedeagus above

161

Phlogophora muluensis  (holotype), aedeagus above

162

Phlogophora kinabalua  (paratype), aedeagus above

163

Phlogophora muluensis (paratype)

164

Phlogophora isoscelata , aedeagus above

165

Phlogophora lignosa  (holotype)

166

Phlogophora discalis  aedeagus (different specimen) above

167

Phlogophora contrasta , aedeagus below

168

Phlogophora viridivena (paratype), aedeagus above

169

Phlogophora triangula  aedeagus (vesica not everted)

170

Phlogophora emphanes aedeagus

171

Phlogophora magma (holotype), aedeagus above (vesica not everted)

172

Phlogophora triangula  (holotype)

173

Phlogophora emphanes

174

Phlogophora emphanes ductus and bursa

175

Xenotrachea leucopera  aedeagus below

176

Xenotrachea albidisca , aedeagus below

177

Feliniopsis nabalua  (paratype) and aedeagus (A)

178

Euplexidia albiguttata and aedeagus (A)

179

Yula muscosa aedeagus

180

Yula muscosa

181

Prometopus albistigma  aedeagus

182

Prometopus albistigma

183

Prometopus asahina

184

Prometopus asahina aedeagus

185

Sesamia inferens aedeagus

186

Sesamia inferens

187

Sesamia submarginalis

188

Sesamia submarginalis  aedeagus

189

Sesamia submarginalis ovipositor lobes (x2)

190

Sesamia submarginalis bursa

191

Sesamia inferens

192

Checupa curvivena aedeagus

193

Checupa curvivena

194

Checupa curvivena

195

Ancara obliterans

196

Corythurus nocturnus  aedeagus (x2)

197

Corythurus nocturnus

198

Ancara replicans aedeagus (x2)

199

Ancara obliterans  aedeagus (x2)

200

Ancara obliterans

201

Ancara replicans

202

Spodoptera litura aedeagus

203

Spodoptera apertura  (Sri Lanka)

204

Spodoptera cilium  aedeagus

205

Spodoptera picta

206

Spodoptera cilium

207

Spodoptera pecten  aedeagus below

208

Spodoptera mauritia  aedeagus

209

Spodoptera pecten (xV2)

210

Spodoptera mauritia

211

Spodoptera pectinicornis  aedeagus

212

Spodoptera pectinicornis  (New Guinea)

213

Spodoptera litura  (Tahiti)

214

Athetis bimacula  (Sumatra)

215

Athetis nonagrica  (Perak)

216

Athetis bimacula aedeagus

217

Athetis reclusa (Sulawesi)

218

Athetis reclusa  aedeagus

219

Athetis thoracica (Queensland)

220

Athetis reclusa  (Sulawesi)

221

Spodoptera exempta  (Hawaii)

222

Athetis thoracica (New Guinea)

223

Athetis nonagrica (New Guinea)

224

Paradiopa albidisca  (holotype)

225

Paradiopa parthenia

226

Sasunaga tenebrosa

227

Paradiopa parthenia  aedeagus

228

Sasunaga tenebrosa aedeagus

229

Sasunaga interrupta

230

Sasunaga leucorina

231

Sasunaga longiplaga

232

Sasunaga longiplaga

233

Athetis bipuncta aedeagus

234

Athetis bipuncta (Sulawesi)

235

Stenopterygia calida aedeagus below

236

Stenopterygia khasiana , aedeagus below (Khasis)

237

Dipterygina dorsipallens

238

Dipterygina major aedeagus

239

Dipterygina vagivitta aedeagus

240

Dipterygina vagivitta

241

Dipterygina vagivitta

242

Dipterygina major (paratype)

243

Dipterygina dorsipallens aedeagus

244

Yepcalphis dilectissima

245

Yepcalphis dilectissima  

246

Yepcalphis dilectissima aedeagus

247

Clethrorasa micropuncta (holotype), aedeagus below

248

Clethrorasa pilcheri (Peninsular Malaysia)

249

Clethrorasa pilcheri aedeagus

250

Apsarasa radians aedeagus

251

Apsarasa radians (x; Palawan)

252

Callopistria albistriga aedeagus

253

Callopistria albistriga

254

Callopistria concinna (holotype)

255

Apsarasa radians

256

Callopistria apicalis (paratype)

257

Callopistria apicalis 7th and 8th tergites

258

Callopistria apicalis 7th and 8th sternites

259

Callopistria apicalis (holotype)

260

Callopistria alfredi (holotype)

261

Callopistria quadrinotata

262

Callopistria quadrinotata aedeagus

263

Callopistria apicalis aedeagus

264

Callopistria alfredi aedeagus

265

Callopistria albipunctalis (holotype), aedeagus above

266

Callopistria ventralis , aedeagus above

267

Callopistria emiliusalis , aedeagus below

268

Callopistria obliterata aedeagus

269

Callopistria manta

270

Callopistria obliterata

271

Callopistria manta aedeagus

272

Callopistria callopistrioides

273

Callopistria thalpophiloides

274

Callopistria callopistrioides aedeagus

275

Callopistria thalpophiloides aedeagus

276

Callopistria variegata aedeagus

277

Callopistria guttulalis aedeagus

278

Callopistria guttulalis (Taiwan)

279

Callopistria repleta aedeagus 

280

Callopistria variegata

281

Callopistria repleta

282

Callopistria maillardi

283

Callopistria ludovici

284

Callopistria sp. of maillardi group antenna (x4)

285

Callopistria wallacei aedeagus

286

Callopistria scriptiplena

287

Callopistria maillardi aedeagus

288

Callopistria scriptiplena aedeagus

289

Callopistria wallacei

290

Callopistria placodoides

291

Callopistria trilineata

292

Callopistria rivularis

293

Callopistria placodoides aedeagus (x2)

294

Callopistria rivularis aedeagus (x2)

295

Callopistria exotica , aedeagus below

296

Callopistria montana , aedeagus below

297

Callopistria pulchrilinea , aedeagus below

298

Iambia lyricalis (holotype), aedeagus (x2) below

299

Iambia tessellata , aedeagus (x2) below

300

Borbotana nivifascia

301

Iambia tessellata

302

Iambia lyricalis

303

Borbotana nivifascia bursa

304

Aeologramma picatum (x2)

305

Aeologramma albiscripta aedeagus (x2)

306

Aeologramma albiscripta (x2)

307

Aeologramma albiscripta (x2)

308

Eulepa chlorocroa

309

Eulepa fusimacula (paratype)

310

Aeologramma decolorata (x2; holotype)

311

Eulepa chlorocroa (Khasis)

312

Eulepa niveigutta

313

Eulepa niveigutta aedeagus (x2)

314

Eulepa fusimacula (holotype)

315

Eulepa altigutta (holotype)

316

Eulepa gilvithorax (from Holloway (1976))

317

Eulepa fusimacula aedeagus (x2)

318

Condica albigutta aedeagus

319

Condica dolorosa aedeagus

320

Condica aroana aedeagus

321

Condica dolorosa (New Caledonia)

322

Condica aroana

323

Condica albigutta (holotype of ochrisquamata, Khasis)

324

Condica illecta

325

Condica illecta aedeagus (vesica not everted)

326

Dyrzela castanea

327

Dyrzela incrassata

328

Dyrzela tumidimacula (Peninsular Malaysia)

329

Dyrzela roseata aedeagus

330

Dyrzela violacea aedeagus

330

Dyrzela violacea (holotype)

331

Dyrzela increnulata

332

Dyrzela boscoides (holotype)

333

Dyrzela roseata (holotype)

334

Lignispalta viridaria (holotype) aedeagus (Peninsular Malaysia)

335

Lignispalta incertissima

336

Dyrzela plagiata

337

Lignispalta viridaria

338

Lignispalta incertissima  aedeagus

339

Dyrzela incrassata

340

Lignispalta diversisigna

341

Mudaria tayi (holotype)

342

Mudaria major

343

Lignispalta diversisigna aedeagus (vesica not everted)

344

Mudaria minoroides  aedeagus

345

Mudaria magniplaga  aedeagus

346

Mudaria magniplaga (holotype)

347

Mudaria luteileprosa (holotype)

348

Mudaria minoroides  (paratype)

349

Euplexia monilis , aedeagus below (Khasis)

350

Mudaria luteileprosa  aedeagus

351

Bagada labi (paratype)

352

Bagada api (paratype)

353

Lignispalta incertissima

354

Mudaria major

355

Mudaria tayi (Sumatra)

356

Mudaria magniplaga

357

Chasmina sundana  (holotype)

358

Chasmina candida  (Fiji)

359

Chasmina coremata  (holotype)

360

Chasmina candida (Cocos Keeling Is.)

361

Chasmina candida aedeagus (x2)

362

Chasmina coremata  aedeagus (x2)

363

Chasmina candida  aedeagus vesica (x2)

364

Bagada malayica  (Java)

365

Bagada labi  (Java)

366

Bagada malayica aedeagus

367

Bagada labi (Java)

368

Bagada lignigera aedeagus

369

Bagada api  (holotype)

370

Bagada poliomera  (Khasis)

371

Bagada api  aedeagus

372

Bagada poliomera  aedeagus

373

Bagada lignigera

374

Xylostola indistincta

375

Xylostola indistincta  (Java)

376

Xylostola indistincta  aedeagus

377

Sphetta bornea aedeagus

378

Sphetta bornea (holotype)

379

Sarbanissa sundana  aedeagus

380

Sarbanissa catacoloides

381

Sarbanissa sundana

382

Sarbanissa transiens

383

Sarbanissa transiens  aedeagus

384

Mimeusemia postica

385

Crinocula kinabaluensis

386

Epistema vetula (x)

387

Sarbanissa catacoloides  (Java)

388

Crinocula kinabaluensis  (x2)

389

Mimeusemia postica  aedeagus (x2)

390

Mimeusemia postica

391

Mimeusemia perakana  aedeagus (x2)

392

Ophthalmis milete aedeagus (x2)

393

Ophthalmis milete

394

Mimeusemia perakana

395

Ophthalmis lincea (Manovolka)

396

Longicella mollis aedeagus (x2)

397

Longicella mollis  (India)

398

Mimeusemia vittata aedeagus (x2)

399

Mimeusemia vittata (Peninsular Malaysia)

400

Episteme conspicua  aedeagus (x2)

401

Scrobigera hesperioides

402

Episteme conspicua

403

Episteme vetula  aedeagus (x2)

404

Episteme vetula


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