SUBFAMILY HADENINAE
View Image Gallery of Subfamily Hadeninae

Spodoptera litura Fabricius
Noctua, litura Fabricius, 1775, Syst. Ent.: 601.
Noctua histrionica Fabricius, 1775, Syst. Ent.: 612.
Noctua elata Fabricius, 1781, Species Insect., 2: 220.
Prodenia ciligera Guenee, 1852, Hist, nat. Insectes, Spec. gen. Lep., 5: 164.
Prodenia tasmanica Guenee, 1852, Ibid., 5:163.
Prodenia subterminalis Walker, 1856, List Specimens lepid. Insects Colln Br. Mus., 9:196.
Prodenia glaucistriga Walker, 1856, Ibid., 9:197.
Prodenia declinata Walker, 1857, Ibid., 11: 723.
Mamestra albisparsa Walker, 1862, J. Linn. Soc. Lond. (Zool.) 6:186.
Prodenia evanescens Butler, 1884, Mem. natn. Acad. Sci., 2: 94.
Spodoptera litura Fabricius; Holloway, 1976: 12.


Spodoptera litura

Spodoptera litura



Spodoptera litura


Diagnosis
. The forewing is more strikingly patterned than in the species already discussed. The stigmata of the forewing cell are delineated pale cream on a dark brown ground, the orbicular produced into a streak towards the tornus, crossing the cubital vein that is also picked out in pale cream. There is an extensive dull violet subapical zone.

Geographical range
. Indo-Australian and Pacific tropics and subtropics.

Habitat preference
. The species is found in similar habitats to S. mauritia, open, cultivated or disturbed areas in the lowlands.

Biology
. The cutting edge of the mandibles of the larva is serrate. The larva (above) is mainly light or dark brown, never green; abdominal segments 1 and 8 have subdorsal black segmental spots larger than on other segments. The larva differs from that of littoralis in having a bright yellow dorsal stripe (Brown & Dewhurst, 1975), though this is not evident in the larvae illustrated by Sugi (1987), or in the description by Sevastopulo (1935a) who noted the ground colour as purplish black.

Some host-plants recorded (Mathur et al., 1954-1960; Robinson, 1975; Miyata, 1983) are, from over 40 families, as follows: Allium (Alliaceae); Mangifera (Anacardiaceae); Carissa (Apocynaceae); Alocasia, Colocasia (Araceae); Basella (Basellaceae); Begonia (Begoniaceae); Canna (Cannaceae); Carica (Caricaceae); Casuarina (Casuarinaceae); Terminalia (Combretaceae); Blumea, Dahlia, Helianthus, Lactuca, Synedrella, Zinnia (Compositae); Ipomoea (Convolvulaceae); Brassica (Cruciferae); Cucurbita (Cucurbitaceae); Dioscorea (Dioscoreaceae); Diospyros (Ebenaceae); Euphorbia, Ricinus (Euphorbiaceae); Andropogon, Lepturus, Saccharum,Thuarea, Zea (Gramineae); Cassytha (Lauraceae); Acacia, Canavalia, Dolichos, Glycine, Indigofera, Inocarpus, Medicago, Mimosa, Mucuna, Phaseolus, Sesbania (Leguminosae); Asparagus, Eucharis (Liliaceae); Geniostoma (Loganiaceae); Gossypium, Sida (Malvaceae); Ficus (Moraceae); Musa (Musaceae); Psidium (Myrtaceae); Boerhavia  (Nyctaginaceae); Passiflora (Passifloraceae); Piper (Piperaceae); Polygonum (Polygonaceae); Eichhornia (Pontederiaceae); Rosa (Rosaceae); Morinda (Rubiaceae); Citrus (Rutaceae); Antirrhinum (Scrophulariaceae); Lycopersicon, Nicotiana, Solanum (Solanaceae); Theobroma (Sterculiaceae); Camellia (Theaceae); Triumfetta (Tiliaceae) ; Daucus (Umbelliferae); Laportea (Urticaceae) ; Lantana, Tectona (Verbenaceae)

Brown & Dewhurst (1975) listed 40 plant families and 87 plant species of economic importance attacked by larvae of the African sister- species S. littoralis Boisduval.

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