Hemerophila? exclusa Walker,
1860, List Specimens lepid. Insects Colln Br. Mus. 21: 320.
Hemerophila praetereuns Walker,
1860, Ibid. 21: 320.
Bithia lignaria Walker, 1862, Ibid. 25: 1600.
Psamatodes frenata Felder
& Rogenhofer, 1875, Reise öst. Fregatte Novara, P1. 129.
species (ssp lignaria) is generally paler than the next, less irrorated
and banded with greyish brown, but with a strong dark brown irregular band
distal to the postmedial over the dorsal half of the hindwings. The hindwing
medial is also more clearly defined, as are the dark brown markings at the
forewing costa, with the postmedial chevron entire rather than consisting of two
dashes at an angle to each other. See the next species for genitalic
Taxonomic notes. The
type of frenata purports to be from the Moluccas, but resembles material
from Sulawesi closely. A race of perichila also flies in Sulawesi.
Sulawesi exclusa are generally greyer than Sundanian ones, resembling the
next species in appearance, but exclusa in male genitalia. Dimorphism in
Sundanian exclusa (e.g. with imprimata as a form) cannot entirely
be ruled out as the differences are very small.
Himalaya; Sundaland (ssp. lignaria); Philippines, Sulawesi.
species is rare in lowland forest habitats.
species has been reared from Eugenia (Myrtaceae) in Peninsular Malaysia (FRIM record).
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