Type species: montanata Denis & Schiffermüller, Europe.
Xanthorhoe is treated here in its broadest sense (e.g. as by Holloway (1986b)) as
including all species with a prominent calcar, a curved, setose, club- like
structure arising centrally from the juxta between the bases of the valves, and
suggested to be homologous with the anellus lobe of other genera by Pierce
(1914). Such a definition brings together a large, almost cosmopolitan and
rather heterogeneous collection of species from which authors in the past have
attempted to split off groups into several separate genera.
Aubert (1962) assigned a small central Asian section to Odontorhoe Aubert.
Dugdale (1971) referred Australian and New Zealand calcar-bearing species to Helastia
Guenée, and Craw (1987) took this process a stage further, assigning such
species to Helastia, Epyaxa Meyrick and a new genus, Gingidiobora Craw.
Holloway (1986b) reviewed the tropical members of this complex, including a
number currently assigned to Loxofidonia Packard (type species acidalia
Packard, U.S.A.), identified some species groupings but did not attempt to
place these in a firm generic context.
The calcar-bearing taxa fall within the broader concept of Xanthorhoini
defined above on characteristics of the pair of large coremata associated with
the eighth segment. The male antennae tend to be bipectinate. Ornamentation of
the bursa copulatrix in the female is variable: the Australasian groups usually
lack a signum, but this is of variable form in other parts of the complex. There
is often, a signum consisting of a loose cluster or band of small spines,
present in both Bornean species.
In view of this continuing instability, the Bornean species will be
referred to Xanthorhoe sensu lato until a thorough global review can be
undertaken, though some indication of affinities will be given, following
The larvae are mostly general feeders on
herbaceous plants (Allan, 1949; Sugi, 1987).
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