View Image Gallery of Tribe Xanthorhoini

Xanthorhoe Hübner

Type species: montanata Denis & Schiffermüller, Europe.

Xanthorhoe is treated here in its broadest sense (e.g. as by Holloway (1986b)) as including all species with a prominent calcar, a curved, setose, club- like structure arising centrally from the juxta between the bases of the valves, and suggested to be homologous with the anellus lobe of other genera by Pierce (1914). Such a definition brings together a large, almost cosmopolitan and rather heterogeneous collection of species from which authors in the past have attempted to split off groups into several separate genera.

Aubert (1962) assigned a small central Asian section to Odontorhoe Aubert. Dugdale (1971) referred Australian and New Zealand calcar-bearing species to Helastia Guenée, and Craw (1987) took this process a stage further, assigning such species to Helastia, Epyaxa Meyrick and a new genus, Gingidiobora Craw. Holloway (1986b) reviewed the tropical members of this complex, including a number currently assigned to Loxofidonia Packard (type species acidalia Packard, U.S.A.), identified some species groupings but did not attempt to place these in a firm generic context.

The calcar-bearing taxa fall within the broader concept of Xanthorhoini defined above on characteristics of the pair of large coremata associated with the eighth segment. The male antennae tend to be bipectinate. Ornamentation of the bursa copulatrix in the female is variable: the Australasian groups usually lack a signum, but this is of variable form in other parts of the complex. There is often, a signum consisting of a loose cluster or band of small spines, present in both Bornean species.

In view of this continuing instability, the Bornean species will be referred to Xanthorhoe sensu lato until a thorough global review can be undertaken, though some indication of affinities will be given, following Holloway (1986b).

The larvae are mostly general feeders on herbaceous plants (Allan, 1949; Sugi, 1987).

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