Type species: coronata Hübner, = v-ata Haworth, Europe.
Synonyms: Aetheolepis Warren (type species papillosa
Warren, N.E. Himalaya) praeocc. Chloroplintha Warren (type species velutina
Warren, Sulawesi); Dyserga Petersen (type species coronata); Gymnopera
Warren (type species rubroviridis Warren, N.E. Himalaya); Oligoclystia
Bastelberger (type species blanda Bastelberger, Taiwan); Sesquiptera
Warren (type species imnequata Warren, N.E. Himalaya); Simotricha
Warren (type species lucinda Butler, Japan; ssp. of v-ata).
The concept of Chloroclystis (e.g. as in Holloway, 1976) has
until recently, embraced a large number of species of diverse morphology, united
only through possession of two pairs of spurs on the male hind-tibia relative to
one in Gymnoscelis Mabille. Examination of the genitalia has indicated
this concept to be untenable. An attempt is made here to identify more natural
groupings of species.
True Chloroclystis have a number of diagnostic features: the
forewing postmedial is distally dentate anteriorly, but often fades away
posteriorly; there is sexual dimorphism in the hindwing, that of the male
tending to be reduced, with modified scaling dorsally, that of the female being
more typically fasciated; similar modified scaling may occur on the underside of
the forewing where it overlaps the hindwing; the cross vein between M1 and M2 of
the male hindwing is strongly displaced basad relative to that of the female in
some species (but not v-ata); the male abdomen lacks octavals but there
are paired corematous pouches associated with tergite 7 and sometimes 5 in
the Bornean species and some others; there are no coremata associated with the
genitalia, the uncus is broadly based, but itself very short; the labides are
large, broad, falcate; the valves have few setae and are broad over the basal
half, much narrower distally; the aedeagus vesica sometimes has a single large
cornutus; the bursa of the female is enlarged, with no definitive signum, but
extensive fields of fine, delicate spines. The labial palps are short.
The larva of the type species was described and illustrated by Carter
& Hargreaves (1986). It is relatively robust, variably coloured in green,
brown or grey, with darker triangular dorsal markings and lateral diagonals on
The host range is very wide (Allan, 1949), and the larva is a
flower-feeder. Pupation is in the soil (Carter & Hargreaves, 1986).
In addition to the generic type species listed above and the Bornean
species following, the genus in its strict sense includes: C. luciana Prout
(N. India), C. conversa Warren (N.E. Himalaya), C. neoconversa Inoue
(Ryukyu Is.), C. olivata Warren (S. India, Sri Lanka), C. nudifunda Warren
(Peninsular Malaysia), C. inaequata Warren (N.E. Himalaya, Java, Bali); C.
mira Prout (Luzon), C. velutina Warren (Sulawesi), C. palmaria
Prout (Sumatra, Java, Peninsular Malaysia), C. analyta Prout
(Sumatra), and C. permixta Prout (Java).
The Bornean species are somewhat segregated, though overlapping, with
altitude, though all are montane. The only endemic has the highest altitude
A number of other genus-group names in addition to those revived for
Bornean species in the text following have been subordinated to Chloroclystis
in the past (but are not included as synonyms by Nielsen, Edwards &
Rangsi), and probably merit revival also. Preliminary investigation of genitalic
characters has indicated that Polysphalia Warren (type species cristigera
Warren, New Guinea) Gen. rev. and Ptychotheca Warren (type species pallidivirens
Warren, New Guinea) Gen. rev. are distinct, possibly congeneric, with male
genitalia similar to those of Bosara Walker (see below). Dasimatia Warren
(type species subusta Warren, Sulawesi) Gen. rev. is also distinct, with
no clear affinities indicated by the female genitalia dissected. Mesocolpia Warren
(type species subcomosa Warren, Sao Thomé) Gen. rev. is also distinctive
and might be applied to a large number of African 'Chloroclystis' such
as consobrina Warren, dexiphyma Prout, lita Prout, marmorata
Warren, nanula Mabille, peremptata Walker, protrusata Warren
and tumefacta Prout, though subcomosa itself has somewhat modified
wings in the male, not seen in the other species.
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