FAMILY LIMACODIDAE
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Hyphorma minax Walker ssp. margaritacea Hering comb. & stat. n.  
   
Hyphorma minax
Walker, 1865, List Specimens lepid. Insects Colln Br. Mus. 32: 493.
   
Hyphorma minax margaritacea Hering, 1931: 691.
   
Hyphormides barisana West, 1937, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (10) 20: 79, syn. n.


Hyphorma minax

Hyphorma minax

Hyphorma minax


Diagnosis.
The combination of long palps with the forewing facies described in the generic description and the absence of a white spot on the dorsum distinguishes this species. The aedeagus apex has distinctive lateral flanges.

Taxonomic notes. The typical race flies in China, and in S.E. Asia is found ssp. minor de Joannis. These races differ little from the Bornean subspecies and ssp. capucina Snellen stat. n. from Java, though the latter has the forewing fasciation more obscure and lacks the distal flanges from the aedeagus. In Borneo there have been taken two specimens with a paler ground and one more uniform red one, both illustrated in the Plate. The status of these requires further investigation. In Peninsular Malaysia there is a potentially new species (slide 830) with uniform dark red wings and forewing veins  R-3 -5 in a trifid branching arrangement rather than with R5 arising much more basally than R4 from the common stalk. The genitalia of the Bornean variants and the Peninsular species are very similar to those of minax, though in the Peninsular species both the valves and the aedeagus are significantly more slender.

Geographical range. China, N.E. Himalaya; Thailand; Peninsular Malaysia, Borneo, Sumatra; Java.

Habitat preference. The species was infrequent in Mulu samples, taken singly in dipterocarp forest at 500m on G. Mulu and in lower montane forest at 900m on G. Api, twice in lowland limestone forest and thrice in kerangas heath forest on a lowland river terrace. It has been recorded also from lowland forest in Brunei, particularly at Labi. The specimens with pale ground colour are from Tarat, Sarawak, and the more uniform red one is from lower montane forest at 1000m on G. Mulu.

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